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# AR 2002

THEORY OF DESIGN
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

SUBMITTED BY:
ANUSHA THELA (B140416AR)
NISHITHA SREE (B140557AR)
R SRAVANI (B140981AR)
FATHIMA BEGUM (B13
V MANOJ (B130969AR)
T VIJAY KUMAR (B130094AR)
WHY PRINCIPLES OF
DESIGN?

## ORDERING PRINCIPLES ARE VISUAL METHODS THAT

ALLOW THE FORM AND SPACE OF A BUILDING TO CO-
EXIST IN ORDER TO MAKE A DESIGN COMPLETE
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
AXIS
SYMMETRY

RHYTHM

DATUM
HIERARCHY
PRINCIPLES
OF DESIGN
AXIS
Axis is the most basic and most common organizing
principle.

## Simply stated, axis is an imaginary line that is used to

organize a group of elements in a design.

## An axis can be established by defining edges along its

length. These edges can be simply lines on the ground plan,
or vertical planes that define a linear space.

ALIGNMENT
Axis is mainly used to align elements. When elements are
arranged around an axis, the design feels ordered.

PLAN
VIEW
SYMMETRY
Symmetry is when elements are arranged in the same
way on both sides of an axis. Perfect symmetry is
when elements are mirrored over the axis and
exactly the same on both sides.

BALANCE
Symmetry adds balance to a design. When elements
are the same on both sides of an axis, the design
feels harmonious.

ASSYMMETRY
Designs are asymmetrical if the arrangement of
elements are different on both sides of an axis.
CHARMINAR

## "Four Towers", the

eponymous towers are
ornate minarets attached
and supported by four
grand arches.

## At each corner stands an

elegantly shaped minaret
of 56 meters
(approximately 184 feet)
high, with a double
balcony. Each minaret of
Charminar is crowned by a
rounded dome with
delicate petal-like designs
at the base.
PLAN
PLAN
RHYTHM
In design, rhythm is the regular, harmonious
recurrence of a specific element, often a
single specific entity coming from the
categories of line, shape, form, color, light,
RULES CREATING RHYTHM

## Repetition in forms (regular rhythm)

Repetition in structure (structure rhythm)
Repetition in lights (reflective rhythm)
Repetition in functions (spatial rhythm)
Repetition in movement (flowing rhythm)
Repetition in process (iterative rhythm)
Repetition in growth (progressive rhythm)
STONE TOWERS BY ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS IN CAIRO
Client: Rooya Group
Gross Building Area: 525,000 m2
Site Area: 170,000 m2
Ancient Egyptian stonework incorporates a vast array of patterns
and textures that, when illuminated by the intense sunlight of the
region, creates animated displays of light and shadow. The effect is
powerful, direct and inspiring.
The facades on the North and South elevations of each building within
Stone Towers adopts a rich vocabulary of alternating protrusions,
recesses and voids to enhance the deep reveal shadow lines that
accentuate the curvatures of each building within the development
and animate the project throughout the day.
DATUM
Definition
a line, plane, or volume that by its continuity and
regularity serves to gather, measure, and organize
a pattern of forms and spaces.
or
A datum is a form which ties together or anchor
all the elements of the design.
Can be a line, like a road with houses arranged in
along its length, a flat pane or even a 3d space
Most of building shares a plane which act as a
clear datum-its the ground on which they are
built
EXAMPLES

Musical notes
SALK INSTITUTE
the Salk Institute in la jolla California.
Designed by architect Louis Kahn
this is a building used for research facilities and office space.
can see there is a balance of the buildings on either side of
the axis of the waterway cutting through the courtyard.
THIS BUILDING FOLLWS ALL
THE PRINCIPLE OF DESING IN
A PROPER AND WELL
DESIGNED MANNER.
In design, rhythm is made by form
repetitions. As long as the basic element is
repeated with an ordered sequence, a
pleasant pattern will be created and would
be identified as a rhythm. The phenomena of
such a visual attraction will generate a
pleasant environment for living, working,
and recreation. Such a pleasant creation in
product could be valid to justify good quality
of design.
HIERARCHY
Hierarchy is when an element appears more important in
comparison to other elements in a design.

Size
An element will appear more hierarchical if it is larger than other
elements in a design. We naturally look first at the largest
element in a design.

Shape
An element can also appear more hierarchical if it is different
than other elements in a design. We naturally look first at the
irregular shape in a design

Placement
Last but not least, we can place elements in more hierarchical
positions. Within a circle, the centre is the most hierarchical. The
end of an axis is naturally more hierarchical than points along the
line.
DEFINITION
A hierarchy is an arrangement of items
(objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in
which the items are represented as being
above, below, or at the same level as one
another as desired or depending on the
priority of design and its importance in the
set.
EXPLAINING HIERARCHY WITH
AN EXAMPLE:
CRAB Studio, BOND
University.
Queensland,
Australia.
By Peter Cook's
architecture firm.
Studios, offices, labs and resource rooms are arranged on either side of a
corridor that rises gradually along the length of the building,
corresponding to the sloping hilltop site.
Studio is also designed the colourfully, irregularly shaped furniture used throughout the studio spaces, which can be
configured in different arrangements depending on the tasks being performed.

Based on their experiences of teaching in some of the world's leading architectural institutions, Cook and Robotham proposed
a series of informal working environments throughout the faculty, as well as dedicated teaching spaces.
These included the cave-like sheltered meeting rooms, which are described as "scoops".
Curved concrete walls are used here.
Studios and meet up halls are secluded from other aspects with a pathway .
INFORMAL MEETING SPACE
The quiet meeting spaces are
nestled against the base of
smooth concrete walls.
They open onto the central
pathway on one side, but also
connect to the open studio
spaces.
CLIMATE CONTROL APPROACH AND
DESIGN

## Together the orientation of the

buildings openings, with the
sunhoods and column system of
mitigating a majority of the Sun's
potentially excessive effects.
It is designed to minimise
undesirable solar gain within the
building's thermal envelope.
It ia an ambient building, where the individual can really identify with the nature of his or her activity
thus the studio pads, scoops, decks and corners though based on a clear hierarchy and system
have significant shifts of direction or variations of size.
These elements particularise we hope, in a subtle and enjoyable way.
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
FIRST FLOOR PLAN

## SECOND FLOOR PLAN

LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY BUILDING,
CHANDIGARH

Architects:Le Corbusier
Location:Chandigarh, India
Architect:Le Corbusier
References:MIMOA
Project Year:1962

Architects:Le
Corbusier
Location:Chandigarh,
India
PLAN
The building is composed of six eight-
story block divided by expansion joints and
measures over 800 feet long, bookended
by two sculptural ramps providing vertical
circulation throughout the facilities levels.

## On top of the building lies an accessible

roof supported by the pilotis. Providing
usable space on the roof of a structure
complies with Le Corbusier's fifth ideal of
architecture by giving occupants vertical
means of connecting to nature and
compensating for the habitat removed by
the building.

## The cafeteria rests at top the terrace,

where one can have a spectacular view of
the city. Similarly, the roof garden and its