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Emergence of the Social

Sciences: Part 2
Anthropology and Sociology

Prepared by:

Herbert B. Rosana, Ph.D.


Professor of Peace & Security Studies
Chairman, Department of Peace and Security Studies
Anthropology - Meaning
from the Greek word
Meaning Human Being, Humankind, Man
Roughly Anthropology is the science of Man.
Anthropology is a newly coined Latin word with Greek
combinations
Marvin Harris - called this discipline as the science of History

Herbert Spencer History of Society

Universal History of Mankind as referred to during the Age of


Enlightenment

As a Universal History of Mankind it describes the present as the


combination of the past and present. Combining pre-history and history.
Anthropology as a discipline is developmental. It looks into Institutional
development.
Marvin Harris
1927-2001
Anthropologist

Emphasized Historical Determinism


The Laws that governed the actions of men are discoverable by means of observation.
There is a strong reliance on empirical evidence. The act of doing scientific
observation should be done by competent individuals and those that are trained and
knowledgeable in the field of research. Abstraction from empirical evidence.
He was looking for a general theory of History.

Institutions are not real, but men are.


The Classical Age
The Father of History and Anthropology

-Travelling Philosopher / Coined the


word Tourism

-Three terms used by Herodotus


Diaitia -
Medieval Age
Ab Rayn Muammad ibn Amad Al-Brn
(973 1048) - Did some extensive studies
about the life and culture of South Asia.
Conducted Cross Cultural studies
Marco Polo His notes, studies about his
travels and sojourn with the people of the
East were so detailed that he earned the title
of Father of Modern Anthropology

The Renaissance period saw for the first time


the use of the word Anthropology. It
appeared first in Richard Harveys work
Philadelpus (1583)
The Enlightenment Period
The development of Anthropology developed as a result of colonialism and exploration

Unilianilism is the view that all forms of society developed in a single predictable
pattern

Non-Linial Theorists view society as evolving in different ways like the ideas of
diffusionism.

Society was viewed a natural phenomena, evolving and observing laws and patterns in
its development.
The Transcendence of Anthropology

Social Sciences

Religion

Language

Culture
ANTHROPOLOGY
Methods of Anthropology
Ethnography is a qualitative research method used in social sciences
like anthropology where researchers immerse themselves in other cultures
for the purpose of recording information about their lifestyle for
comparative research. When unilineal cultural evolution was a popular
theoretical framework in the social sciences, it justified colonial enterprises
that saw themselves as helping so-called "primitive" cultures to more
quickly "advance." Such progressivist views began to be refuted in
anthropology when Franz Boas explained that every culture is a result of
particular historical circumstances, thus all cultures cannot and should not
be expected to follow the same trajectory.
Field Work

Observational Methods
Interviews and Questionnaires
Participant Observation
Reflexivity
Life history
Participatory approach
Participatory action research
What is Applied Anthropology?
Applied Anthropology refers to the application of anthropological
data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve
social problems.
Applied anthropologists work for groups that promote, manage, and
assess programs aimed at influencing human social conditions.
Types of Applied Anthropology
Applied anthropologist come from all four subfields
Biological anthropologists work in public health, nutrition, genetic
counseling, substance abuse, epidemiology, aging, mental illness, and
forensics.
Applied archaeologists locate, study, and preserve prehistoric and
historic sites threatened by development (Cultural Resource
Management).
More Applied Anthropology
Cultural anthropologists work with social workers, businesspeople,
advertising professionals, factory workers, medical professionals,
school personnel, and economic development experts.
Linguistic anthropologists frequently work with schools in districts
with various languages.
What is the Role of the Applied
Anthropologist?
Three views:
The Ivory Tower
The Schizoid
The Advocate
What is the Role of the Applied
Anthropologist?

The ivory tower view contends


that anthropologists should
avoid practical matters and focus
on research, publication, and
teaching.
What is the Role of the Applied
Anthropologist?

The schizoid view is that


anthropologists should carry out,
but not make or criticize, policy.
What is the Role of the Applied
Anthropologist?

The advocacy view argues that


since anthropologists are experts
on human problems and social
change, they should make policy
affecting people.
Sociology
Howard Becker defined sociology as the
study of people doing things together.

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 19


Sociology
This reminds us that society and the
individual are inherently connected, and
each depends on the other.

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 20


Sociology
Sociologists study this link: how society
affects the individual and how the
individual affects society.

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 21


A society is a large social grouping that shares
the same geographical territory and is
subject to the same political authority and
dominant cultural expectations.
Society Is.
A society is a group of people who share
a culture and live more or less together.
They have a set of institutions which
provide what they need to meet their
physical, social, and psychological
needs and which maintain order and the
values of the culture.
23
Social structures are the more or less
stable patterns of peoples interactions
and relationships.

24
Institutions are the principal social
structures that organize, direct, and
execute the essential tasks of living.

25
Some institutions are:
Family,
Educational,
Economic,
Religion,
Law,
Political Systems

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Sociological Imagination

The ability to see the


relationship between
individual experiences and
the larger society.
Cool Insights from Sociology

Humans cannot be understood apart from


social context (i.e. society)

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 28


Cool Insights from Sociology

Society makes us who we are by structuring


out interactions and laying out an orderly
world before us

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 29


Cool Insights from Sociology
Society is a social construction, that is an idea created
by humans (i.e. doesnt exist in the biological world
but only in the social world) through social
interaction and given a reality through our
understanding of it and our collective actions.

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 30


Society Influences You
Death

Related to
society?

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 31


Baby Names

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 32


Names that have gained
the most popularity,
2004 2010

...Or, the names Ill begin seeing all


the time in 2022-2028

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 33


What Does Society Look Like?
While the idea of society is familiar, describing it can be difficult.
Ultimately society is made up of many different components, such as
culture, race, family, education, social class, and peoples interactions.
People who share a culture and territory

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 34


Meaning through Interaction
People actively and collectively shape their own lives, organizing their
social interactions and relationships into a meaningful world.
Sociologists study this social behavior by seeking out its patterns.
Patterns are crucial to our understanding of society

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 35


Society
Society is a group of people who shape their
lives in aggregated and patterned ways that
distinguish their group from other groups.

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 36


The Social Sciences
Social Sciences are the disciplines that use the scientific method to
examine the social world, in contrast to the natural sciences, which
examine the physical world.
Examples of social sciences include .?

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 37


How Sociology fits in

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 38


Levels of Analysis
We can study society from different levels:
Microsociology is the level of analysis that studies face-to-face and small-
group interactions in order to understand how they affect the larger
patterns and institutions of society.
Microsociology focuses on small-scale issues.
Ex: Symbolic Interactionism

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 39


Levels of Analysis (cont)
Macrosociology is the level of analysis that studies large-scale social
structures in order to determine how they affect the lives of groups
and individuals.
Macrosociology focuses on large-scale issues.
Ex: Functionalism, Conflict Theory

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 40


How We Use Levels of Analysis
Pam Fishman took a micro-level approach to studying issues of power in
malefemale relationships.
She found that in conversation, women ask nearly three times as many
questions as men do, perhaps because a speaker is much more likely to ask
a question if he or she does not expect to get a response by simply making
a statement.

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 41


Levels of Analysis (cont)
When conducting research, methodology involves the process by which
one gathers and analyzes data.
Quantitative research translates the social world into numbers that can be
treated mathematically; this type of research often tries to find cause-and-
effect relationships.
Any type of social statistic is an example of quantitative research.

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 42


Levels of Analysis (cont)
Qualitative research works with non-numerical data such as texts,
fieldnotes, interview transcripts, photographs, and tape recordings; this
type of research often tries to understand how people make sense of their
world.
Participant observation, in which the researcher actually takes part in the
social world he or she studies, is an example of qualitative research.

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 43


Take Away Points
Humans cannot be understood apart from the
social context they live in (society, culture and
time + place)

Introduction to Sociology: What is Sociology? 44


Take Away Points
The world around us profoundly shapes and
influences who we are, how we behave and even
how/what we think.

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Take Away Points
It is the job of the sociologist to understand how
this process works and to what effect.

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Comparing the Theoretical Perspectives
Functionalism Conflict Theory Symbolic
Interactionlism

Level of Macro Macro Micro


Analysis

Core What keeps society


functioning smoothly?
How are wealth and
power distributed in
How do people co-
create the society?
Questions What are the parts of society? How does social
society & how do they How do people with interaction influence,
relate? wealth and power create, and sustain
What are the intended keep them? human relationships?
and unintended Are there groups Do people change
outcomes of an event? that get ahead and behavior from on
why? setting to another? If
How are societys so why?
resources and
opportunities
divided?
Sociologys Family TreeAuguste Comte

Auguste Comte is often only remembered for coining the term,


sociology, though his other contributions to the discipline were also
significant.
He developed the theory of positivism, which argues that sense
perceptions are the only valid source of knowledge.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 48


Sociologys Family TreeAuguste Comte

He also began to imagine how the scientific method, a procedure for


acquiring knowledge that emphasized collecting concrete data
through observation and experiment, could be applied to the study of
social affairs.
Why is this so important (and it is!)?

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 49


Sociologys Family TreeHarriet Martineau

Harriet Martineau was an English journalist and political economist.


She traveled to the United States and studied American society, which
she believed was flawed and hypocritical because of the existence of
slavery and the fact that both women and blacks were denied equal
rights.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 50


Sociologys Family TreeHarriet Martineau
(Cont)
Despite these impressive works, her most important contribution may
have been her English translation of Comtes Introduction to Positive
Philosophy.
Why would this be the case for her?

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 51


Sociologys Family TreeHerbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer was the first great English-speaking sociologist.


Spencer was an advocate of the idea of evolution, even before Darwin
made it famous and coined the phrase survival of the fittest.
He believed that societies, like living organisms, evolve through time by
adapting to their changing environment. His philosophy is often referred
to as social Darwinism.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 52


Sociologys Family TreeClassical Period

The era of the 1800s is referred to as sociologys classical period


because it marked the beginning of sociology as a substantive
discipline and the work done in this period forms the theoretical
foundations for all sociological work that followed.
What was going on in the world at this time?

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 53


Sociologys Family TreeEmile Durkheim

Emile Durkheim spent much of his life trying to establish sociology as


an important academic discipline.
In his first major study, he demonstrated that social bonds exist in all
types of societies (mechanical and organic).

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 54


Sociologys Family TreeEmile Durkheim
(contd)
He believed that agrarian, pre-modern societies were held together
by mechanical solidarity, a type of social bond where shared
traditions and beliefs created a sense of social cohesion.
Ex: The Amish

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 55


Sociologys Family TreeEmile Durkheim
(contd)
On the other hand, industrial societies were held together by organic
solidarity, a type of social bond based on a division of labor that
created interdependence and individual rights.
Ex: modern cities

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 56


Sociologys Family TreeEmile Durkheim
(contd)
In another study, Durkheim found that the more firmly connected
people are to others, the less likely they are to commit suicide; thus
demonstrating that even suicide is impacted by social forces.
Durkheim was probably important for sociology

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 57


A Normative Theory of Suicide

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 58


Sociologys Family TreeKarl Marx

Karl Marx was a German philosopher and political activist whose


contribution to sociology can be found in conflict theory.

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Sociologys Family TreeKarl Marx (contd)

Marx lived during the Industrial Revolution, when major societal


changes were leading to the emergence of capitalism, the economic
system that is based on the private for-profit operation of industry.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 60


Sociologys Family TreeKarl Marx (contd)

Marx believed that capitalism was creating class conflict and social
inequality between the bourgeoisie, who owned the means of
production (money, factories, natural resources, land), and the
proletariat, who were the workers.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 61


Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 62


Sociologys Family TreeMax Weber

Max Weber was also interested in the shift from traditional society to
the modern industrial society.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 63


Sociologys Family TreeMax Weber (contd)

He was particularly concerned with the process of rationalization, the


application of economic logic to all human activity, due to the
development of bureaucracies throughout society.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 64


Sociologys Family TreeMax Weber (contd)

Too much rationalization iron cage of rationality


Cloak to iron cage

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 65


Sociologys Family TreeMax Weber (contd)

He believed that contemporary life was filled with disenchantment,


the inevitable result of the dehumanizing features of bureaucracies
that dominated modern societies.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 66


Modern Schools of ThoughtStructural
Functionalism
Structural Functionalism or simply functionalism begins with the
assumption that society is a unified whole that functions because of
the contributions of its separate structures. Its origins can be traced
to the ideas of Comte, Spencer, and Durkheim.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 67


Modern Schools of ThoughtStructural
Functionalism
Society is viewed as an ordered system of interrelated parts, or
structures, which are the different large-scale social institutions that
make up society (family, education, politics, the economy). Each of
these different parts of society meets the needs of society by
performing specific functions for the whole system (society).

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 68


Modern Schools of ThoughtFunctionalism

Robert Merton clarified the difference between manifest functions,


the obvious intended functions of a social structure for the social
system, and latent functions, the less obvious unintended functions
of a social structure.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 69


Modern Schools of ThoughtConflict Theory

Conflict Theory sees social conflict as the basis of society and social
change, and emphasizes a materialist view of society, a critical view of
the status quo, and a dynamic model of historical change, emerged
from the writings of Marx.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 70


Modern Schools of ThoughtSymbolic
Interactionism
Symbolic Interactionism sees interaction and meaning as central to
society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created
through interaction.
It is Americas unique contribution to sociology and has proved to be
the most influential perspective of the twentieth century.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 71


Three tenets of Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic Interactionism, the process by which things are socially


constructed:
1)Human beings act toward ideas, concepts and values on the basis of the
meaning that those things have for them.
2) These meanings are the products of social interaction in human society.
3) These meanings are modified and filtered through an interpretive
process that each individual uses in dealing with outward signs

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 72


Symbolic Interactionism: An example

Are these the same? Do they have the same meaning? What do you
think of when you see each?

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 73


New Theoretical ApproachesFeminist Theory

Feminist Theory looks at gender inequalities in society and the way


that gender structures the social world.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 74


New Theoretical ApproachesQueer Theory

Queer theory is a paradigm that proposes that categories of sexual


identity are social constructs, and that no sexual category is
fundamentally either deviant or normal.

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 75


New Theoretical ApproachesPostmodern
Theory
Postmodern Theory is a paradigm that suggests that social reality is
diverse, pluralistic, and constantly in flux.
Critical of accounts of Truth especially traditional science

Introduction to Sociology: Theories and Theorists 76


Take Away Points
Theories are explanations for events (that is behaviors, people,
attitudes, etc.).
Theme connecting many classical theorists work: modernization,
society (social bonds) and capitalism.

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