.HONEY A sweet yellowish or brownish viscid fluid produced by various bees from the nectar of flowers and used as food.

‡Honey is source of the Bees Food . Drones ‡Worker bees rear larvae collect nectar. Workers.HOW BEES PRODUCE HONEY There are Four Species of Bees ‡Bee colony: Queen bee.

Water content reaches 17 ² 18 percent = ripened honey. Bees seal their cells on the comb and this honey is ready to extract & eat. Honey thus produced is raw honey and ripened by fanning their wings to evaporate water. .‡HOW BEES PRODUCE HONEY Nectar collected in Bee stomach is digested and converted into glucose + fructose.

HISTORY OF HONEY HUNTING Human began hunting honey about 10. . biscuits and many other dishes.  Roman Empire used honey for paying taxes instead of gold.  Ancient Egypt honey used to sweeten cake.  Also rock paintings available showing honey collection.000 years ago as evidenced by cave painting from Spain.

soothe sore throat. .HISTORY OF HONEY HUNTING Fertility God of Egypt was offered honey as a reward. custom for a bride to dip her fingers in honey make a sign cross in her new home.  Post ² classical Greece.  Use of honey as ointment for rashes and burns. other medicinal purposes in a centuries old practice.

HONEY COMPOSITION Fructose Glucose Sucrose Water Ash Other 38. B5). Na. Niacin (Vit B3). Iron.0% 1. K. Folate. P.0% 17% 0. 100 gm honey = 300 kcal Major Vitamins Riboflavin (Vit. Vitamin B6. Mg++. Pantothenic acid (Vit. Proteins in the form of amino acids.17% 0. Zn. .13% Other sugars (Maltose. B2). Melezitose) 9% Honey is 36% denser than water.5% 31. Vitamin C Minerals Ca.

STORAGE OF HONEY Optimal preservation Optimal preservation temperature: 4 ² 10OC. temerature: 4-10OC  Store in dark dry place  Prevent it from absorbing moisture  Do not preserve honey longer than two years.  Do not heat honey beyond 37OC .  Do not preserve honey in metal containers.

For soar throats & laryngitis.5) Honey has nutraceutical effects. Hydrogen peroxide effect. High acidity(between 3. . Water activity causing osmosis.2 ² 4. Wound healing. Treatment for conjunctivitis.HONEY AS MEDICINE Honey has antiseptic & antibacterial properties because of :- 1. 3. 2.

‡A spoon of honey daily is recommended for pregnant ladies as it enhances hemoglobin. constipation and diarrhea. ‡A few drops of honey to a newly born child for about nine months will protect him from chest problems. ‡Weekly application of honey to eyes at night improves eye-sight within a few weeks .MEDICINAL USES OF HONEY ‡A spoon of honey with water at night cures insomnia and constipation.

MEDICINAL USES OF HONEY ‡Honey mixed with glycerine. citric acid and alcohol is used to remove freckles. ‡A smooth paste of wheat flour. ‡Honey is used in Ayurvedic as a great antiseptic for curing infected wounds and burns. ‡Lemon juice added to warm honey applied on the face and neck improves the wrinkled skin. water and pure honey is beneficial for dry skin. ‡Honey is an instant source of energy for growing children. .

indigestion. devitaminesd and Contains denatured polluted substances. stomach or digestive trouble. Natural sugar like honey. irritate the stomach. pollen etc. Being an exclusive meat diet and other products with only Natural sugar. exhaust the pancreatic activity and thus leads to diabetes. Eskimos are never heard of having constipation. lime and other substances and their residual presence is harmful.Honey VS Sugar Honey ‡ 1 tbs (1 oz) honey provide 100 calories. Banting. phosphoric and sulphuric acid. vegetables etc require less digestion efforts. ‡ Sugar is purified with hydrochloric acid. produce heart burn. Thus we consume more calories. sugar as in fruits. It is required 3 times more in quantity than Honey. ‡ Sugar is less sweet than honey therefore. More consumption of white crystallized sugar leads to diabetes as stated by Dr. Sugar ‡ 1 (oz) cane sugar provide 120 calories. ‡ Sugar is deminerlised. ‡ Honey is three times sweeter than cane sugar. Discoverer of insulin. ‡ White sugar depress the appetite. Thus it is required three times less in quantity for the same taste. acid formulation. Honey is predigested food. antioxidants. Vitamins. ‡ Sugar has to be hydrolyzed in our body systems. ‡ ‡ Honey contains mineral. Honey does not contain any harmful chemicals. enzymes. ‡ .

Shows great plasticity and strength at 35oC i.e. . hive temperature. Beeswax is an inert material which can retain its shape and quality for many centuries.BEES WAX Secreted by four pairs of wax glands on the underside of abdomen. Functional when bees are 9-17 days old. Wax consists of long carbon chains and has 284 compounds.

pharmaceutical Cosmetics preparations. skin candles creams. lotions. models and castings ointments skin creams lotions polish protective covering Combs More««.USES OF BEES WAX Cosmetics. polish. models pharmaceutical and castings. . combs. ointments. protective covering. candles.

Scope and Future of Indian honey Demand for Indian Honey in international market in future will increase remarkably because More than 50 % colonies killed in Americas and Europe by colony collapse disorder (CCD) and this trend continues High cost of honey production in industrialized countries because of expensive labor as compared to India Honey retail price same in India as in Europe and Americas Beekeeping a micro and very specialized enterprise not suitable for high tech industrialized countries Unlike India. table honey an essential part of diet in developed countries .

000 About 80 % of total honey export from India is by Kashmir Apiaries Exports/Little Bee Impex .Present Status of Indian Honey Export Year 1997 2002 2007-2008 (Expected) Export (MT) 100 20.000 30.



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