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About the course

Course instructor
Course policies
Topics to be covered
Course website and supplementary
reference material
Assignments and Projects

About The Course
 Course Books :
1. Data & Computer Communications By William
2. Computer NetworksBy Andrew S.Tanenbaum

 Course website

 Lab Works -Two groups

 Course material
Course Information

 Read at least the specified portions…

We shall cover the points which need highlighting
in the lectures

 Midterm/finals questions will include what is in

the book
and/or what is in lecture slides.
So, don’t miss the lectures…

Topics to be covered
Introduction to Data Communication and
Computer Networks
Physical Media
IP Addressing
Data Encoding
Data Link Control Issues
Multiplexing, FDM, TDM
Circuit Switching - ISDN

Topics to be covered
Fundamentals of data communication and network
technology based on the OSI reference model.
Introduction to cables and signals; analysis of link
layer protocols and their performance.

History of data communications, encoding digital and

analog signals, transmission media,
asynchronous/synchronous protocols pulse code
modulation, frequency division multiplexing,
multiplexers, T-1 carrier, digital hierarchy, packet
data, ISDN, Circuit, packet, message switching.

What is this course about
Understanding the process of
communication between computers and
making sense out of available computer
networking hardware and software.

After successful completion of the course

students will be able to work in this
challenging and developing field in a wide
variety of positions as well as undertake
further studies and research in the field.

Midterm 10 %

Assignment (Best 3 of 4) 10 %

Lab and Final Project 10 %

Class Participation 5%

Attendance and Behaviour 5%

Semester Paper 60 %

❚ Only 3 Absents are
❙ After 3 Absents ;
❘ For every absent 3 marks will
be deducted.

Final Project

In paper or presentation form

Can be done in groups of 2 to 4 people
If a paper, 10 pages approximate, 20
pages maximum
...about 3000 to 5000 words for 10 pages
Use diagrams as appropriate
Properly cite references you use!

Where are Opportunities for
Computer Networks?
Corporate Networks
Telecommunications Companies
Software Houses
Educational and Training Institutions

What is Communication?
Communication: transfer of information
between entities

You use computer communication when

you connect to the Internet

A Communications Model
❙ generates data to be transmitted
❙ Converts data into transmittable signals
Transmission System
❙ Carries data
❙ Converts received signal into data
❙ Takes incoming data

What is a Computer Network?
When you connect
two or more
computers with each
other so that they
can communicate
with each other you
C o m p u te r N e tw o rk
get a computer

What is a Computer Network?

 A computer network is an interconnected

collection of computers which are:

 Cooperative
 Cooperative action is required between components
 No master-slave relationships
 Autonomous
 All components are capable of independent action
 Any resource is capable of refusing requests
 Mutually Suspicious
 Components verify requests

Why Are Computer Networks
Computer systems were defined to be
hardware + software

But computer systems today are hardware

+ software + networks

Changing nature of the computing

environment - from terminal/host to network
of computers and distributed processing

Difference Between Data Communication
and Computer Networking

Data Communication is concerned with

reliable and efficient transfer of bits from one
place to another

Computer Networks contain data

communication but are also concerned with
the meaning of those bits

Why Are Computer Networks
Twenty years ago, networking meant linking
dumb terminals to mainframe data centers.

Applications needed by businesses were

developed on that common mainframe
platform no matter how badly suited it might
have been to support them, or not be
developed at all.

Why Are Computer Networks
In today’s global environment, small/medium
businesses are faced with integrating their
information systems. Linking computer
systems, accessing the Internet, accessing
remotely the corporate servers, and basically
connecting communication devices into a
strategic informational infrastructure is
normally called “Networking” or more
commonly referred term of “Internetworking”

Why Are Computer Networks
As the breadth of computer support needed by
businesses grew, new microprocessor based
computers were pressed into service for
personal and work group productivity support.

The new relationship was called “client/server


Networks form the foundations of the

client/server computing.

Why Computer Networks? Benefits
Resource sharing - share printers, CD-ROMs,

Information sharing


Reduced Cost

A stand-alone computer is an island unto itself

Why Not Computer Networks?
Security risks increase with networks

Complexity is associated with networks

Investment is high and return on it may

not happen

What a Network Does
Provides communication that is
❙ Reliable
❙ Fair
❙ Efficient
❙ From one application to another
Automatically detects and corrects
❙ Data corruption
❙ Data loss
❙ Duplication
❙ Out-of-order delivery
Automatically finds optimal path from source to

Direction of Transmission

Point to Point Broadcast

Network Topologies

Transmission Media

Wireline Wireless
❙ String ❙ Sound

❙ Copper ❙ Light and mirrors

❘ Twisted Pair
❘ Coax ❙ Infrared

❙ Optical Fiber ❙ RF and Microwave

Data Transmission




Type of Networks LANs, WANs
and INs

Local Area Networks
Smaller scope
Building or small campus
Usually owned by same organization
as attached devices
Data rates much higher
Usually broadcast systems
Now some switched systems and
ATM are being introduced

Wide Area Networks
Large geographical area
Crossing public rights of way
Rely in part on common carrier circuits
Alternative technologies
Circuit switching
Packet switching
Frame relay
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Circuit Switching

Dedicated communications path

established for the duration of the
telephone network
Postal Service
Car and highway system

Packet Switching

Data sent out of sequence

Small chunks (packets) of data at a time
Packets passed from node to node
between source and destination
Used for terminal to computer and
computer to computer communications

Circuit Switching VS Packet Switching
❚ Dedicated ❚ Best Effort
❙ fixed bandwidth ❙ end-to-end control
❙ route fixed at setup ❙ multiplexing
❙ idle capacity technique
wasted ❙ re-route capability
❙ network state ❙ congestion

Frame Relay
Packet switching systems have large
overheads to compensate for errors
Modern systems are more reliable
Errors can be caught in end system
Most overhead for error control is stripped

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Evolution of frame relay
Little overhead for error control
Fixed packet (called cell) length
Anything from 10Mbps to Gbps
Constant data rate using packet switching

Integrated Services Digital Network

Designed to replace public telecom
Wide variety of services
Entirely digital domain

Network Classification

Physical medium: copper, fiber, wireless

Scope: LAN, MAN, WAN
Topology: bus, star, ring, mesh
Switching style: circuit, packet
Application: voice, data, video
Protocol: IP, OSI, Ethernet, ATM
Transmission rate: 10Mb/s, Gigabit

Three General Types of
Computer Communication
Computer-to-computer - including intra-
computer communication

Human-to-computer - user interface

protocols, etc

Computer-aided human-to-human -
electronic mail, bboard, publishing, etc

Basis of Computer Communications
Computer communications is based on
electronic communications

The Electronic communications model is

shown in the following figure

Electronic Communications Model

Communication Tasks
Analogy with human communications

Computer communications is similar to

human communications

Computer communication is very complex

but human communication is more
complex still

Communication Tasks
Transmission Flow control
system utilization Addressing
Interfacing Routing
Signal generation Recovery
Synchronization Message
Exchange formatting
management Security
Error Network
detection/correction management

Communication Tasks
Transmission System Utilization:
Need to make efficient use of transmission facilities
that are typically shared among a number of
communicating devices.
Interface: Interfacing with the transmission system
Signal generation: It is required for communication
Synchronization: Between the transmitter and the
Exchange management:
The devices are sent the amount of data at one time,
the format of data, and what to do if certain 48
Communication Tasks
Error detection and correction:
They are required in circumstances where errors
cannot be tolerated
Flow control:
It is required to assure that the source does not
overwhelm the destination by sending data faster than
they can be processed and absorbed.
Addressing and routing:
The transmission system must assure that the
destination system , and only that system receives the
Communication Tasks
Recovery: It is a concept distinct from that of error
Message formatting:
It is an agreement between two parties as to the
form of the data to be exchanged or transmitted.
Security: It is provide some measures of security in
a data communication.
Network management:
Capabilities are needed to configure the system,
monitor its status, react to failures and overloads,
and plan intelligently for future growth
Networks Are Complex
Many things have to be done right for
computers to communicate successfully

Much chance for things to go wrong

Result is that computer communication

systems are very complex both for
designing and understanding

What’s a Protocol?
Human Protocols: Network Protocols:
Machines rather than
 “what’s the time?” humans
 “I have a question” All communication
 Introductions activity in Internet
governed by protocols
… specific msgs sent
… specific actions taken Protocols define format,
when msgs received, or order of msgs sent and
other events received among network
entities, and actions
taken on msg
transmission, receipt
The OSI model provides a conceptual
framework for communication between
computers, but the model itself is not a
method of communication. Actual
communication is made possible by using
communication protocols
A protocol is a formal set of rules and
conventions that governs how
computers exchange information over
a network medium.
A protocol implements the functions of one
or more of the OSI layers.
What’s a Protocol?
Human Protocol versus Computer Network Protocol

Hi TCP connection
TCP connection
What is the response
time? Get

Q: Other human Protocols?

Key Elements of a Protocol

❙ Data formats
❙ Signal levels
❙ Control information
❙ Error handling
❙ Speed matching
❙ Sequencing

Organization of Air Travel

ticket (purchase) ticket (complain)

baggage (check) baggage (claim)

gates (load) gates (unload)

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing

airplane routing
a series of steps
Organization of Air Travel: A different view

ticket (purchase) ticket (complain)

baggage (check) baggage (claim)

gates (load) gates (unload)

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing

airplane routing

Layers: each layer implements a service

via its own internal-layer actions
relying on services provided by layer below
Layered Air Travel: Services

Counter-to-counter delivery of person+bags

baggage-claim-to-baggage-claim delivery

people transfer: loading gate to arrival gate

runway-to-runway delivery of plane

airplane routing from source to destination

Distributed Implementation of layer functionality

ticket (purchase) ticket (complain)

Departing Airport

Arriving Airport
baggage (check) baggage (claim)

gates (load) gates (unload)

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing

intermediate air traffic sites

airplane routing airplane routing

airplane routing
Layered Models
Benefits of the layered model approach to
understanding and design of computer communication

Layered means that related communication tasks are

grouped together and implemented as a module or

Layered vs. monolithic approach

Why Layering ?
Dealing with complex systems:
explicit structure allows identification,
relationship of complex system’s pieces
• layered reference model for discussion
modularization eases maintenance,
updating of system
• change of implementation of layer’s service
transparent to rest of system
• e.g., change in gate procedure doesn’t affect
rest of system
Layering considered harmful ?
Properties of the layered model
Each layer communicates with only the
adjacent layers

Each layer communicates the

corresponding layer in the other system

The OSI Model
Result of standardization Application

work by ISO Presentation

Seven layers
May have been influenced Session

by the IBM SNA model

Overly complex
Good for developing Network
understanding of computer
communication process Datalink


Open Systems Interconnection
(OSI) Reference Model
The Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) reference
model describes how information from a software
application in one computer moves through a network
medium to a software application in another computer.

The OSI reference model is a conceptual model

composed of seven layers, each specifying particular
network functions.

The model was developed by the International

Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1984, and it
is now considered the primary architectural model for
intercomputer communications.
Application layer
The Application Layer serves as the window for
the application process to access the networking
environment. This layer represents the services
that directly support users and application tasks.

The Application Layer contains:

 Network Virtual Terminals
 File transfers
 Electronic Mail
 Remote File Access
 Network Management

Application layer
The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end
user, which means that both the OSI application layer and
the user interact directly with the software application.

Two key types of application-layer implementations are

 TCP/IP applications.
Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
 OSI applications.
File Transfer, Access, and Management (FTAM)
F Virtual Terminal Protocol (VTP)
Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP).

Presentation layer

Presentation - Provides independence to the

application processes from differences in data
representation (syntax) such as Handles
conversion between ASCII and EBCDIC

The Presentation Layer formats the data to be

presented to the Application Layer. It can be
viewed as the translator for the network.

Presentation layer
The Presentation Layer provides a common
representation for data that can be used
between application processes.
 Encoding data
 Compressing data to reduce the number of bits
 Encrypting data for privacy and authentication

Session layer
Session - Establishes, manages, and terminates
connections (sessions) between application processes
Responsible for check pointing and recovery
The Session Layer provides the means for two
application layer entities to synchronize and manage
their data exchange. It sets up a communication
channel between two Application – or – Presentation
layer entities for the duration of the network
transaction, manages the communication, and
terminates the connections.

Transport layer
The Transport Layer forms the interface between the
higher application-oriented layers and underlying
network-dependent protocol layers. It provides the
session layer with reliable message transfer facilities.

Transport Layer Provides reliable, transparent

transfer of data between end points; provides end-to-
end (host-to-host) error recovery and flow control.

Example TCP, UDP

Network layer
Network - Provides upper layers with
independence from the data transmission and
switching technologies used (routing,
congestion control).

 Internet Protocol – (IP)
 Border Gateway Protocol - (BGP)
 Open Shortest Path First - (OSPF)
 Routing Information Protocol - (RIP)

Network layer
The Network Layer controls the operation of the network or
sub-network (or sub-net). It decides which physical pathway
the data should take based on network conditions, priorities
of service, and other factors.
The Network Layer relieves the upper layers of the need to
know anything about the data transmission and switching
technologies used to connect systems.
The network layer provides routing and related functions
that enable multiple data links to be combined into an
internetwork. This is accomplished by the logical addressing
as opposed to the physical addressing of devices.

Network layer
It is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and
terminating connections across the intervening
communications facility.

 Addressing messages
 Setting up the path between communicating nodes on possibly
different networks
 Routing messages among networks
 Controlling congestion if too many packets are on the subnet
 Translating logical addresses, or names, into physical
 Using accounting functions to count packets or bits sent by
users to produce billing information

Datalink layer
Data Link - Provides for the reliable
transfer of information across the physical
link; sends blocks of data (frames) with
necessary synchronization, error control,
and flow control.

Example HDLC, PPP

Datalink layer
The primary purpose of the Data Link Layer
is to provide error-free transmission of
information between two end stations
“edge nodes” attached to the same
physical cable or media. This then allows
the next higher layer to assume virtually
error-free transmission over the physical

Datalink layer
The Data Link Layer is responsible for packaging
and placing data on the network media. It then
manages how the flow process of the bit stream
takes place to include the following:
 Creates and recognizes frame boundaries
 Checks received messages for integrity
 Manages channel access and flow control
 Ensures correct sequence and transmitted data
 Detects and possibly corrects errors that occur in the Physical Layer
without using the functions of the upper layers
 Provides flow-control techniques to ensure that link buffer capacity is
not exceeded

Datalink layer
The data link layer provides

 Physical addressing
Physical addressing as opposed to network addressing defines how
devices are addressed at the data link layer.

 Network topology
Network topology consists of the data-link layer specifications that often
define how devices are to be physically connected, such as in a bus or
a ring topology

 Error notification
Error notification alerts upper-layer protocols that a transmission error
has occurred

Datalink layer
 Sequencing of frames
The sequencing of data frames reorders frames that are transmitted out of

 Flow control
Flow control moderates the transmission of data so that the receiving
device is not overwhelmed with more traffic than it can handle at one time.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has

subdivided the data-link layer into two sublayers:
 Logical Link Control (LLC)
 Media Access Control (MAC).

Physical layer
Physical - Concerned with transmission of
unstructured bit stream over physical
medium; deals with the mechanical,
electrical, functional, and procedural
characteristics to access the physical
medium (voltages, pin assignments, bit
times, ..)

Physical layer
The Physical Layer describes the physical properties of the
various communications media, as well as the electrical
properties and interpretation of the exchanged signals. Ex:
this layer defines the size of Ethernet coaxial cable, the type
of BNC connector used, and the termination method.
Electrical –
 Signals specifications and properties, Electrical Properties
Mechanical –
 Physical Media dimensions, Connectors.
Media Type –
 UTP, Coax, Fiber, Air, Vacuum

Operation of the layered model

Each layer has a Protocol Data Unit PDU which

consists of some data for the layer and a header.

The PDU is passed down the layers within a


The army example: General-Brigadier-Colonel-

Major-Subaydar Major-Hawaldar-Sepoy

Problems with Layering
Inefficiency - each layer introduces overhead.

Restrictive - layer N may need access to lower

layers than N – 1.

Redundancy - of functions such as flow control

error handling, addressing, packetizing, and
encapsulation between layers

Internet/DOD Model - TCP/IP
Protocol Architecture
Roughly five layers.

Used in the grandparent of all

computer networks, the ARPANET,
and its successor, the Internet.
 Application layer (TELNET, FTP, SMTP, ...).
 Host-to-host, or transport layer (TCP, UDP).
Internet layer (IP).
 Network access layer.
 Physical layer

Interaction B/W OSI Model Layers
A given layer in the OSI layers generally
communicates with three other OSI layers:
 the layer directly above it,
 the layer directly below it,
 and its peer layer in other networked computer systems.

The data link layer in System A, for example,

communicates with the network layer of System A,
the physical layer of System A, and the data link layer
in System B. Figure illustrates this example.

OSI-Layer Services
Three basic elements are involved in layer services:
 The Service User
The service user is the OSI layer that requests services from an
adjacent OSI layer
 The Service Provider
The service provider is the OSI layer that provides services to
service users
 Service Access Point (SAP)
The SAP is a conceptual location at which one OSI layer can
request the services of another OSI layer.

OSI-Layer Services

Computer communications and
Why standards?
 Interoperability
 Protect investment

Disadvantage - discourage innovation by

freezing technology

Defacto and Dejure standards

Networking Devices
Hubs, Repeaters, Concentrators
Switches, Bridges

Repeaters ,Bridges, Switches and Routers

Operate at the Physical Layer
Attempt to forward all Frames
Error Frames will be forwarded
Collision domains are not isolated
Broadcast domains are not isolated
A repeater receives and then immediately
retransmits each bit.
A repeater has no memory and does not depend
on any particular protocol. It duplicates everything,
including the collisions.

A bridge is a device which has two or more
ports which can be connected to a variety of
media types, and provides a mechanism for the
filtering and forwarding of data frames among
the ports while building one large logical
Operate at the Data Link Layer
Selectively forwards frames
Error Frames will not be forwarded
Collision domains are isolated
Broadcast domains are not isolated
Has no effect on MAC or Network Addresses
Operate at the Network Layer
Selectively forwards frames
Error Frames will not be forwarded
Collision domains are isolated
Broadcast domains are isolated
Protocols can be Filtered
Has an effect on MAC Addresses but no effect
Network Addresses

Issues in Computer Networks

Performance - Speed, Latency
Reliability - Availability

Standard Making Organizations

Regulatory Bodies
Role of Regulatory Bodies
New challenges to regulatory bodies

Trends in Computer Networks
Higher speed networks > 100 Mbps
Wider geographic coverage
Integrated services: text, graphics, voice,
audio, image, video,…
Merger of LANs and WANs??