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Advanced Reservoir engineering

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You are on page 1of 78

: (2007

)

(AIMS)

Teaching oil and gas fluid properties, as well as the production of oil and gas caused by changes in oil

pressure principle.

( )

( )

Discuss the stress test analysis (well pressure test analysis), and the production data analysis (production

decline curve analysis).

/ /

Obtain the formation parameters / predict future production rates / calculate the formation of oil or

natural reserves and reserves.

Textbooks and references

Engineering, revised edition, Elsevier Scientific

B.V., Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2001.

Reservoir Engineering, Gulf Publishing

Company, Houston, Texas, 2004

by Terry, R.E. , Applied Petroleum Reservoir

Engineering, Second edition., Prentice Hall ,

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1991.

Textbooks and references

(C) Lee, J., Well Testing, SPE Textbook

series, Society of Petroleum Engineers of

AIME, Dallas, Texas, 2002.

(D) (

, Chapter 24 )

2004.

(No. 4 - Oil and Gas Production, Chapter 24), CNPC Training Materials Series, PetroChina Training Institute, Chiayi

City, 2004 (in Chinese).

Advanced Reservoir Engineering

by

Ahmed, T., and McKinney, P

Well testing analysis

Water influx

Unconventional gas reservoir

Performance of oil reservoir

Predicting oil reservoir

Introduction to oil fieldeconomics

5

Introduction to reservoir engineering

- Gas reservoir

- PVT analysis for oil

- Material balance applied to oil

porous media

- Darcys law and applications

- The basic differential equation in a porous medium

- Steady and semi-steady states

- Unsteady state

Pressure drawdown and buildup analysis for oil and gas wells

Case study

Part 1

Introduction to Reservoir Engineering

The primary functions of a reservoir

engineer:

the estimation of hydrocarbon in place

the calculation of a recovery factor , and

the attachment of a time scale to the recovery

Note:

pressure/flow rate information

parameters/future flow rate/future pressure

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering

(1) Introduction

Petrophysical properties ( Rock properties)

Fluid properties (gas, water, crude properties)

Calculations of hydrocarbon volumes

Fluid pressure regimes

Calculating gas in place by the volumetric method

Calculating gas recovery factor

Material balance calculation (Depletion & Water drive)

Hydrocarbon phase behavior (gas condensate phase behavior)

The gas equivalent of produced condensate and water

Definition of the basic PVT parameters

Determination of the basic PVT parameters in the lab. And

conversion for field operating conditions.

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

reservoirs

General form of the material balance equation for a

hydrocarbon reservoir (Undersaturated and Saturated

reservoir)

Reservoir drive mechanisms

Solution gas drive

Gas cap drive

Natural water drive

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

in a porous medium

Derivation of the basic radial flow equation

Conditions of solution

Linearization of radial flow equation

conditions

Semi steady state solution

Steady state solution

Generalized form of inflow equation (for semi steady state)

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

diffusivity equation and its application to oil well

testing

Constant terminal rate solution

General Transient flow

Semi steady state flow

Superposition theorem; general theory of well testing

The Matthews, Brons, Hazebroek pressure buildup theory

Pressure buildup analysis techniques

Multi-rate drawdown testing

The effects of partial well completion

After-flow analysis

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

- Linearization and solution of the basic differential equation

for the radial flow of a real gas

- The Russell, Goodrich, et al. Solution technique

- The Al-Hussainy, Ramey, Crawford solution technique

- Pressure squared and pseudo pressure solution technique

- Non-Darcy flow & determination of the non-darcy

coefficient

- The constant terminal rate solution for the flow of a real gas

- General theory of gas well testing

- Multi-rate testing of gas well

- Pressure building testing of gas wells

- Pressure building analysis in solution gas drive reservoirs

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

- Steady state model

- Unsteady state model

- The van Everdingen and Hurst edge-water drive

model

- Bottom water drive model

- Pseudo steady state model (Fetkovich model)

- Predicting the amount of water influx

Fluid Pressure Regimes

= weight of the formation rock

+ weight of fluids (oil, gas or water)

Fluid Pressure Regimes

Density of sandstone

gm 2.2lbm (0.3048 100cm) 3

2.7 3

cm 1000 gm (1 ft ) 3

lbm 1slug

168.202 3

ft 32.7lbm

slug

5.22 3

ft

Pressure gradient for sandstone

Pressure gradient for sandstone

p gD

p

g

D

lbf

5.22 32.2 168.084

ft 3

lbf 1 ft 2 lbf

168.084 2 1.16 2

ft ft 144in 2

in ft

1.16( psi / ft )

Overburden pressure

= Fluid pressure (FP) + Grain or matrix pressure (GP)

OP=FP + GP

In non-isolated reservoir

PW (wellbore pressure) = FP

In isolated reservoir

PW (wellbore pressure) = FP + GP

where GP<=GP

Normal hydrostatic pressure

Assume :(1) Continuity of water pressure to the surface

(2) Salinity of water does not vary with depth.

dP

P ( ) water D 14.7

dD [=] psia

dP

( ) water 0.4335 psi/ft for pure water

dD

dP

( ) water 0.4335

dD psi/ft for saline water

Abnormal hydrostatic pressure

( No continuity of water to the surface)

dP

P ( ) water D 14.7 C

dD [=] psia

c=0

c > 0 Overpressure (Abnormal high pressure)

c < 0 Underpressure (Abnormal low pressure)

Conditions causing abnormal fluid pressures

bearing sands include

Temperature change T = +1 P = +125 psi in a

sealed fresh water system

Geological changes uplifting; surface erosion

Osmosis between waters having different salinity, the

sealing shale acting as the semi permeable membrane in

this ionic exchange; if the water within the seal is more

saline than the surrounding water the osmosis will cause

the abnormal high pressure and vice versa.

Are the water bearing sands abnormally

pressured ?

hydrocarbon accumulations?

Hydrocarbon pressure regimes

dP

( ) water 0.45

dD psi/ft

dP

( ) oil 0.35

dD psi/ft

dP

( ) gas 0.08

dD psi/ft

Pressure Kick

In water zone

at 5000 ft P(at5000) = 5000 0.45 + 15 = 2265 psia

at OWC (5500 ft) P(at OWC) = 5500 0.45 + 15 = 2490 psia

Pressure Kick

at D = 5500 ft , Po = 2490 psi

C = 2490 0.35 5500 = 565 psia

Po = 0.35 D + 565

at GOC (5200 ft) Po (at GOC) = 0.35 5200 + 565 = 2385 psia

Pressure Kick

at 5000 ft Pg = 0.08 5000 + 1969 = 2369 psia

Pressure Kick

At D = 5500 ft, Pg = P = 2490 psia

2490 = 0.08 5500 + C

C = 2050 psia

Pg = 0.08 D + 2050

At D = 5000 ft

Pg = 2450 psia

GWC error from pressure measurement

Pressure = 2500 psia Pressure = 2450 psia

at D = 5000 ft at D = 5000 ft

in gas-water reservoir in gas-water reservoir

GWC = ? GWC = ?

Sol. Sol.

Pg = 0.08 D + C Pg = 0.08 D + C

C = 2500 0.08 5000 C = 2450 0.08 5000

= 2100 psia = 2050 psia

Pg = 0.08 D + 2100 Pg = 0.08 D + 2050

Water pressure P = 0.45 D + 15 Water pressure P = 0.45 D + 15

At GWC Pg = P At GWC Pg = P

0.08 D + 2100 = 0.45 D + 15 0.08 D + 2050 = 0.45 D + 15

D = 5635 ft (GWC) D = 5500 ft (GWC)

Results from Errors in GWC or GOC or OWC

affecting

volume of hydrocarbon OOIP

affecting

OOIP or OGIP

affecting

development plans

Volumetric Gas Reservoir Engineering

defined by pressure, volume and temperature

(PVT)

The equation of state for an ideal gas

pV nRT (1.13)

p [=] psia; V[=] ft3; T [=] OR absolute temperature

n [=] lbm moles; n=the number of lb moles, one lb mole is

the molecular weight of the gas expressed in pounds.

R = the universal gas constant

[=] 10.732 psia ft3 / (lbmmole0R)

Avogadro and Gay Lussac.

The equation of state for real gas

a

( p 2 )(V b) RT (1.14)

V

The principal drawback in attempting to use eq.

(1.14) to describe the behavior of real gases

encountered in reservoirs is that the maximum

pressure for which the equation is applicable is still

far below the normal range of reservoir pressures

The equation of state for real gas

the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation

the non-ideal gas law

Non-ideal gas law

pV nzRT (1.15)

=supercompressibility factor

z

Vi Ideal volume of n moles of gas at T and P

z f ( P, T , composition)

composition g specific gravity (air 1)

Determination of z-factor

There are three ways to determination z-factor :

(a)Experimental determination

katz

(a) Experimental determination

n mole s of gas

pV=nzRT

z=1 for p=1 atm

=>14.7 V0=nRT

n mole of gas

pV=nzRT

pV=z(14.7 V0) pV p scV0 pV pV

z

z

14.7V0 z sc T zT p scV0

By varying p and measuring V, the isothermal z(p) function can be

readily by obtained.

(b)The z-factor correlation of standing and katz

Requirement:

Knowledge of gas composition or gas gravity

Naturally occurring hydrocarbons: primarily

paraffin series CnH2n+2

Non-hydrocarbon impurities: CO2, N2 and H2

Gas reservoir: lighter members of the paraffin series, C1

and C2 > 90% of the volume.

The Standing-Katz Correlation

Critical pressure (Pci)

Critical temperature (Tci) of each component

( Table (1.1) and P.16 )

Pseudo critical pressure (Ppc)

Pseudo critical temperature (Tpc) for the mixture

Ppc ni Pci

i

T pc ni Tci

i

P

Ppr

Pseudo reduced pressure (Ppr) Ppc

Pseudo reduced temperature (Tpr) T

T pr const.(Isothermal )

T pc

(b)The z-factor correlation of standing and katz

For the gas composition is not available and the gas gravity

(air=1) is available.

The gas gravity (air=1)

( g)

fig.1.7 , p18

Pseudo critical temperature (Tpc)

(b)The z-factor correlation of standing and katz

P

Ppr

Pseudo reduced pressure (Ppr) Ppc

T

Pseudo reduced temperature (Tpr) T pr const.(Isothermal)

T pc

Fig1.6 p.17

z-factor

The above procedure is valided only if impunity (CO2,N2 and

H2S) is less then 5% volume.

(c) Direct calculation of z-factor

The Hall-Yarborough equations, developed using the Starling-Carnahan

equation of state, are

1.2 (1 t ) 2

0.06125Ppr te

z (1.20)

y

where Ppr= the pseudo reduced pressure

t=1/Tpr Tpr=the pseudo reduced temperature

y=the reduced density which can be obtained as the

solution of the equation as followed:

1.2 (1t ) 2 y y2 y3 y4

0.06125Ppr te (14.76t 9.76t 2 4.58t 3 ) y 2

(1 y ) 3

This non-linear equation can be conveniently solved for y using the simple

Newton-Raphson iterative technique.

(c) Direct calculation of z-factor

The steps involved in applying thus are:

make an initial estimate of y k, where k is an iteration counter (which in this

case is unity, e.q. y1=0.001

substitute this value in Eq. (1.21);unless the correct value of y has been

initially selected, Eq. (1.21) will have some small, non-zero value F k.

(3) using the first order Taylor series expansion, a better

estimate of y can be determined as

k 1 Fk

y y

k

k

(1.22)

dF

where dy

dF k 1 4 y 4 y 2 4 y 3 y 4

(29.52t 19.52t 2 9.16t 3 ) y

dy (1 y ) 4

(4) iterate, using eq. (1.21) and eq. (1.22), until satisfactory

convergence is obtained(5) substitution of the correct value of y in

eq.(1.20)will give the z-factor.

(5) substitution of the correct value of y in eq.(1.20)will give the z-factor.

Application of the real gas equation of state

Equation of state of a real gas pV nzRT (1.15)

This is a PVT relationship to relate surface to reservoir volumes of hydrocarbon.

(1) the gas expansion factor E,

E

V volume of n moles of gas at reservoir conditions

Real gas equation for n moles of gas at standard conditions

nz sc RTsc

p scVsc nz sc RTsc V sc

p sc

Real gas equation for n moles of gas at reservoir conditions

pV nzRT V

nzRT

> p

nz sc RTsc

Vsc p sc nz sc RTsc p Tsc p 519.6

E (note : z sc 1)

> V nzRT nzRTp zTp zT 14

surface volume/reservoir volume . 7

surface volume/reservoir volume

p sc sc

p

E 35.35 [] [=] SCF/ft3 or STB/bbl

zT

Example

Reservoir condition:

P=2000psia; T=1800F=(180+459.6)=639.60R; z=0.865

> E 35.35 2000 127.8

0.865 639.6

surface volume/reservoir

or SCF/ft3 or STB/bbl

OGIP V (1 S wi ) Ei

m nM

m V

V V

where n=moles; M=molecular weight)

nM MP

M gas P

nzRT zRT gas

p z gas RT

at any p and T

M gas P

z gas RT

For air M air p

air

z air RT

M gas p M gas ( M ) gas

gas z gas RT Z gas g z

g

air M gas p M air ( M ) air

z air RT Z air Z

(2) Real gas density

(M ) gas

z

g

(M ) air

Z

gas M gas M gas

g (1.28)

air M air 28.97

in general

g 0.6 ~ 0.8

(a) If is known, then or ,

M gas g 28.97 gas g air

g

(b) If the gas composition is known, then

M gas ni M i

i

M gas

g

28.97

gas g air

where

ft 3

nzRT

pV nzRT V

p

nRTzp 1 ( note : z f ( p))

V z V nzRT nRT z

nRTz[ p 2 ] nRTp 1 2

p p p p p p

V nzRT 1 1 z 1 1 z

( ) V ( )

p p p z p p z p

1 V 1 1 1 z

Cg [V ( )]

V p V p z p

1 1 z

Cg

p z p

1

Cg 1 1 z

p since p.24, fig.1.9

p z p

Exercise 1.1 - Problem

reservoir

(1) Calculate the density of the gas, at

standard conditions, whose

composition is listed in the table 1-1.

(2) what is the gas pressure gradient in

the reservoir at 2000psia and

1800F(z=0.865)

Exercise 1.1 -- solution -1

(1) Molecular weight of the gas

M gas

M gas ni M i 19.91

19.91

g 0.687

i

28.97 28.97

gas

since g gas g air

air

gas 0.687 0.0763(lbm ft 3 ) 0.0524(lbm ft 3 )

or from pV nzRT

pVM nMzRT mzRT

m pM

V zRT

Psc 14.7 19.91

At standard condition gas 0.0524(lbm ft 3 )

z sc RTsc 1 10.73 519.6

Exercise 1.1 -- solution -2

m pM 2000 19.91

6.707(lbm ft 3 )

V zRT 0.865 10.73 (459.6 180)

p gD dp gdD

dp lbm 1slug ft

g (6.707 )32. 2

s2

dD ft 3 32.2lbm

slug ft

6.707

ft 3 s 2

lb f

6.707

ft 3

lbf 1 1 ft 2

6.707 2

ft ft 144in 2

lb f 1

0.0465 2 0.0465 psi

in ft ft

Gas Material Balance: Recovery Factor

Material balance

(SC) (SC) (SC)

Case 1 no water influx (volumetric

depletion reservoirs)

Case 2 water influx (water drive reservoirs)

Volumetric depletion reservoirs -- 1

No water influx into the reservoir from the adjoining aquifer.

Gas initially in place (GIIP) or Initial gas in place IGIP

G Original gas in place OGIP

[=] Standard Condition Volume

G V (1 s wc ) Ei [] SCF

pi

where Ei 35.37 [] SCF / ft 3

z i Ti

Material Balance at standard conditions

Production GIIP Unproduced gas

SC SC SC

G

G p G E (1.33)

Ei

Where G/Ei = GIIP in reservoir volume or reservoir volume filled with gas

HCPV

Volumetric depletion reservoirs -- 2

Gp E

1 (1.34)

G Ei

p SCF

sin ce E 35.37

zT ft 3

p p

Gp 35.37

1 zT 1 z note :T Ti const.

G p pi

35.37 i

z i Ti zi

p pi Gp

1 (1.35)

z zi G

Gp

where the fractional gas re cov ery at any stage during depletion

G

Gas re cov ery factor

p pi pi 1

G p

z zi zi G

G

In Eq. 1.33 HCPV

Ei

const. ?

HCPVconst. because:

1. the connate water in reservoir will expand

(or fluid) pressure declines

OP FP GP (1.3)

d ( FP) d (GP ) p.3 ~ p.4

d ( HCPV ) d (G / Ei )

dVw dV f (1.36)

V f initial pore volume

negative sign "" exp ansion of water leads

to a reduction in HCPV

1 V f

cf

V f GP

GP GP

1 V f

cf pore vol.

V f (p ) Vf

1 V f

cf

V f p

GP GP

dV f c f V f dp

Vw

1 Vw 1 dVw

cw

Vw d FP Vw dp

FP

dVw c w Vw dp

FP Vf FP

FP=gas pressure

FP

FP

FP Vw FP

FP=gas pressure

FP

G

d d HCPV c wVw dp c f V f dp

Ei

Since

HCPV G

V f PV

1 S wc Ei 1 S wc

HCPV G S wc

Vw PV S wc S wc

1 S wc Ei 1 S wc

G G S wc G

d c w dp c f dp

Ei Ei 1 S wc Ei 1 S wc

G G G S wc 1

c w cf p

Ei initial Ei t Ei initial 1 S wc 1 S wc

G G G c w S wc c f p

Ei t Ei initial Ei initial 1 S wc

G G c w S wc c f p

1

E E

i t i initial 1 S wc

G

G p G E (1.33)

Ei

G cw S wc c f p

Gp G 1 E

Ei 1 S wc

Gp cw S wc c f E

1 1

G 1 S wc Ei

For cw 3 10 6 psi 1 ; c f 10 10 6 psi 1 and S wc 0.2

cw S wc c f

1 1 0.013 0.987

1 S wc

Gp E Gp E

1 0.987 computing with 1

G Ei G Ei

1.3% difference

p/z plot

From Eq. (1.35) such as

p/z

p pi G p

1 (1.35)

z zi G

p p p

i i Gp

z zi zi G Abandon

pressure pab

0

Gp G

p

In v.s Gp plot

z p/z

Y=a+mx

p

y

z

x Gp

pi

m 0 Gp/G=RF 1.0

pi a depletion type

a

zi

Water drive reservoirs

If the reduction in reservoir pressure leads to an expansion of

adjacent aquifer water, and consequent influx into the reservoir,

the material balance equation must then be modified as:

Production = GIIP Unproduced gas

SC SC SC

Gp G HCPV-We E

Or

Gp G G/Ei We E

where We= the cumulative amount of water influx resulting

from the pressure drop.

Assumptions:

No difference between surface and reservoir volumes of

water influx

Neglect the effects of connate water expansion and pore

volume reduction.

No water production

Water drive reservoirs

With water production

G

G p G We W p Bw E

Ei

Gp

pi

1

p zi G (1.41)

z WE

1 e i

G

pore volume flooded by water and is,

therefore, always less then unity.

Water drive reservoirs

Gp

pi

1

p zi

G

(1.41)

z We Ei

1

G

since We E i

1 1

G

p pi G p

1 in water flux reservoirs

z zi G

Comparing

p pi G p

1

z zi G in depletion type reservoir

Water drive reservoirs

pi Gp

1

p zi G

(1.41)

z We Ei

1

G

G; We

History matching or aquifer fitting to find We

Aquifer modelfor an aquifer whose dimensions are of the same

order of magnitude as the reservoir itself.

We cWp

Where W=the total volume of water and depends primary on the

geometry of the aquifer.

Water drive reservoirs

in fig1.11, which is not significantly different from the depletion

line

For case B & C in fig 1.11 p.30 =>Chapter 9

Bruns et. al method

This method is to estimate GIIP in a water drive reservoir

From Eq. (1.40) such as

G

G p G We E (1.40)

Ei

GE

Gp G We E

Ei

E

G p G1 We E

Ei

E

G1 G p We E

Ei

Gp We E

G

E E

1 1

Ei Ei

Gp We E Gp We E

or G (or G a )

E E E is plot as function of

1 1 1 E

1

Ei Ei Ei Ei

We E

or Ga G

E

1

Ei

Bruns et. al method

Gp We E

(or Ga )

E is plot as function of

1 E

1

Ei Ei

The result should be a straight line, provided the correct aquifer model has been

selected.

The ultimate gas recovery depends both on

(1) the nature of the aquifer ,and

(2) the abandonment pressure.

(1) the GIIP

(2) the aquifer model

(3) abandonment pressure

(4) the number of producing wells and their mechanical define

Hydrocarbon phase behavior

Hydrocarbon phase behavior

Hydrocarbon phase behavior

C--------- D-------------- E

Liquid H.C deposited in the reservoir

Retrograde liquid Condensate

E--------------- F

NO!

Because H.C remaining in the reservoir

increase

Composition of gas reservoir changed

Phase envelope shift SE direction producing Wet gas

Condensate reservoir,

Thus, inhibiting re-vaporization. pt. c, (at scf)

Dry gas

injection

until dry gas break

Keep p above

through occurs in the

dew pt. p small

producing wells

Equivalent gas volume

The material balance equation of eq(1.35) such as

p pi G p

1

z zi G

Assume that a volume of gas in the reservoir was

produced as gas at the surface.

hydrocarbon are produced, the cumulative liquid volume

must be converted into an equivalent gas volume and

added to the cumulative gas production to give the

correct value of Gp for use in the material balance

equation.

Equivalent gas volume

If n lbm mole of liquid have been produced, of molecular

weight M, then the total mass of liquid is

nM o w liquid volume

where 0 = oil gravity (water =1)

w density of water =62.43 lbm/ft3

lbm

0 62.4 3 V0 ft 3

V ft 62.4 0V0

n o w o

M M lbm / lbm mole M

62.4 0V0 bbls 5.61458 ft 3

n

M 1 bbl

0N p

n 350.5 where N p [ ]bbls

M

nRT 0 N p RTsc 0 N p 10.73 520

Vsc 350.5 350.5

p sc M p sc M 14.7

0N p

Vsc 1.33 10 5 N p bbls

M

Equivalent gas volume

Condensate Reservoir

The dry gas material balance equations can also be

applied to gas condensate reservoir, if the single

phase z-factor is replaced by the ,so-called ,two phase

z-factor. This must be experimentally determined in

the laboratory by performing a constant volume

depletion experiment.

P Pi initial pressure above dew point

T Tr reservoir temperature

Condensate Reservoir

p decrease by withdraw gas from the cell, and measure gas Gp

Until the pressure has dropped to the dew point

p

Z 2 phase (1.46)

pi G '

1 p

zi G

p pi Gp '

1 (1.35)

z zi G

p

z

pi G '

1 p

zi G

The latter experiment, for determining the single phase z-factor, implicitly

assumes that a volume of reservoir fluids, below dew point pressure, is

produced in its entirety to the surface.

Condensate Reservoir

for the fact that some of the fluid remains behind in the reservoir as liquid

condensate, this volume being also recorded as a function of pressure

during the experiment. As a result, if a gas condensate sample is analyzed

using both experimental techniques, the two phase z-factor determined

during the constant volume depletion will be lower than the single phase z-

factor.

cumulative gas production Gp in equation 1.46 , which is therefore

lower than it would be assuming that all fluids are produced to the surface,

as in the single phase experiment.

( ),

,

( )

k s re xf

Pressure buildup

Pressure drawdown

(water drive)

78

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