Malaria

multiplies rapidly 3. P vivax .causes benign tertian malaria 2. P. malariae ± less frequent.Malaria (Ague. P. characterized by chills followed by fever occurring regular intervals  Caused by the protozoan Plasmodium  4 species of plasmodium 1. P. slow-moving water (rural areas) Lands on surface in a 45 ° angle  . ovale ± rarely seen  Vector: Female anopheles mosquito Night biting Breeds in clear. most fatal. falciparum ± most frequently encountered here ff by vivax. ´King of Tropical Diseases) Infectious disease that is arthropod-borne. causes quartan malaria 4.

vivax/ovale: 13-17 days P.Incubation Period: P. falciparum: 12-14 days P. malariae: 28-30 days Period of Communicability: infective as long as gametocytes & asexual forms remain in blood .

Malaria Life Cycle Human ± Asexual cycle ( Schizogony) Mosquito ± sexual cycle ( Sporogony) .

Malaria Life Cycle Mosquito ± Sexual cycle (Sporogony) .sporozoites Human ± Asexual cycle (Schizogony) ± schizonts and merozoits .

Stages of Malaria Cold stage ± . provide warmth to patient > add clothing > warm drinks > hot water bags > socks .chilling manifestations (10-15 mins) Nursing responsibility: . 1.

Hot stage ± characterized by fever. abdominal pain & vomiting .lasts for 4-6 hours Nursing responsibility: lower body temperature > TSB > light.2. loose clothing > antipyretics . headache.

Diaphoretic stage ± excessive sweating/ feeling of weakness due to the past stages px underwent Nursing Responsibility: -keep patient comfortable with dry. -Monitor V/S . replace fluid loss.Diet high calories. vitamins and minerals -Fluid and electrolytes balance . warm clothes.3.

pulmonary edema . falciparum .shock .severe anemia .cerebral malaria .Complications of P.hypoglycemia .

Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC).Diagnostic Examination: 1. Malarial Smear.collect at the peak of fever 2.rapid test for malaria .

Treatment: Anti-malarial agents -Chloroquine (drug of Choice) -Quinine -Primaquine -Fansidar Preventive Measures: CLEAN Program .