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Digital

Communication

Electronic Communications

is the transmission, reception, and processing

of information with the use of electronic

circuits

Digital Modulation

is the transmittal of digitally modulated

analog signals (carriers) between two or more

points in a communications system

sometimes called digital radio because

digitally modulated signals can be propagated

through Earths atmosphere and used in

wireless communications systems

Digital communications

Is the transmission of digital pulses between two or

more points in a communication system.

include systems where relatively high-frequency

analog carriers are modulated by relatively low

frequency digital information signals (digital radio)

and systems involving the transmission of digital

pulses (digital transmission)

was originally limited to the transmission of data

between computers

Basic elements of a digital communication system

Advantages Disadvantages

2. Error Detection 2. Complex

and Correction circuitry

3. Compatibility with

Time-Division

Multiplexing

Simplified block diagram of a digital radio system

Information theory

is a highly theoretical study of the efficient

use of bandwidth to propagate information

through electronic communications systems

can be used to determine the information

capacity of a data communications system

Information capacity

is a measure of how much information can be

propagated through a communications

system and is a function of bandwidth and

transmission time.

represents the number of independent

symbols that can be carried through a system

in a given unit of time.

Binary digit or bit - the most basic digital

symbol used to represent information

A unit of information represented by either

a 1 or 0

Bit rate - simply the number of bits

transmitted during one second and is

expressed in bits per second(bps).

Information Theory

1. Information Measure

The information sent from a digital source when

the ith message of transmitter is given by

2. Average Information (Entropy)

- In general, the information content will vary

from message to message because the

probability of transmitting the nth message

will not be equal. Consequently, we need an

average information measure for the source,

considering all the possible message we can

send.

3. Relative entropy

- The ratio of the entropy of a source to the

maximum value the entropy could take for

the same source symbol.

4. Redundancy

5. Rate of Information

Example

A telephone touch-tone keypad has the digits

0 to 9, plus the * and # keys. Assume the

probability of sending * and # is 0.005 and the

probability of sending 0 to 9 is 0.099. If each

keys are pressed at a rate of 2 keys/s,

compute the entropy and data rate for this

source.

Example

From the given table

rate of information

Hartleys law

R. Hartley of Bell Telephone Laboratories

(year 1928)

B = bandwidth (Hz)

t = transmission time (seconds)

Shannon limit for information capacity

Claude E. Shannon of Bell Telephone

Laboratories (year 1948)

Where: I = information

capacity (bps)

B = bandwidth (Hz)

S/N = signal-to-noise

power ratio (unitless)

M-ary Encoding

M-ary ----- is a term derived from the word

binary

M - simply represents a digit that corresponds

to the number of conditions, levels, or

combinations possible for a given number of

binary variables.

M = number of conditions,

levels, or combinations possible with N

bits

Bit rate - refers to the rate of change of a

digital information signal, which is usually

binary.

Baud - like bit rate, is also a rate of change;

however, baud refers to the rate of change of

a signal on the transmission medium after

encoding and modulation have occurred.

is a unit of transmission rate, modulation

rate, or symbol rate

signaling element

Examples

1. What is the Shannon limit for information

capacity for a standard voice band

communications channel with a S/N ratio of

1000 (30 dB) and a bandwidth of 2.7 kHz?

2. Determine the channel capacity of a 4 kHz

channel with S/N = 10 dB.

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