You are on page 1of 20

Fundamentals

of
Operating Systems
Background
Name: Awil Ahmed Mohamed.

MSc (Information Technology Management) UTM


University Technology Malaysia, 2015

BSc (Information Technology) University of


Hargeisa, 2011.

Conference : 2nd international information systems


conference @ Melaka, Malaysia.
Contact mails and Cellphone

indho2010@gmail.com

cawil_indho@hotmail.com

063-4409433 / 065-9409433
Assessment
Continuous Assessments( quizzes,
tests, assignments, class activities, etc. 35%

Project 15%

Attendance 10%

Final Exam 40%


Total 100%
Course Contents

1. Introduction
2. Process Management
3. Memory Management
4. I/O Management
5. File System Management
6. Security and Protection
7. Network Operating Systems
Course Description :

The course is intended as a general introduction to


the techniques used to implement operating
systems.Among the topics covered will be:
process management (creation and
communication);
processor scheduling; deadlock prevention,
avoidance, and recovery; main-memory
management; virtual memory management
(swapping, paging, segmentation and page-
replacement algorithms);
control of disks and other input/output devices;
file-system structure and implementation; and
protection and security.
Course Objectives:

The objective of the course is to equip students with the basic


knowledge and skills of operating systems, and introduces the
fundamentals of operating design and implementation. At the end
of the course the students will be able to:
Understand the basic concepts operating system
Analyze process management of CPU
Analyze memory management of CPU
Analyze input/output management of CPU
Analyze file management. Of CPU
Work on network operating system
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
A modern computer consists of one or more
processors, some main memory, disks, printers, a
keyboard, a mouse, a display, network interfaces, and
various other input/output devices.
Furthermore, managing all these components and using

them optimally is an exceedingly challenging job.

DISCUSION
How about previous Computers?
Cont
For this reason, computers are equipped with a layer of
software called the operating system, whose job is to
provide user programs with a better, simpler, cleaner,
model of the computer and to handle managing all the
resources just mentioned.
Most readers will have had some experience with an

operating system such as Windows, Linux, Unix,


Ubuntu or etc.
HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
First digital computer was designed by the English
mathematician Charles Babbage (17921871).
Although Babbage spent most of his life and fortune

trying to build his analytical engine, he never got it


working properly because it was purely mechanical,
and the technology of his day could not produce the
required that he needed.
Needless to say, the analytical engine did not have an operating
system.
The First Generation (194555): Vacuum Tubes
The Second Generation (195565): Transistors and Batch
Systems
Mainframes -FORTRAN or assembler
The Third Generation (19651980): ICs and Multiprogramming
first major computer line to use (small-scale) ICs (Integrated
Circuits)
The Fourth Generation (1980Present): Personal Computers
The Fifth Generation (1990Present): Mobile Computers
WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?
An Operating System is a program that manages a
computers hardware.
It also provides a basis for application programs and

acts as an intermediate between the computer user


and the computer hardware.
Operating system goals:

Execute user programs and make solving user


problems easier.
Make the computer system convenient/useful to use.
Use the computer hardware in an efficient/effective

manner.
What Operating Systems Do?
A computer system can be divided roughly into four
components:
Hardware,
Operating System,
Application Programs, and
Users

Discuss
Cont
1. Hardware provides basic computing resources
(CPU, memory, I/O devices).
2. Operating system controls and coordinates
the use of the hardware among the various
application programs for the various users.
3. Applications programs define the ways in
which the system resources are used to solve the
computing problems of the users (compilers,
database systems, video games, business
programs).
4. Users (people, machines, other computers).
Abstract View of System
Components
Assignment #1
Compare the following concepts:-

1. Bit
2. Byte
3. Word
4. Kilobyte
5. Megabyte
6. Gigabyte
7. Terabyte
8. Petabyte
Deadline: 10/07/2017
Chapter 1 18
Cont.
Thanks