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Biological Molecules

Biomolecules

Is any molecule that is present in living


organism.
The molecule that make up every living
thing and every living thing in every living
thing.
Molecules that are necessary for every
living thing on Earth to survive.
Organic compounds of four elements
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
Biomolecules

Functions:
- Essential sources of
energy
- Energy storage
- Instruction
Biomolecules

Types:
-Carbohydrates
- Lipids
- Proteins
- Nucleic Acids
History

William Prout
- A practicing physician from 1800s
- Study on urine
- Came to the conclusion that all food
stuff fell into three category:
Saccharinous(Carbohydrates),
Oleaginous(Fats), and
Albuminous(Proteins)
History

William Prout
Biomolecules

However, he did not understand that


there are biological molecules. He
did not understand what this things
are, but he did understand the three
ingredients necessary for life. And it
turns out that all organisms either
need to synthesize or ingest those
ingredients in order to live.
Carbohydrates

The source of all energy that we


have available to us.
Carbohydrates
Made up of sugar.
The simplest sugars
are called
monosaccharaides. MONOSACCHARAIDES
Two
monosaccharaides
that are put
together are called
disaccharides.
DISACCHARIDES
Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides
are long chains of
simple sugar
units. They store
energy. Breads
are made up of
starch, most
simple of which is
amylose.
Carbohydrates

We, humans, store our carbohydrate energy


in glycogen. Very similar to amylose or starch
but has more branches and is more
complicated. It is made up of glucose that we
have left over after we eat and it seats in our
muscles, ready to use and also stored in our
liver.
Carbohydrates

However, it is just a
short-term store. If we
dont eat for a day, all
of our glycogen gets
depleted
Lipids

But for longer storage of energy, we


use fats. Which is a kind of one of
the biomolecules, the lipid.
Lipids
Fats are made up
of two chemical
ingredients:
Glycerol, a type of
alcohol, and Fatty
acids, which are
long carbon-
hydrogen chains
that end in a Fatty
acids
carboxyl group.
Lipids
When you connect
3 fatty acids to a
glycerol, thats a
triglyceride. These
feature prominently
in things like butter,
peanut butters, oil,
and white parts of
meat.
Lipids
These triglyceride
can either be
saturated or
unsaturated.
Lipids

There is one more lipids that we


need to know, the phospholipid.
Just swap a fatty acid for a
phosphate group and you have
phospholipid.
Lipids
Phospholipids make
up the cell
membrane walls.
Every cell in your
body uses this
natural structure to
form its cell wall in
order to get the bad
stuff out and the
good stuff in.
Lipids

Another type of lipids are the steroids. Steroids


have the backbone of four interconnected
carbon rings which can be used to form
hundreds of variation. The most fundamental
of them is cholesterol which bond with
phospholipids to help form cell wall.
Lipids
But
these
can also
be
activated
to turn
into
different
lipid
hormone
s.
Protein

Probably the most complicated


chemical compounds on the
planet, the protein.
Protein
There are tens of
thousands of
protein doing
everything they can
to keep you alive.
There are:
-Enzymes
-Antibodies
-Protein Hormones
Protein
Proteins do
everything with just
20 ingredients that
we call amino acids.
Amino acids are
made up of
Carboxyl Group,
Amino Group, and
the R group or side
chain.
Protein

The R group is a fill in the blank to be filled up of the 20 side chains


that will determine the shape and function of that amino acid.
Protein

If we put
that in
there,
we get
Valine.
Protein
If we put
this in
there, we
get
Tryptoph Tryptophan

an.
Protein
Amino acids form
long chains
called
polypeptides.
Protein
However, protein synthesis is only possible
if you have all of the amino acids
necessary. And there are nine of them that
we cant make ourselves:
Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine,
Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine,
Tryptophan, and Valine.