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The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design plan has been made. Two types of data: 1)Primary data 2)Secondary data
COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA.
There are several methods of collecting primary data. Important one are: 1.Observation Method 2.Interview Method 3.Through Questionnaires 4.Through Schedules
The observation method is most commonly used method specially in studies relating to behavioural sciences. In a way we all observe things around us. Under this the information sought by way of investigator¶s own direct observation without asking from the respondents.
Subjective bias is eliminated,if observation is done accurately. Information under this is related to what is currently happening,it is not complicated by either the past behaviour or future intentions or attitudes. This method is independent of respondents willingness to respond & as such is relatively less demanding of active cooperation on the part of respondents . It is particularly suitable in studies which deal with subjects who are not capable of giving verbal reports of their feelings.
DISADVANTAGES Expensive method. Information provided by this method is very limited. Sometime unforseen factors may interfere with the observational task. At times ,the fact that some people are rarely accessible to direct observation creates obstacle for this method to collect data effectively.
Interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli & reply in same. It can be used through: PERSONAL INTERVIEW TELEPHONE INTERVIEW Personal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer asking questions generally in a face-to-face contact to the interviewee.
More information& that too in greater depth can be obtained. Flexibility to restructure question is always there. Personal information can as well be obtained easily under this method. Language of interview can be adopted to the ability of interviewee.
Expensive method when widely spread geographical sample is taken. Personal bias of interviewer as well as that of respondent. More time consuming. Selecting ,training &supervising the field staff is required
Advantages It is more flexible in comparison to mailing method. Recall is easy ; callbacks are simple and economical. Interviewer can explain requirements more easily. No field staff is required. Representative and wider distribution of sample is possible. DISADVANTAGES Surveys are restricted to respondents who have telephone facilities. Extensive geographical coverage may get restricted by cost considerations. Possibility of the bias of interviewer is relatively more. Questions have to be short and to the point.
This method of data collection is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquiries. A questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed in a definite order on a form. The questionnaire is mailed to respondents who are expected to read & understand the questions & write down the reply in the space meant for the purpose in the questionnaire itself.
Low cost even when the universe is large &is widely spread. It is free from bias of interviewer. Respondents have adequate time to give well thought out answers. Large samples can be made use of & thus the results can be made more reliable.
Low rate of return of the duly filled in questionnaires. Only educated &cooperating respondents can be used. No control over the questionnaire once it is sent. This method is slowest of all.
This method is very much like the same as questionnaire but difference is of enumerator only. These enumerators along with schedules go to respondents put to them the question from performa and record the replies in the space meant for the same.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN QUESTIONNAIRE&SCHEDULES
1.Questionnaire is generally sent through mail to informants to be answered.
1.Schedules is generally filled by the resarch worker or enumerator, who can interpret the questions when necessary. 2.Data collection is more expensive as money is spent on enumerators. 3.Non response is very low because this is filled by enumerators. 4.Identity of respondent is known. 5.Information is collected well in time.
2.Data collection is cheap. 3.Non response is usually high as many people do not respond. 4.It is not clear that who replies. 5.The questionnaire method is likely to be very slow since many respondents do not return the questionnaire. 6.No personal contact is possible in case of questionnaire.
6.Direct personal contact is established.
COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA
FOLLOWING CHARACTERSTICS OF DATA SHOULD BE CONSIDERED BEFORE USING DATA:
1. 2. 3.
RELIABILITY OF DATA SUITABILITY OF DATA ADEQUACY OF DATA
CASE STUDY METHOD
CASE STUDY METHOD INVOLVES A CAREFUL AND COMPLETE OBSERVATION OF A SOCIAL UNIT,BE THAT UNIT A FAMILY,AN INSTITUTION OR A CULTURAL GROUP IT PLACES MORE EMPHASIS ON THE FULL ANALYSIS OF A LIMITED NO. OF EVENTS IT IS AN INTENSIVE INVESTIGATION THE MAIN OBJECT IS TO LOCATE THE FACTORS THAT ACCOUNT FOR THE BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS OF THE GIVEN UNIT
RESEARCHER CAN TAKE ONE SINGLE SOCIAL UNIT OR MORE OF SUCH UNITS FOR HIS STUDY PURPOSE SELECTED UNIT IS STUDIED INTENSIVELY APPORACH HAVING TO BE QUALITATIVELY MUTUAL INTER-RELATIONSHIP IS KNOWN BEHAVIOURAL PATTERN OF UNIT IS STUDIED FRUITFUL HYPOTHESE
ENABLE US TO FULLY UNDERSTAND THE BEHAVIOUR PATTERN PERSONAL EXPERIENCE FORMULATION OF RELEVANT HYPOTHESE INTENSIVE STUDY OF SOCIAL UNIT BENEFITIAL IN KNOWING NATURE OF UNITS WITH NATURE OF UNIVERSE ENHANCE EXPERIENCE STUDY OF SOCIAL CHANGES
CASE SITUATION ARE SELDOM COMPARABLE FALSE GERNALISATION TIME CONSUMING BASED ON SEVERAL ASSUMPTIONS CAN BE USED ONLY IN A LIMITED SPHERE RESPONSE OF INVESTIGATOR
QUERY IF ANY