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Chapter 3: Waste and Wastewater

Management and Sewerage Treatment

Mela Aryal
11th June, 2015
We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors,
We BORROW it from our CHILDREN.

Defining Waste
Any unwanted and undesirable substances that
Does not add value to the process
Doesnt help to create compliance to the customers specifications
The customer would be unwilling to pay to.

Defining Waste
Basal Convention (1988)
Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

substances or objects which are disposed of or are

intended to be disposed of or are required to be
disposed of by the provisions of the law

Material Flow and Waste Generation

Raw Materials Residual Debris

Manufacturing Residual Waste


Processing and Secondary

Recovery Manufacturing

Raw Materials,
products and
recovered materials

Final Disposal Waste Materials

Waste Types

Solid Waste Liquid Waste

Based on waste characteristics

Biodegradable waste
Non-biodegradable waste

Based on effects on human health and environment

Hazardous waste
Non-hazardous waste

Solid Water and its Environmental Impact

Land Contamination
Water Pollution
Air Pollution
Vector Problem
Human Health Consequences
Aesthetic concerns

Municipal Solid Waste

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), commonly called trash or
garbage, includes wastes such as durable goods (e.g., tires,
furniture), nondurable goods (e.g., newspapers, plastic plates/cups),
containers and packaging (e.g., milk cartons, plastic wrap), and
other wastes (e.g., yard waste, food).

This category of waste generally refers to common household waste,

as well as office and retail wastes, but excludes industrial,
hazardous, and construction wastes.

The handling and disposal of MSW is a growing concern as the

volume of waste generated in the continues to increase.
Sources Typical Waste generators Types of solid wastes 8

Residential Single and multifamily dwellings Food wastes, paper, cardboard,

plastics, textiles, leather, yard
wastes, wood, glass, metals,
ashes, special wastes (e.g. bulky
items, e-waste, batteries, oil).

Industrial Light and heavy manufacturing, Housekeeping wastes, packaging,

fabrication, constriction sites, power food waste, construction and
and chemical plants demolition materials, hazardous
wastes, ashes

Commercial Stores, hotels, restaurants, market Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood,

offices, office buildings food wastes, glass metals, special
wastes, hazardous wastes

Institutional School, hospitals, prison, Same as commercial

government centers
Construction and New construction sites, road repair, Wood steel, concrete, dirt
demolition renovation sites
Municipal Services Street cleaning, landscaping parks, Street sweeping, landsacpe and
recreational areas, waste and tree trimmings, general wastes
wastewater treatment plants from parks

Agricultural Crops, orchards, vineyards, dairies Spoiled food wastes, agricultural

farms wastes, hazardous waste

Waste Management
The systematic control of generation, storage, collection,
transfer and transport, processing and disposal of waste.
Control, collect, process, dispose of waste in an
economical way consistent with the public health

Functional Elements of Solid Waste Management

Waste Generation

Waste Handling, Separation, Storage, and

processing at the sources

Waste Collection

Separation and Processing and

Transfer and Transport
Transformation of solid waste


Minimizing Municipal Waste


Waste Management Principles

Waste Reduction

Wastewater Management

A combination of one or more of: domestic effluents consisting of
black water (excreta, urine and fecal sludge) and grey water
(kitchen and bathing wastewater); water from commercial
establishment and institutions, including hospitals; industrial
effluent, storm-water and other urban run-off; agricultural,
horticultural and aquaculture effluent, either dissolved or as
suspended matter (Raschid- Sally and Jayakody, 2008)

A myriad of different components: pathogens, organic matter and

synthetic chemicals, nutrients, and heavy metals.
Cumulative, persistent and synergistic characteristics affecting ecosystem
health and function, food production, human health and well being.

Types of wastewater
Black water: wastewater containing feces, urine and flush water
from flush toilets. Water mixed with waste from toilet that requires
biological and physiochemical treatment and disinfection before
Brown water: Refers to faeces mixed with (flushing) water but no
Grey water: Wastewater from the bathroom, washing of clothes
and kitchen that contain fewer pathogens and require less
Rain water: Surface runoff (a mixture of rainwater and other
surface runoff
Process water: Industrial wastewater after manufacturing
processes. Waters from paper and fiber plants, steel mills, chemical
and fertilizer plants.

Constituents found in Wastewater

Contaminants Reasons for importance
Suspended solids Development of sludge deposits and anaerobic conditions when
untreated wastewater is discharged in the aquatic environment
Biodegradable organics Depletion of natural oxygen resources and to the development
of septic conditions
Pathogens Communicable diseases transmission
Nutrients Growth of undesirable aquatic life, lead to pollution of
groundwater when discharged
Priority pollutants Carcinogenic or high acute toxic compounds are found in
Refractory organics Resistance to conventional methods of wastewater treatment.
Example phenol, surfactants and pesticides
Heavy metals Effect on humans when not removed for reuse
Dissolved in organics Effects on humans when not removed for reuse.

Wastewater and water quality issues

Wastewater contains a number of pollutants and contaminants,
plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium);
pathogenic microorganisms (viruse, bacteria, protozoa, helminths);
heavy metals (e.g. cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc);
organic pollutants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic
hydrocarbons, pesticides); and biodegradable organics (BOD, COD);
micro-pollutants (e.g. medicines, cosmetics, cleaning agents).

All of these can cause health and environmental problems and can
have economic/financial impacts (e.g. increased treatment costs to
make water usable for certain purposes) when improperly or
untreated wastewater is released into the environment

Nutrient contamination and eutrophication

When water bodies receive excess nutrients, especially nitrates and
phosphates, these nutrients can stimulate excessive plant growth
eutrophication - including algal blooms (which may release toxins to
the water), leading to oxygen depletion, decreased biodiversity,
changes in species composition and dominance, and a severe
reduction in water quality.

The ecosystem's response to the addition of artificial or natural
substances, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilizers,
or sewage, to an aquatic system. One example is the "bloom" or great
increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased
levels of nutrients. Negative environmental effects include hypoxia,
the depletion of oxygen in the water, which may cause death to
aquatic animals.

Eutrophication arises from the oversupply of nutrients, which induces

explosive growth of plants and algae which, when such organisms die,
consume the oxygen in the body of water, thereby creating the state
of hypoxia.

Microbial water quality

Wastewater (domestic wastewater, in particular) can contain high
concentrations of excreted pathogens.
Pathogens cause gastroenteritis and it has been estimated that,
globally, 1.45 million people a year die as a result of diarrhoeal
illness each year.
58% of which is caused by inadequate water, sanitation and
43% of the deaths occur in children aged five and below.
Infection can result from direct exposure to untreated wastewater
but also exposure to wastewater-contaminated drinking-water,
food and recreational water.

Urban Watershed

Natural Ground cover vs 75-100% ground cover


Urban drainage and storm flows

Surface water run-off and storm water drainage from paved
areas in towns and cities is a major problem for a number of

In addition to the potential hazards from flooding resulting from

insufficient coverage and capacity of storm water drainage,
serious health problems often arise with open channel surface
water drains.

Open channels also collect wastewater and garbage which

become a health hazard through direct contact.

Open channels are frequently used by slum dwellers to run

pipelines from illegal water distribution connections to local
households. This can lead to serious and widespread health

Another problem that affects both the developing and developed

world is the pollution load from urban surface waters.

This can be considerable, especially during the first flush

following a dry period when spillages and drips of fuel and oil
and also dust and other pollutants accumulate on road surfaces
along with general rubbish. Not only does this impose high
organic loads that de-oxygenate watercourses, but also much of
the polluting load is toxic.

This situation is likely to be further exacerbated by the impacts

of increasingly frequent extreme weather conditions linked to
the process of climate change.

Storm Water
Major sources Non-point sources (EPA)
Nutrients, primarily
Nitrogen and phosphorus
Litter Toxic organics

Suspended Contaminants Oils and

Solids surfactants

Toxic trace
metals Biological and Chemical
Oxygen demanding

Storm Water Management

Reducing Pollutants in runoff
Pollutants Common Sources
Silt, Sand and Clay Construction sites, bare spots in lawns and gardens,
wastewater, unprotected stream banks

Nutrients Over used of spilled fertilizers, pet manures, grass

clippings and leaves

Diseases organisms Per manures and garbage

Hydrocarbons Car and truck exhaust, leaks and spills of oil and gas,
burning leaves and garbage

Pesticides Over used pesticides

Metals Galvanized metal gutters

Storm Water Management

Landscaping and site management to control
storm water runoff

Healthcare Waste
Total waste generated by hospitals, healthcare establishments and
research facilities in the diagnosis, treatment, immunization and
associated research
Non-Risk Waste (75 -80%)
Healthcare Waste
Risk Waste (25-20%)

Chemical Waste
Sharps Waste Pathological Waste

Genotoxic Waste Risk Waste (25-20%) Pressurized containers

Infectious Waste
Heavy metal Waste
Pharmaceutical Waste

Hospital Waste: Categorization (WHO)

Infectious: material-containing pathogens that if exposed can
cause diseases.
Sharps: disposable needles, syringes, saws, blades, broken glasses,
nails or any other
Pathological: tissues, organs, body parts, human flesh, fetuses,
blood and body fluids
Pharmaceuticals: drugs and chemicals that are retraced from
wards, spilled, outdated contaminated or are no longer required.
Radioactive: solid, liquid and gaseous waste contaminated with
radioactive substances used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases
Other: waste from office, kitchens, rooms

Health Care Waste Management

Best method of eliminating any infectious organisms that are present in
medical wastes
Economical for hospitals as it substantially reduces the volume of waste to
be disposed off in the landfill
Burning at higher temperature results in the emission of acidic gases, heavy
metals, toxic substances and dioxins.
Steam Autoclaving
Available autoclaves are capable to handle both biohazards and normal
hospital wastes simultaneously
Effects of heat from saturated steam and increased pressure decontaminate
medical waste by inactivating and destroying microorganisms
However, cannot treat pathological animal wastes, chemotherapy wastes
and low level radioactive wastes

Healthcare Waste Management

Chemical Disinfection
Thermal Disinfection
Open Dumping
Sanitary Landfill

Waste Water
Treatment Process

Why Waste Water Treatment?

To remove pollutants.
To promote health concern and public hygiene.
To preserve aquatic life and wildlife habitat.
To promote recreation and quality of life.

Stages of Treatment

Treatment Flow chart

The purpose of preliminary treatment is to protect the operation
of the wastewater treatment plant.
This is achieved by removing any constituents which can clog or
damage pumps, or interfere with subsequent treatment
Preliminary treatment devices are, therefore, designed to:
Remove or to reduce in size the large, entrained, suspended or
floating solids. These solids consist of pieces of wood, cloth, paper,
plastics, garbage, etc. together with some fecal matter.
Remove heavy inorganic solids such as sand and gravel as well as
metal or glass. These objects are called grit.
Remove excessive amounts of oils or greases.

Units of preliminary system

Grit chamber
Flotation unit
Skimming tank
Pre-aeration units

Primary Treatment
This involve the separation of organic solid matter
(or human waste) from the wastewater. This is done
by putting the wastewater into large settlement
tanks for the solids to sink to the bottom of the
tank. The settled solids are called sludge. At the
bottom of these circular tanks, large scrappers
continuously scrape the floor of the tank and push
the sludge towards the center where it is pumped
away for further treatment. The rest of the water is
then moved to the Secondary treatment.

Advance Primary Treatment

Enhance removal of suspended solids and organic
water from the waste water. Typically accomplished
by chemical addition and filtration known as
Coagulation and Flocculation.

Units of primary treatment


Secondary treatment
Physical phase separation to remove settleable
solids and a biological process to remove
dissolved and suspended organic compounds.
Disinfection is also included in the conventional
secondary treatment process.
The water, at this stage is put into large tanks.
These are called aeration lanes. Air is pumped into
the water to encourage bacteria to breakdown the
tiny bits of sludge that escaped the sludge
scrapping process.
Activated sludge system
It consists of 2 parts:
1. An aeration tank
2. A settling tank(clarifiers)
Aeration tank :it consists of sludge(mixed microbial
culture)which contains bacteria, protozoa,fungi and
algae etc.

Tertiary treatment
Next the almost treated wastewater is passed
through a settlement tank. Here, more sludge is
formed at the bottom of the tank from the settling
of the bacterial action. Again, the sludge is
scrapped and collected for treatment. The water
at this stage is almost free from harmless
substances and chemicals. The water is allowed to
flow over a wall where it is filtered through a bed
of sand to remove any additional particles.

The filtered water is then released into the river.


PURPOSE: Destruction of harmful (pathogenic)
microorganisms i.e. disease causing germs.
Done through:
3.Ultraviolet light
4.Hydrogen peroxide

Overview of A Wastewater Treatment


Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method that uses

short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by
destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to
perform vital cellular functions.

Ozone disinfection: One common method of disinfecting wastewater is

ozonation (also known as ozone disinfection). Ozone is an unstable gas that
can destroy bacteria and viruses. It is formed when oxygen molecules (O2)
collide with oxygen atoms to produce ozone (O3)