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LIMITING GAS RATIO

RELATED TERMS
Operating line
Let x =conc: of liquid .
y = conc: of gas.
Relation b/w x & y is obtained by
rearranging material balance eq:
Yn+1 =L xn + V y - L x
a a a a

V V operating line is
obtained by plotting these points.
L/V Ratio.
L AND V represent the flow
rates of liquid and gas respectively.
If L/V ratio is constant operating line will
a straight line conecting terminal
compositions.
If L/V ratio is variable the operating line
will not straight but a curve.
BASIC
limiting gas ratio is the vale of L/V @which
mass transfer stops.`
Operating line equation is;
Yn+1 =L xn + V y - L x
a a a a

V V
L/V = SLOPE
It is the ratio of molal flow of liquid and
gas.
Slope decrease as the concentration of
liquid decreases.
HOW TO FIND LIMITING RATIO
For the fig @ right.
terminal conc:s xa ya, & yb
are kept constant and the
liquid flow decrease.
The slope will decrease.
X co ordinate of end conc:
shifts from xb to xb*.
The new operating line ab*
shoes the maximum possible
liquor concentration .
The point b shows the
minimum L/V ratio
condition.
As point b touches the
equilibrium curve it
shows that system is
moving towards
equilibrium.
This point gives the
minimum L/V ratio with
maximum liquid
concentration.
This point also represents the minimum
liquid rate.
In actual tower liquid rate must be greater
than this rate to avoid the equilibrium &
also to achieve specified change in gas
composition.
IMPLIMENTATION OF L/V
STUDY
This ratio must be kept in consideration for
cost estimation.
Gives aid for calculation of driving force
i.e. y y*.(proportional to the vertical
distance b/w operating line & equilibrium
curve.
Large amount o liquid give more dilute
product
energy cost of stripping increases by
using large amount of liquid.

The optimum liquid rate for absorption is


found by balancing operating cost of
absorption & stripping both units against
the fixed cost of equipment.

The liquid rate for absorber should be b/w


1.1 to 1.5 times of the minimum rate .
RATE OF ABSORPTION

BASIC

It is the change in concentration of gas with


respect to change of concentration of liquid
per unit volume of a packed column
Related terms
Mass transfer co-efficient (k).
rate of mass transfer per unit area , per unit
concentration difference.
Unit = cm/sec
Volumetric co- efficient(ka).
For actual equipments mass transfer rates are
converted to volumetric mass transfer co-efficients
(ka) where a = transfer area of equipment.
Over all coefficient
Mass transfer coefficient for a complete
equipment is known as over all coefficient.
it is denoted by K.
1/(Kya) =1/(ky a)+ m/(kx a)
1/(Kxa) =1/(kx a)+ 1/(mkya)
Where m = slope of equilibrium curve.
ASSUMPTIONS
Correction factors for one way diffusion
are omitted.

Change in gas & liquid flow rates are


neglected.

Absorbing liquid is lean less than 10%.


CALCULATION
Line is drawn from
operating line with slope
kx a = (y-yi)
kya (xi -x)
This line will intersect the
equilibrium line at (xi ,yi).
Equilibrium compositions
(x*,y*) are found by
drawing horizontal and
vertical straight lines.
EQUATONS
r =ky a(y-yi)
r =kx a(xi-x)
r =Ky a(y-y*)
r =KX a(x*-x)