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PRICIPLES OF STEAM GENERATION

STEAM

Steam , A vapor exhibiting the properties of a


gas by application of heat .
Steam generation is a process of converting
water into steam.
Non toxic , Non corrosive , not excessively
viscous ,chemically stable, Low in cost
PROPERTIES OF STEAM
Enthalpy : a general measure of the internal
stored energy per mass unit of a flowing stream
Entropy :is a measure of the thermodynamic
potential of a flowing stream in the units of
energy per mass unit and absolute
temperature.
Specific Volume a measure of the volume of a
flowing stream per mass unit
SATURATION TEMPERATURE

means boiling point. The saturation


temperature is the temperaturefor a
corresponding saturation pressure at which a
liquid boils into its vapor phase. The liquid can
be said to be saturated with thermal energy.
SENSIBLE HEAT

Heat required to bring the water form 0 degree


to the boiling point .
Depends on pressure , higher the pressure
higher will be the sensible Heat .
LATENT HEAT

Latent heat is the energy released or absorbed


by a body or a thermodynamic system during a
constant-temperature process.
example is a change of state of matter,
meaning a phase transition such as the melting
of ice or the boiling of water.
CRITICAL POINT

Critical temp & pressure


374 deg & 224.6 kg
/cm2 .
Density of water &
steam remains the
same
With increasing
pressure sensible heat
increases & latent
decreases.
BOILING

Nucleate boiling :Process of individual Bubble


formation.
Film Boiling
BOILING CURVE
DNB

Departure from Nucleate boiling .


Rifle Bore Tubes .
IS STEAM AN IDEAL FLUID
FLAWS IN STEAM

Higher temperature is desired for Higher


efficiency ,higher pressure is only forced due to
weak chcracteristics of steam.
Lower temperature of heat rejection is of real
interest ,necessity for vacuum is a weak point.
ANALYSIS OF STEAM CYCLES
Latent Heat Addition in
Evaporator (constt. Pressure) Super Heating

T Sensible heat Addition in


E Economizer
M
P Adiabatic Expansion in
E Turbine
R L+V
A Pump Work
T
U
R
Constant Pressure Heat
E
Rejection in Condenser

ENTROPY

BASIC RANKINE CYCLE (SUB-CRITICAL)


EFFECT OF INCREASING THE INLET PRESSURE

Increasing the inlet pressure


raises the mean temperature
at which heat is added in the
boiler thereby increasing the
efficiency.

Side Effects:
Increases moisture content at
the final stages of the turbine
that decreases the turbine
efficiency and erodes turbine
blades.
EFFECT OF SUPERHEAT

Superheating the steam to higher


temperature without increasing the
boiler pressure increases thermal
efficiency.
It also decreases the moisture content
of the steam at the turbine exit.

LIMITATION:
Highest temperature of superheated
steam is limited by the metallurgical
constraint.
EFFECTS OF LOWERING THE CONDENSER PRESSURE

Lowering condenser pressure lowers the


temperature at which condensation
takes place thereby increasing the cycle
efficiency.

LIMITATION AND SIDE EFFECTS :


Lower limit is the saturation pressure
corresponding to the temperature of
cooling media.
Creates possibility of Air Leakage into
the condenser
Increases moisture content of the steam
at the final stages of turbine that
decreases the turbine efficiency and
causes erosion in turbine blades.
EFFICIENCY OF RANKINE CYCLE

Regeneration.
Reheat
REGENERATION Simple cycle without superheat
Qa=heat added=hb-ha
Qr=heat rejected=hc-hd
PW=pump work=ha-hd
W=net work=hb-hc-PW
TE=Thermal efficiency=W/Qa

Regenerative reheat cycle with 2 fw heaters


Qa=(hc-ha)+(1-m1)(he-hd)
Qr=(1-m1-m2))(hg-hh)
W=(hc-hd)+(1-m1)(he-hf)+(1-m1-m2)(hf-hg)-PW
Thermal Efficiency=W/Qa
PW=(ha-hl)+(1-m1)(hk-hj)+(1-m1-m2)(hj-hh)
REHEATER

PURPOSE: Re-heat the


steam from hp turbine to
540 deg
Increase turbine work
Decrease moisture content
in the last stages of the
turbine.

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Basic boiler

Steam

Water Steam / water system


Blow down

Mixing of fuel Furnace Heat transfer


Surface
and air Flue gas

AIR

Ash
FUEL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL

Hot Flue Thermal Structure Steam


Gas SH

Convection & Convection HT


Radiation HT

Drop in Enthalpy Rise in Enthalpy of


of Flue Gas Steam
Mechanism of Heat Transfer

Source/Supply Thermal Structure Sink /Demand


STEAM GENERATOR COMPONENTS
FURNACE
DRUM
BOILER CIRCULATING PUMPS
CONVECTION PASS
SUPERHEATER
REHEATER
ECONOMISER
AIR HEATER
STEAM COILED AIR PREHEATER
SOOT BLOWERS
COAL FEEDERS
PULVERIZERS
COAL PIPING
BURNERS
IGNITOR AND WARM UP BURNERS
DUCTWORK AND
INSULATION AND LAGGING
BOILER LAYOUT AND PA FAN
Reheater
S

Platen SHTR
Drum C
R
DPNL E
E
SHTR n

Gooseneck LTSH
Chimney
Downcomer

waterwall
Fireball Economiser

ID fan

ESP
APH

Bottom Ash
BOILER FUNDAMENTALS

-BOILER=CONTROLLED COMB.+HEAT TRANSFER

-CHEMICAL =THERMAL

-COMBUSTION-FUEL,TEMP,O2

-FUEL - BITUMINOUS COAL


BOILER FUNDAMENTALS

Combustion in furnace :-
Pulverized fuel by coal burners
Ignition temp. By oil firing
O2 by means of fans.

Reactions:-
C+O2 = CO2,
2H2+O2 = 2H2O
S+O2 = SO2
Theoretical air = O2/.233
Boiler fundamentals

FACTORS AFFECTING COMBUSTION-


TIME,TEMP., INTER MIXING OF AIR WITH
FUEL(TTT), COAL FINENESS,
I. Excess Air:-
- (20%)-bituminous coal
-(15%)-lignite
A. Lower excess air:-
-High unburnt loss
B. Higher excess air:-
-Higher heat loss (ma*cpa*dt)