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# Department of Mechanical Engineering

Thermodynamics

Lecture 17

## Unsteady State (Transient) Analysis

What is a Transient Process?
A transient process occurs whenever the time derivative
related to the system gain (or loss) is not zero ...
g g dE

Vi 2 Ve2
Q W m i hi zi m e he ze G
i 2 gc gc e 2 gc gc dt
dmsys
mi m e
i e dt

Emptying
a tank

Filling a
tank

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Department of Mechanical Engineering
ME 322 Mechanical Engineering
Thermodynamics

## Example Problem 6.61

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Example Filling a Tank
Given: Filling a rigid tank with oxygen

T 20C

## Use the ideal gas

m1 0 kg model for oxygen
m 2 15 kg properties
Q12

## Find: The heat transfer required to fill the tank isothermally

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T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
The First Law for the system is, m 2 15 kg

Q12

g g dEG

Vi 2 Ve2
Q W m i hi zi m e he ze
i 2 gc gc e 2 gc gc dt

dEG
Q m i hi
dt
dEG d dU sys
U KE PE G
dt dt dt
dU sys
Q m i hi
dt

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T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
So far, the following expression for m 2 15 kg

dU sys
Q m i hi
dt

## Some observations ...

The problem asks for the heat transferred (total energy)
but the First Law has a heat transfer rate
How do I know what the mass flow rate into the tank is?
Is this a constant value?
How do I represent the derivative on the RHS?

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T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
The mass flow rate in is contained in m 2 15 kg

dmsys
mi me
dt

## Making this substitution into the First Law,

dmsys dU sys
Q hi
dt dt
Multiply both sides by dt,
Qdt hi dmsys dU sys

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T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
This equation can be integrated over m 2 15 kg

## the time of the filling process, Q12

Qdt
t m2 U2
hi dmsys dU sys
0 m1 U1

Qdt Q
t

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0

hi dmsys hi m 2 m1

m2

m1

U2
dU sys U 2 U1 m 2u2 m1u1
U1

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T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
Substituting and rearranging, m 2 15 kg

Q12

Q12 m 2 u2 hi

hi ui Pv
i i ui RTi

## Q12 m 2 u2 ui RTi Q12 m 2 RTi

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T 20C

Example
m1 0 kg
Finally, doing the calculations ... m 2 15 kg

Q12

Q12 m 2 RTi

What is Ti? There is a valve between the tank and the line.
However, we know that a valve is isenthalpic. Since enthalpy
is constant and the substance is being modeled as an ideal
gas, the throttling process is also isothermal. Therefore,

kJ
Q12 15 kg 0.260 20 273.15 K
kg-K
Table C.13b

## Q12 1143 kJ The heat transfer is from the oxygen

(the assumed direction was wrong)

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