You are on page 1of 10

Department of Mechanical Engineering

ME 322 Mechanical Engineering


Thermodynamics

Lecture 17

Unsteady State (Transient) Analysis


What is a Transient Process?
A transient process occurs whenever the time derivative
related to the system gain (or loss) is not zero ...
g g dE

Vi 2 Ve2
Q W m i hi zi m e he ze G
i 2 gc gc e 2 gc gc dt
dmsys
mi m e
i e dt

Emptying
a tank

Filling a
tank

2
Department of Mechanical Engineering
ME 322 Mechanical Engineering
Thermodynamics

Example Problem 6.61

3
Example Filling a Tank
Given: Filling a rigid tank with oxygen

T 20C

Use the ideal gas


m1 0 kg model for oxygen
m 2 15 kg properties
Q12

Find: The heat transfer required to fill the tank isothermally

4
T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
The First Law for the system is, m 2 15 kg

Q12

g g dEG

Vi 2 Ve2
Q W m i hi zi m e he ze
i 2 gc gc e 2 gc gc dt

dEG
Q m i hi
dt
dEG d dU sys
U KE PE G
dt dt dt
dU sys
Q m i hi
dt

5
T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
So far, the following expression for m 2 15 kg

the system has been developed, Q12

dU sys
Q m i hi
dt

Some observations ...


The problem asks for the heat transferred (total energy)
but the First Law has a heat transfer rate
How do I know what the mass flow rate into the tank is?
Is this a constant value?
How do I represent the derivative on the RHS?

6
T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
The mass flow rate in is contained in m 2 15 kg

the conservation of mass, Q12

dmsys
mi me
dt

Making this substitution into the First Law,


dmsys dU sys
Q hi
dt dt
Multiply both sides by dt,
Qdt hi dmsys dU sys

7
T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
This equation can be integrated over m 2 15 kg

the time of the filling process, Q12

Qdt
t m2 U2
hi dmsys dU sys
0 m1 U1

Qdt Q
t

12
0

hi dmsys hi m 2 m1

m2

m1


U2
dU sys U 2 U1 m 2u2 m1u1
U1

8
T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
Substituting and rearranging, m 2 15 kg

Q12 hi m 2 m1 m 2u2 m1u1


Q12

Q12 m 2 u2 hi

The oxygen is being modeled as an ideal gas. Therefore,


hi ui Pv
i i ui RTi

Substitution into the First Law results in,

Q12 m 2 u2 ui RTi Q12 m 2 RTi

9
T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
Finally, doing the calculations ... m 2 15 kg

Q12

Q12 m 2 RTi

What is Ti? There is a valve between the tank and the line.
However, we know that a valve is isenthalpic. Since enthalpy
is constant and the substance is being modeled as an ideal
gas, the throttling process is also isothermal. Therefore,

kJ
Q12 15 kg 0.260 20 273.15 K
kg-K
Table C.13b

Q12 1143 kJ The heat transfer is from the oxygen


(the assumed direction was wrong)

10