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Advanced Reservoir Engineering

: (2007


Teaching oil and gas fluid properties, as well as the production of oil and gas caused by changes in oil
pressure principle.

( )
( )
Discuss the stress test analysis (well pressure test analysis), and the production data analysis (production
decline curve analysis).

/ /

Obtain the formation parameters / predict future production rates / calculate the formation of oil or
natural reserves and reserves.
Textbooks and references

(A) Dake , L.P., Fundamentals of Reservoir

Engineering, revised edition, Elsevier Scientific
B.V., Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2001.

(B) Ahmed, T., and McKinney, P., Advanced

Reservoir Engineering, Gulf Publishing
Company, Houston, Texas, 2004

(B) Craft, B.C., and Hawkins, M.F. , Revised

by Terry, R.E. , Applied Petroleum Reservoir
Engineering, Second edition., Prentice Hall ,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1991.
Textbooks and references
(C) Lee, J., Well Testing, SPE Textbook
series, Society of Petroleum Engineers of
AIME, Dallas, Texas, 2002.

(D) (
, Chapter 24 )
(No. 4 - Oil and Gas Production, Chapter 24), CNPC Training Materials Series, PetroChina Training Institute, Chiayi
City, 2004 (in Chinese).

(E) Journal papers

Advanced Reservoir Engineering
Ahmed, T., and McKinney, P
Well testing analysis
Water influx
Unconventional gas reservoir
Performance of oil reservoir
Predicting oil reservoir
Introduction to oil fieldeconomics

Introduction to reservoir engineering
- Gas reservoir
- PVT analysis for oil
- Material balance applied to oil

The flow equations of single-phase and two-phase flow of hydrocarbon in

porous media
- Darcys law and applications
- The basic differential equation in a porous medium

Solutions to the flow equations of hydrocarbon in porous media

- Steady and semi-steady states
- Unsteady state

Pressure drawdown and buildup analysis for oil and gas wells

Decline curve analysis

Case study
Part 1
Introduction to Reservoir Engineering
The primary functions of a reservoir
the estimation of hydrocarbon in place
the calculation of a recovery factor , and
the attachment of a time scale to the recovery

pressure/flow rate information
parameters/future flow rate/future pressure
Outlines of Reservoir Engineering
(1) Introduction
Petrophysical properties ( Rock properties)
Fluid properties (gas, water, crude properties)
Calculations of hydrocarbon volumes
Fluid pressure regimes

(2) Gas reservoirs

Calculating gas in place by the volumetric method
Calculating gas recovery factor
Material balance calculation (Depletion & Water drive)
Hydrocarbon phase behavior (gas condensate phase behavior)
The gas equivalent of produced condensate and water

(3) PVT analysis for oil

Definition of the basic PVT parameters
Determination of the basic PVT parameters in the lab. And
conversion for field operating conditions.
Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

(4) Material balance applied to oil

General form of the material balance equation for a
hydrocarbon reservoir (Undersaturated and Saturated
Reservoir drive mechanisms
Solution gas drive
Gas cap drive
Natural water drive

(5) Darcys law and applications

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

(6) The basic differential equation for radial flow

in a porous medium
Derivation of the basic radial flow equation
Conditions of solution
Linearization of radial flow equation

(7) Well inflow equations for stabilized flow

Semi steady state solution
Steady state solution
Generalized form of inflow equation (for semi steady state)
Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

(8) The constant terminal rate solution of the radial

diffusivity equation and its application to oil well
Constant terminal rate solution
General Transient flow
Semi steady state flow
Superposition theorem; general theory of well testing
The Matthews, Brons, Hazebroek pressure buildup theory
Pressure buildup analysis techniques
Multi-rate drawdown testing
The effects of partial well completion
After-flow analysis
Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

(9) Gas well testing

- Linearization and solution of the basic differential equation
for the radial flow of a real gas
- The Russell, Goodrich, et al. Solution technique
- The Al-Hussainy, Ramey, Crawford solution technique
- Pressure squared and pseudo pressure solution technique
- Non-Darcy flow & determination of the non-darcy
- The constant terminal rate solution for the flow of a real gas
- General theory of gas well testing
- Multi-rate testing of gas well
- Pressure building testing of gas wells
- Pressure building analysis in solution gas drive reservoirs
Outlines of Reservoir Engineering cont.

(10) Natural water influx

- Steady state model
- Unsteady state model
- The van Everdingen and Hurst edge-water drive
- Bottom water drive model
- Pseudo steady state model (Fetkovich model)
- Predicting the amount of water influx
Fluid Pressure Regimes

The total pressure at any depth

= weight of the formation rock
+ weight of fluids (oil, gas or water)

[=] 1 psi/ft * depth(ft)

Fluid Pressure Regimes

Density of sandstone
gm 2.2lbm (0.3048 100cm) 3
2.7 3
cm 1000 gm (1 ft ) 3
lbm 1slug
168.202 3

ft 32.7lbm

5.22 3
Pressure gradient for sandstone
Pressure gradient for sandstone

p gD
5.22 32.2 168.084
ft 3
lbf 1 ft 2 lbf
168.084 2 1.16 2
ft ft 144in 2
in ft
1.16( psi / ft )
Overburden pressure

Overburden pressure (OP)

= Fluid pressure (FP) + Grain or matrix pressure (GP)


In non-isolated reservoir
PW (wellbore pressure) = FP

In isolated reservoir
PW (wellbore pressure) = FP + GP
where GP<=GP
Normal hydrostatic pressure

In a perfectly normal case , the water pressure at any depth

Assume :(1) Continuity of water pressure to the surface
(2) Salinity of water does not vary with depth.

P ( ) water D 14.7
dD [=] psia

( ) water 0.4335 psi/ft for pure water

( ) water 0.4335
dD psi/ft for saline water
Abnormal hydrostatic pressure
( No continuity of water to the surface)
P ( ) water D 14.7 C
dD [=] psia

Normal hydrostatic pressure


Abnormal (hydrostatic) pressure

c > 0 Overpressure (Abnormal high pressure)
c < 0 Underpressure (Abnormal low pressure)
Conditions causing abnormal fluid pressures

Conditions causing abnormal fluid pressures in enclosed water

bearing sands include
Temperature change T = +1 P = +125 psi in a
sealed fresh water system
Geological changes uplifting; surface erosion
Osmosis between waters having different salinity, the
sealing shale acting as the semi permeable membrane in
this ionic exchange; if the water within the seal is more
saline than the surrounding water the osmosis will cause
the abnormal high pressure and vice versa.
Are the water bearing sands abnormally
pressured ?

If so, what effect does this have on the extent of any

hydrocarbon accumulations?
Hydrocarbon pressure regimes

In hydrocarbon pressure regimes

( ) water 0.45
dD psi/ft
( ) oil 0.35
dD psi/ft
( ) gas 0.08
dD psi/ft
Pressure Kick

Assumes a normal hydrostatic pressure regime P= 0.45 D + 15

In water zone
at 5000 ft P(at5000) = 5000 0.45 + 15 = 2265 psia
at OWC (5500 ft) P(at OWC) = 5500 0.45 + 15 = 2490 psia
Pressure Kick

In oil zone Po = 0.35 x D + C

at D = 5500 ft , Po = 2490 psi
C = 2490 0.35 5500 = 565 psia
Po = 0.35 D + 565
at GOC (5200 ft) Po (at GOC) = 0.35 5200 + 565 = 2385 psia
Pressure Kick

In gas zone Pg = 0.08 D + 1969 (psia)

at 5000 ft Pg = 0.08 5000 + 1969 = 2369 psia
Pressure Kick

In gas zone Pg = 0.08 D + C

At D = 5500 ft, Pg = P = 2490 psia
2490 = 0.08 5500 + C
C = 2050 psia
Pg = 0.08 D + 2050
At D = 5000 ft
Pg = 2450 psia
GWC error from pressure measurement
Pressure = 2500 psia Pressure = 2450 psia
at D = 5000 ft at D = 5000 ft
in gas-water reservoir in gas-water reservoir
GWC = ? GWC = ?
Sol. Sol.
Pg = 0.08 D + C Pg = 0.08 D + C
C = 2500 0.08 5000 C = 2450 0.08 5000
= 2100 psia = 2050 psia
Pg = 0.08 D + 2100 Pg = 0.08 D + 2050
Water pressure P = 0.45 D + 15 Water pressure P = 0.45 D + 15
At GWC Pg = P At GWC Pg = P
0.08 D + 2100 = 0.45 D + 15 0.08 D + 2050 = 0.45 D + 15
D = 5635 ft (GWC) D = 5500 ft (GWC)
Results from Errors in GWC or GOC or OWC

GWC or GOC or OWC location

volume of hydrocarbon OOIP
development plans
Volumetric Gas Reservoir Engineering

Gas is one of a few substances whose state, as

defined by pressure, volume and temperature

One other such substance is saturated steam.

The equation of state for an ideal gas

pV nRT (1.13)

(Field units used in the industry)

p [=] psia; V[=] ft3; T [=] OR absolute temperature
n [=] lbm moles; n=the number of lb moles, one lb mole is
the molecular weight of the gas expressed in pounds.
R = the universal gas constant
[=] 10.732 psia ft3 / (lbmmole0R)

Eq (1.13) results form the combined efforts of Boyle, Charles,

Avogadro and Gay Lussac.
The equation of state for real gas

The equation of Van der Waals (for one lb mole of gas

( p 2 )(V b) RT (1.14)

where a and b are dependent on the nature of the gas.

The principal drawback in attempting to use eq.
(1.14) to describe the behavior of real gases
encountered in reservoirs is that the maximum
pressure for which the equation is applicable is still
far below the normal range of reservoir pressures
The equation of state for real gas

the Beattie-Bridgeman equation

the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation
the non-ideal gas law
Non-ideal gas law

pV nzRT (1.15)

Where z = z-factor =gas deviation factor

=supercompressibility factor

Va Actual volume of n moles of gas at T and P

Vi Ideal volume of n moles of gas at T and P

z f ( P, T , composition)
composition g specific gravity (air 1)
Determination of z-factor
There are three ways to determination z-factor :

(a)Experimental determination

(b)The z-factor correlation of standing and


(c)Direct calculation of z-factor

(a) Experimental determination

n mole s of gas

p=1atm; T=reservoir temperature; => V=V0

z=1 for p=1 atm
=>14.7 V0=nRT

n mole of gas

p>1atm; T=reservoir temperature; => V=V

pV=z(14.7 V0) pV p scV0 pV pV

14.7V0 z sc T zT p scV0
By varying p and measuring V, the isothermal z(p) function can be
readily by obtained.
(b)The z-factor correlation of standing and katz
Knowledge of gas composition or gas gravity
Naturally occurring hydrocarbons: primarily
paraffin series CnH2n+2
Non-hydrocarbon impurities: CO2, N2 and H2
Gas reservoir: lighter members of the paraffin series, C1
and C2 > 90% of the volume.
The Standing-Katz Correlation

knowing Gas composition (ni)

Critical pressure (Pci)
Critical temperature (Tci) of each component
( Table (1.1) and P.16 )
Pseudo critical pressure (Ppc)
Pseudo critical temperature (Tpc) for the mixture
Ppc ni Pci

T pc ni Tci
Pseudo reduced pressure (Ppr) Ppc
Pseudo reduced temperature (Tpr) T
T pr const.(Isothermal )
T pc

Fig.1.6; p.17 z-factor

(b)The z-factor correlation of standing and katz
For the gas composition is not available and the gas gravity
(air=1) is available.
The gas gravity (air=1)
( g)
fig.1.7 , p18

Pseudo critical pressure (Ppc)

Pseudo critical temperature (Tpc)
(b)The z-factor correlation of standing and katz
Pseudo reduced pressure (Ppr) Ppc
Pseudo reduced temperature (Tpr) T pr const.(Isothermal)
T pc

Fig1.6 p.17

The above procedure is valided only if impunity (CO2,N2 and
H2S) is less then 5% volume.
(c) Direct calculation of z-factor
The Hall-Yarborough equations, developed using the Starling-Carnahan
equation of state, are
1.2 (1 t ) 2
0.06125Ppr te
z (1.20)
where Ppr= the pseudo reduced pressure
t=1/Tpr Tpr=the pseudo reduced temperature
y=the reduced density which can be obtained as the
solution of the equation as followed:
1.2 (1t ) 2 y y2 y3 y4
0.06125Ppr te (14.76t 9.76t 2 4.58t 3 ) y 2
(1 y ) 3

(90.7t 242.2t 2 42.4t 3 ) y ( 2.18 2.82t ) 0 (1.21)

This non-linear equation can be conveniently solved for y using the simple
Newton-Raphson iterative technique.
(c) Direct calculation of z-factor
The steps involved in applying thus are:
make an initial estimate of y k, where k is an iteration counter (which in this
case is unity, e.q. y1=0.001
substitute this value in Eq. (1.21);unless the correct value of y has been
initially selected, Eq. (1.21) will have some small, non-zero value F k.
(3) using the first order Taylor series expansion, a better
estimate of y can be determined as

k 1 Fk
y y
where dy
dF k 1 4 y 4 y 2 4 y 3 y 4
(29.52t 19.52t 2 9.16t 3 ) y
dy (1 y ) 4

(2.18 2.82t )(90.7t 242.2t 2 42.4t 3 ) y (1.18 2.82t ) (1.23)

(4) iterate, using eq. (1.21) and eq. (1.22), until satisfactory
convergence is obtained(5) substitution of the correct value of y in
eq.(1.20)will give the z-factor.
(5) substitution of the correct value of y in eq.(1.20)will give the z-factor.
Application of the real gas equation of state
Equation of state of a real gas pV nzRT (1.15)
This is a PVT relationship to relate surface to reservoir volumes of hydrocarbon.
(1) the gas expansion factor E,

Vsc volume of n moles of gas at s tan dard conditions

V volume of n moles of gas at reservoir conditions
Real gas equation for n moles of gas at standard conditions

nz sc RTsc
p scVsc nz sc RTsc V sc
p sc
Real gas equation for n moles of gas at reservoir conditions

pV nzRT V
> p
nz sc RTsc
Vsc p sc nz sc RTsc p Tsc p 519.6
E (note : z sc 1)
> V nzRT nzRTp zTp zT 14
surface volume/reservoir volume . 7
surface volume/reservoir volume
p sc sc

E 35.35 [] [=] SCF/ft3 or STB/bbl


Reservoir condition:
P=2000psia; T=1800F=(180+459.6)=639.60R; z=0.865
> E 35.35 2000 127.8
0.865 639.6
surface volume/reservoir
or SCF/ft3 or STB/bbl

OGIP V (1 S wi ) Ei

(2) Real gas density

m nM
m V
where n=moles; M=molecular weight)
M gas P
nzRT zRT gas
p z gas RT

at any p and T
M gas P

For gas gas

z gas RT
For air M air p

z air RT
M gas p M gas ( M ) gas
gas z gas RT Z gas g z
air M gas p M air ( M ) air
z air RT Z air Z
(2) Real gas density

(M ) gas
(M ) air

At standard conditions zair = zgas = 1

gas M gas M gas
g (1.28)
air M air 28.97
in general
g 0.6 ~ 0.8
(a) If is known, then or ,
M gas g 28.97 gas g air
(b) If the gas composition is known, then
M gas ni M i
M gas
gas g air

( air ) sc 0.0763 lbm

ft 3

(3)Isothermal compressibility of a real gas

pV nzRT V
nRTzp 1 ( note : z f ( p))

V z V nzRT nRT z
nRTz[ p 2 ] nRTp 1 2
p p p p p p

V nzRT 1 1 z 1 1 z
( ) V ( )
p p p z p p z p

1 V 1 1 1 z
Cg [V ( )]
V p V p z p

1 1 z
p z p

Cg 1 1 z
p since p.24, fig.1.9
p z p
Exercise 1.1 - Problem

Exercise1.1 Gas pressure gradient in the

(1) Calculate the density of the gas, at
standard conditions, whose
composition is listed in the table 1-1.
(2) what is the gas pressure gradient in
the reservoir at 2000psia and
Exercise 1.1 -- solution -1
(1) Molecular weight of the gas
M gas
M gas ni M i 19.91
g 0.687
28.97 28.97
since g gas g air
gas 0.687 0.0763(lbm ft 3 ) 0.0524(lbm ft 3 )
or from pV nzRT
pVM nMzRT mzRT
m pM

Psc 14.7 19.91
At standard condition gas 0.0524(lbm ft 3 )
z sc RTsc 1 10.73 519.6
Exercise 1.1 -- solution -2

(2) gas in the reservoir conditions

pV nzRT pVM nMzRT mzRT

m pM 2000 19.91
6.707(lbm ft 3 )
V zRT 0.865 10.73 (459.6 180)

Exercise 1.1 -- solution -3

p gD dp gdD
dp lbm 1slug ft
g (6.707 )32. 2
dD ft 3 32.2lbm

slug ft
ft 3 s 2

lb f
ft 3

lbf 1 1 ft 2
6.707 2
ft ft 144in 2

lb f 1
0.0465 2 0.0465 psi
in ft ft
Gas Material Balance: Recovery Factor
Material balance

Production = OGIP (GIIP) - Unproduced gas

(SC) (SC) (SC)
Case 1 no water influx (volumetric

depletion reservoirs)
Case 2 water influx (water drive reservoirs)
Volumetric depletion reservoirs -- 1
No water influx into the reservoir from the adjoining aquifer.
Gas initially in place (GIIP) or Initial gas in place IGIP
G Original gas in place OGIP
[=] Standard Condition Volume

G V (1 s wc ) Ei [] SCF
where Ei 35.37 [] SCF / ft 3
z i Ti
Material Balance at standard conditions
Production GIIP Unproduced gas
G p G E (1.33)

Where G/Ei = GIIP in reservoir volume or reservoir volume filled with gas
Volumetric depletion reservoirs -- 2
Gp E
1 (1.34)
G Ei
sin ce E 35.37
zT ft 3
p p
Gp 35.37
1 zT 1 z note :T Ti const.
G p pi
35.37 i
z i Ti zi
p pi Gp
1 (1.35)
z zi G
where the fractional gas re cov ery at any stage during depletion
Gas re cov ery factor

p pi pi 1
G p
z zi zi G

In Eq. 1.33 HCPV
const. ?

HCPVconst. because:
1. the connate water in reservoir will expand

2. the grain pressure increases as gas

(or fluid) pressure declines
OP FP GP (1.3)
d ( FP) d (GP ) p.3 ~ p.4

d ( HCPV ) d (G / Ei )
dVw dV f (1.36)

where Vw initial (connate water volume)

V f initial pore volume
negative sign "" exp ansion of water leads
to a reduction in HCPV
1 V f
V f GP

1 V f
cf pore vol.
V f (p ) Vf
1 V f
V f p

dV f c f V f dp

1 Vw 1 dVw
Vw d FP Vw dp

dVw c w Vw dp


FP=gas pressure


FP=gas pressure
d d HCPV c wVw dp c f V f dp
V f PV
1 S wc Ei 1 S wc
Vw PV S wc S wc
1 S wc Ei 1 S wc
G G S wc G
d c w dp c f dp
Ei Ei 1 S wc Ei 1 S wc
G G G S wc 1
c w cf p
Ei initial Ei t Ei initial 1 S wc 1 S wc
G G G c w S wc c f p

Ei t Ei initial Ei initial 1 S wc
G G c w S wc c f p
i t i initial 1 S wc
G p G E (1.33)
G cw S wc c f p
Gp G 1 E
Ei 1 S wc
Gp cw S wc c f E
1 1
G 1 S wc Ei
For cw 3 10 6 psi 1 ; c f 10 10 6 psi 1 and S wc 0.2
cw S wc c f
1 1 0.013 0.987
1 S wc
Gp E Gp E
1 0.987 computing with 1
G Ei G Ei
1.3% difference
p/z plot
From Eq. (1.35) such as
p pi G p
1 (1.35)
z zi G
p p p
i i Gp
z zi zi G Abandon
pressure pab
Gp G
In v.s Gp plot
z p/z

x Gp
m 0 Gp/G=RF 1.0

zi G A straight line in p/z v.s Gp plot means that the reservoir is

pi a depletion type
Water drive reservoirs
If the reduction in reservoir pressure leads to an expansion of
adjacent aquifer water, and consequent influx into the reservoir,
the material balance equation must then be modified as:
Production = GIIP Unproduced gas
Gp G G/Ei We E
where We= the cumulative amount of water influx resulting
from the pressure drop.
No difference between surface and reservoir volumes of
water influx
Neglect the effects of connate water expansion and pore
volume reduction.
No water production
Water drive reservoirs
With water production
G p G We W p Bw E
p zi G (1.41)

z WE
1 e i

where We*Ei /G represents the fraction of the initial hydrocarbon

pore volume flooded by water and is,
therefore, always less then unity.
Water drive reservoirs
p zi
z We Ei
since We E i
1 1

p pi G p
1 in water flux reservoirs
z zi G


p pi G p
z zi G in depletion type reservoir

Water drive reservoirs
pi Gp
p zi G
z We Ei

In eq.(1.41) the following two parameters to be determined

G; We
History matching or aquifer fitting to find We
Aquifer modelfor an aquifer whose dimensions are of the same
order of magnitude as the reservoir itself.
We cWp
Where W=the total volume of water and depends primary on the
geometry of the aquifer.

P=the pressure drop at the original reservoir aquifer boundary

Water drive reservoirs

The material balance in such a case would be as shown by plot A

in fig1.11, which is not significantly different from the depletion
For case B & C in fig 1.11 p.30 =>Chapter 9
Bruns et. al method
This method is to estimate GIIP in a water drive reservoir
From Eq. (1.40) such as

G p G We E (1.40)
Gp G We E
G p G1 We E
G1 G p We E
Gp We E
1 1
Ei Ei
Gp We E Gp We E
or G (or G a )
E E E is plot as function of
1 1 1 E
Ei Ei Ei Ei
We E
or Ga G
Bruns et. al method
Gp We E
(or Ga )
E is plot as function of
1 E
Ei Ei

The result should be a straight line, provided the correct aquifer model has been
The ultimate gas recovery depends both on
(1) the nature of the aquifer ,and
(2) the abandonment pressure.

The principal parameters in gas reservoir engineering:

(1) the GIIP
(2) the aquifer model
(3) abandonment pressure
(4) the number of producing wells and their mechanical define
Hydrocarbon phase behavior
Hydrocarbon phase behavior
Hydrocarbon phase behavior
C--------- D-------------- E

Residual saturation (flow ceases)

Liquid H.C deposited in the reservoir
Retrograde liquid Condensate

E--------------- F

Re-vaporization of the liquid condensate ?

Because H.C remaining in the reservoir
Composition of gas reservoir changed
Phase envelope shift SE direction producing Wet gas
Condensate reservoir,
Thus, inhibiting re-vaporization. pt. c, (at scf)
Dry gas

displace the wet gas

until dry gas break
Keep p above
through occurs in the
dew pt. p small
producing wells
Equivalent gas volume
The material balance equation of eq(1.35) such as
p pi G p
z zi G
Assume that a volume of gas in the reservoir was
produced as gas at the surface.

If, due to surface separation, small amounts of liquid

hydrocarbon are produced, the cumulative liquid volume
must be converted into an equivalent gas volume and
added to the cumulative gas production to give the
correct value of Gp for use in the material balance
Equivalent gas volume
If n lbm mole of liquid have been produced, of molecular
weight M, then the total mass of liquid is
nM o w liquid volume
where 0 = oil gravity (water =1)
w density of water =62.43 lbm/ft3
0 62.4 3 V0 ft 3
V ft 62.4 0V0
n o w o
M M lbm / lbm mole M
62.4 0V0 bbls 5.61458 ft 3
M 1 bbl
0N p
n 350.5 where N p [ ]bbls
nRT 0 N p RTsc 0 N p 10.73 520
Vsc 350.5 350.5
p sc M p sc M 14.7
0N p
Vsc 1.33 10 5 N p bbls
Equivalent gas volume
Condensate Reservoir
The dry gas material balance equations can also be
applied to gas condensate reservoir, if the single
phase z-factor is replaced by the ,so-called ,two phase
z-factor. This must be experimentally determined in
the laboratory by performing a constant volume
depletion experiment.

Volume of gas G scf , as charge to a PVT cell

P Pi initial pressure above dew point
T Tr reservoir temperature
Condensate Reservoir
p decrease by withdraw gas from the cell, and measure gas Gp
Until the pressure has dropped to the dew point
Z 2 phase (1.46)
pi G '
1 p
zi G
p pi Gp '

1 (1.35)
z zi G
pi G '
1 p
zi G

The latter experiment, for determining the single phase z-factor, implicitly
assumes that a volume of reservoir fluids, below dew point pressure, is
produced in its entirety to the surface.
Condensate Reservoir

In the constant volume depletion experiment, however, allowance is made

for the fact that some of the fluid remains behind in the reservoir as liquid
condensate, this volume being also recorded as a function of pressure
during the experiment. As a result, if a gas condensate sample is analyzed
using both experimental techniques, the two phase z-factor determined
during the constant volume depletion will be lower than the single phase z-

This is because the retrograde liquid condensate is not included in the

cumulative gas production Gp in equation 1.46 , which is therefore
lower than it would be assuming that all fluids are produced to the surface,
as in the single phase experiment.

( ),

( )
k s re xf
Pressure buildup
Pressure drawdown

(water drive)