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Economic Principles


GA Ag Ed Curriculum Office To accompany the Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Lesson 03452-8 July 2002

Define economics and explain economic systems Describe free enterprise List and explain 3 ways of doing business Explain entrepreneurship

Questions: Headings and Subheadings
What is economics? Define and describe supply and demand. How does price effect economics? What importance does money play in economics? Explain the economic system. Explain free enterprise. Describe business ownership.

Questions cont
What choices are available in a free enterprise system? What kind of control issues are present in free enterprise? List 3 ways of doing business. Describe sole proprietorship. Describe partnerships. What is a corporation?

Questions cont
How do consumers affect competition? Who are consumers? Define Entrepreneurship?

business competition consumer cooperative corporation demand dividend economic system economics entrepreneurship free enterprise money monopoly partnership price private ownership property risk sole proprietorship supply

What is Economics?
The study of how people get what they want Includes producing goods and services and getting them to people Money and resources are scarce Governments have systems to care for people Work is required to produce and make money Includes supply, demand, prices & money

Supply & Demand
Prices vary with supply of something as related to demand for it Supply and demand work together in setting price Both are limited supply ⇓, demand ⇑ supply ⇑, demand ⇓

Supply versus Demand
– Amount of something that is available – Can be reduced by disasters – Supply ⇑, Price ⇓

– Amount of something that will be bought at a given price – Price ⇑, Demand ⇓ – Price must cover costs of production

Graph Plotting
Price ⇑, Demand ⇑, Supply ⇓ Price ⇓, Demand ⇓, Supply ⇑

How Price Affects Economics
Price is the amount of money involved in buying and selling a good or service
– Worth of the item in money

Money’s Importance in Economics
Money is anything exchanged for goods or services
– Currency is money used in a country – The value of money is how much it will buy – Change in prices can cause change in the value of money

The value of money
$1 = $.43 (2000) $1 = $20 (1930s- 40s) $1 week wages = 40 hours+ 1930 Car $3600 House $10,000

The Economic System
Economic system is how people go about doing business
– How things are created, owned, or exchanged

All countries have economic systems just modified in some way to meet their particular needs
– Capitalism versus communism – Major differences are based on property ownership and control

Free Enterprise
Free enterprise the way of doing business in the United States
– Allows for business to work with minimum governmental control – Allows people to work and make money for themselves – Many people own property

Property Ownership
Private ownership is having things people can call their own Property is anything with value Types of property
– Real is land and its natural features – Personal are items people personally use

Business Ownership
A business is a person or group that produces and/or sells goods and services People who own businesses take risks
– A risk is the possibility of losing what has been invested – You also can benefit from a risk by making money

Available Choices Within Free Enterprise
You can choose what to produce, buy, and sell You can set your price and be somewhat flexible Decisions require a lot of information

Control Issues Present in Free Enterprise
Few government controls You can run the business as you chose, but dishonesty is unacceptable Standards are imposed
– Help keep food clean and measured – People want a full portion of what they pay for

3 Types Businesses
Sole proprietorship Partnership Corporations

Sole Proprietorship
Business owned by 1 person
– Responsible for all areas of operations • hire, fire, buy, sell, supervise, submit government forms and all other work – Must have all the money to start the business

– Business owned by 2 or more people

Profits and losses are split equally between all members

Association of members doing business Chartered by a state government People who buy stock are called stakeholders or stockholders and elect a Board of Directors to run the corporation
– Paid dividends (part of the profit)

Cooperatives provide members with services marketing co-ops help market farm products

How Consumers Affect Competition
Businesses must have customers to buy goods and services

Determine what type of business
– If consumers won’t buy a product, it won’t be produced

A consumer is a person, business, or agency that uses goods and services
– All consumers have limited money and must decide how it will be spent

Consumers will choose what they like best compared with its cost Competition allows consumers to choose between similar products Monopoly exists if one producer controls products
– Not good in free enterprise systems

Advertising influences what people will buy
– Never use untruthful advertising

Creating goods or services to meet a unique need
– “New” things

An Entrepreneur is a person who takes risks in creating and developing new products and ways to market them
– Must be a very creative person with creative ideas

Test Your Knowledge
What is economics? How does supply/demand relate to the prices consumers pay? What is currency? Name the currency in 3 countries? Why is creating goods and services a goal for any nation? What is the difference between real and personal property?

Test Your Knowledge con’t
What are the ways of doing business? Explain each. Who are consumers and why do they play a valuable role? What is the difference between competition and a monopoly? What is entrepreneurship?

Match Answers to Correct Statement
Economics Supply Demand Partnership Money Dividend Price Cooperative Free Enterprise Risk Profit paid to a stockholder in a corporation Study of how people get what they want Amount of product that will be sold at a given price Anything exchanged for goods and services Amount of money used in buying or selling a good or service Amount of goods or services available A business owned by 2 or more individuals Freedom to do business with a minimum of government control The possibility of losing something

Chapter 5 test
1.What is economics? 2.Define and describe supply and demand. 3.How does price affect economics? 4.What importance does money play in economics? 5.Explain an economic system. 6.Explain free enterprise. 7.What is the difference between property and business ownership? 8.List 3 ways of doing business and explain all 3. 9.Who are consumers and what is their role? 10. Entrepreneurship important, why?