Lecture for Limiting Gas Ratio

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Limiting Gas Ratio

Lecture for Limiting Gas Ratio

© All Rights Reserved

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RELATED TERMS

Operating line

Let x =conc: of liquid .

y = conc: of gas.

Relation b/w x & y is obtained by

rearranging material balance eq:

Yn+1 =L xn + V y - L x

a a a a

V V operating line is

obtained by plotting these points.

L/V Ratio.

L AND V represent the flow

rates of liquid and gas respectively.

If L/V ratio is constant operating line will

a straight line conecting terminal

compositions.

If L/V ratio is variable the operating line

will not straight but a curve.

BASIC

limiting gas ratio is the vale of L/V @which

mass transfer stops.`

Operating line equation is;

Yn+1 =L xn + V y - L x

a a a a

V V

L/V = SLOPE

It is the ratio of molal flow of liquid and

gas.

Slope decrease as the concentration of

liquid decreases.

HOW TO FIND LIMITING RATIO

For the fig @ right.

terminal conc:s xa ya, & yb

are kept constant and the

liquid flow decrease.

The slope will decrease.

X co ordinate of end conc:

shifts from xb to xb*.

The new operating line ab*

shoes the maximum possible

liquor concentration .

The point b shows the

minimum L/V ratio

condition.

As point b touches the

equilibrium curve it

shows that system is

moving towards

equilibrium.

This point gives the

minimum L/V ratio with

maximum liquid

concentration.

This point also represents the minimum

liquid rate.

In actual tower liquid rate must be greater

than this rate to avoid the equilibrium &

also to achieve specified change in gas

composition.

IMPLIMENTATION OF L/V

STUDY

This ratio must be kept in consideration for

cost estimation.

Gives aid for calculation of driving force

i.e. y y*.(proportional to the vertical

distance b/w operating line & equilibrium

curve.

Large amount o liquid give more dilute

product

energy cost of stripping increases by

using large amount of liquid.

found by balancing operating cost of

absorption & stripping both units against

the fixed cost of equipment.

1.1 to 1.5 times of the minimum rate .

RATE OF ABSORPTION

BASIC

respect to change of concentration of liquid

per unit volume of a packed column

Related terms

Mass transfer co-efficient (k).

rate of mass transfer per unit area , per unit

concentration difference.

Unit = cm/sec

Volumetric co- efficient(ka).

For actual equipments mass transfer rates are

converted to volumetric mass transfer co-efficients

(ka) where a = transfer area of equipment.

Over all coefficient

Mass transfer coefficient for a complete

equipment is known as over all coefficient.

it is denoted by K.

1/(Kya) =1/(ky a)+ m/(kx a)

1/(Kxa) =1/(kx a)+ 1/(mkya)

Where m = slope of equilibrium curve.

ASSUMPTIONS

Correction factors for one way diffusion

are omitted.

neglected.

CALCULATION

Line is drawn from

operating line with slope

kx a = (y-yi)

kya (xi -x)

This line will intersect the

equilibrium line at (xi ,yi).

Equilibrium compositions

(x*,y*) are found by

drawing horizontal and

vertical straight lines.

EQUATONS

r =ky a(y-yi)

r =kx a(xi-x)

r =Ky a(y-y*)

r =KX a(x*-x)

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