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CHAPTER 5

SUPPORTING ELEMENTS : GROUND ANCHORS AND STRUTS

GROUND ANCHORS (or ANCHORAGES)


1.Definition 2.Design 3.Corrosion protection
4.Types 5.Materials
6.Construction 7.Testing
*Drilling (or driving) *Capacity prediction
*Tendon (manufacture & assembly) *Quality control
*Anchor homing (installation) *Monitoring
*Grouting
*Stressing

Definition: An installation that is capable of transmitting an applied tensile load to a load bearing stratum.
centralizer

if packer Basic types:


TEMPORARY anchors (usually life < 2 years)

A-A B-B PERMANENT anchors (life of the structure)


tendon
A Active and passive anchors v.s. bolts and nails

Prestressed anchors
anchor
head anchor body
anchor A (grouted)
plate

grout
B
drill hole
PVC (or
similar)
seath centralizer
grout B
There are four mechanisms of stress transfer from the fixed anchor zone to
the surrounding ground (as functions of soil type and grouting procedure)

Type A Type B
-Tremie grouted (gravity) -low grout pressure (<1000 kPa)
-may be lined or unlined -lining tube or packer
-rock or very stiff to hard cohesive soils -diameter of fixed anchor length increased
-depends on side shear at the ground/grout -permeates or fractured
interface -weak fissured rocks & coarse granular
alluvium & fine grained cohesionless soils
(compaction grouting)
-depends on side shear

Type C Type D
-high grout pressure (>2000 kPa) -Tremie grouted holes
-lining tube or in-situ packer -bells or underreams formed
-fixed length is hydrofractured (grout root -firm to hard cohesive soils
or fissures)
-often secondary grout after primary
through tube or manchette or grout tubes
within the fixed length
-fine cohesionless soils stiff cohesive
deposits

Others : Jet grouting , expand bodies , use of explosives , splitting of anchor bulp

Rock....... A or packer grouted A


For improving rock/grout bond also B
Minimum safety factor

Design of Anchors
*Fixed anchor dimensions
*Depth of embedment Anchorage category
Proof load
*Overall stability Grout/tendon factor
Ground/
*Group effects Tend or
grout
on grout/encapsul
interface
Main possibilities in failure of a single anchor ation interface
-failure of ground/gout interface
-failure of grout/tendon interface Temporary anchorages
-failure of tendon with a service life of say
Safety factors are considered. up to two years where,
Other possibilities 2.5*
although the consequences 1.60 2.5* 1.25
-displacement or excessive slippage of the 2.02.5* (if
of failure are quite serious, 2.02.5*
anchor head no tests)
there is no danger to public
-failure within ground supporting the anchorage safety without adequate
-crushing or bursting of grout column around warning e.g. retaining wall
the tendon tie-back.
-gradual long-term deterioration
Permanent anchorages and
Minimum safety factors recommended for temporary anchorages
design of individual Anchors where corrosion risk is 3.0#
3.0*
high and/or the 2.0 3.0#4.0 1.50
2.03.0* (if
consequences of failure are creep is
no tests)
serious, e.g. main cables of expected
a suspension bridge or as a
reaction for lifting heavy
structural members.
*Minimum value of 2.0 may be used if full scale field tests are available.
#May need to be raised to 4.0 to limit ground creep.
Note 1. In current practice the safety factor of an anchorage is the ratio of the ultimate load to design load.Table 2
above defines minimum safety factors at all the major component interfaces of an anchorage system.
Note 2.Minimum safety factors for the ground/grout interface generally lie between 2.5 and 4.0. However, it is
permissible to vary these, should full scale field tests (trial anchorage tests) provide sufficient additional information
to permit a reduction.
Note 3.The safety factors applied to the ground/grout interface are invariably higher compared with the tendon values,
the additional magnitude representing a margin of uncertainty.
1.Ground-grout interface in cohesionless soils
2.Ground-grout interface in cohesive soils
3.Ground-grout interface in rock

1.GROUND-GROUT INTERFACE IN COHESIONLESS SOILS


Usually Type B and C are used in sand.
Ultimate capacity of anchors in sand with fixed lengths of 4-8 m and diameter 10-15 cm have been observed to be up to 1300-1400 kN (130-
140 tons). These capasities can not be explained by usual soil mechanics computations.
Among the factors that affect capacity:
*Relative density, and degree of uniformity of the soil
*Length and diameter of anchor (influences to lesser degree)
*Method of grout injection & grout pressure used
*Dilatancy in the soil
*Drilling method & equipment
For Type B , ultimate load capacity Tf (kN) (empirically)

Tf = L*n * tan
= angle of shearing resistance
L= fixed anchor length (m)
n= the factor that takes account of
-the drilling technique (rotary-percussive with water flush)
-depth of overburden
-fixed anchor diameter
-grouting pressure in the range 30-1000 kPa in-situ stress fileds & dilation character.
n400-600 kN/m in coarse sands and gravels, k>10-4 m/sec (10-2 cm/sec)
n130-165 kN/m in fine to medium sands, k=10-4-10-6 m/sec (10-2-10-4 cm/sec)
A : the ratio of contact pressure at the fixed end anchor/soil
interface to the effective overburden pressure
Enlarged diameter =38-61 cm v: average overburden effective pressure
Making use of bearing capacity theory an alternative solution is: L : length of fixed anchor (m)
: effective angle of shearing resistance
Tf = A . v . . D . L . tan + B . . h . /4 . (D -d )
2 2 B : bearing capacity factor equivalent to Nq/1.4
: unit weight of soil overburden ( below gwt)
h : depth of overburden to the top of fixed anchor (m)
D : diameter of fixed anchor
d : nominal anchor (shaft) diameter
This equation includes the effect of side shear and end bearing.
-D is estimated from grout intake. Slenderness ratio
-Porosity of the soil is also influencial. h/D
26 30 34 37 40
In coarse sand and gravel;
for d=10-15 cm D40-50 cm~3d to 4d Pgrout<1000 kPa(10 atm) 15 11 20 43 75 143

In medium dense sand; permeation is limited,local compaction 20 9 19 41 74 140


for d=10-15 cm , Pgrout<1000 kPa D 20-25 cm (or 1.5d-2d)
25 8 18 40 73 139
For very dense sand D is reduced (18-20 cm) (1.2d-1.5d)

Berezantsev (1961)
h/D=25
150

100

Nq/B.C.

50

0
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
'

B.C. component of the above ap. is difficult to assess.

A values: (Pgrout<1000 kPa) for compact sandy gravel, =40o , A=1.7


for compact sand, =35o , A=1.4
Type C Anchors
Theoretical predictions of load capacity are not reliable. Design curves are obtained from field (actual) load tests.

In alluvium medium sand


variable deposits of sand & gravel

d=10-15 cm 90-130 kN/m at 1000 kPa


190-240 kN/m at 2500 kPa

fixed anchor length

Pgrout500 kPa on average


RD Tf

When RD1RD2 if U1>U2 TfU1>TfU2


Lfixed after 10m no increase in Tf.

In 500-5000 kPa grout pressure range Tf increase is not much


Unit skin friction for sand 500 kPa max
Sandy gravel 1000 kPa max

Unit skin friction N


80 kPa 350 kPa 10 - 50 (Fujita et. Al. 78)

Fixed Anchor Design in Cohesive Soils


Load capacity of anchors in clays is low.
Application of low grouting pressure & use of casing tubes may be beneficial to the capacity. (without hydrofracturing the
fissure penetration of grout can increase the skin friction values.)

Load capacity can be improved;


i. using high pressure grouting
ii. using bells or underreams in the fixed anchor zone
iii. cement grout & gravel injection into augered holes
Type A Anchors (Tremie grouted straight shaft)
Similar to bored holes

Tf = . d . L . . cu

Tf : ultimate load capacity


d : borehole diameter
L : fixed anchor length
: adhesion factor (stiff soils 0.35-0.4)
cu : average undrained strength over the fixed anchor length

Type C Anchors
-high grout pressures
-with or without post-grouting
-ultimate capacity can not be calculated
LL m
IC
LL PL
Ic : consistency index m : natural moisture content

Skin friction m increases with increasing consistency & decreasing plasticity.


In stiff clays (Ic=0.8-1.0) of medium to high plasticity the lowest m range is 3080 kPa & in sandy silts of medium plasticity & very stiff to
hard consistency (Ic=1.25) high values (m >400 kPa) have been recorded.

Post grouting increases m of stiff clays by 25% to 50%. Greatest improvements have been recorded in stiff clays of medium to high plasticity
(from 120 kPa to 300 kPa)
Type D Anchors

Tf= . D . L . cu + /4 . (D2-d2) . Nc . cub + . d . l . ca

Side Shear End bearing on clay side shear along shaft length

D : diameter of underream
L : length of fixed anchor
cu : average undrained shear strength along fixed anchor
Nc : B.C. factor take q
cub : undrained shear strength at the end
l : the length of the shaft (m)
ca : shaft adhesion 0.3-0.35 cu (kPa)

Reduction coefficients 0.75-0.95 due to construction techniques underream geometry


0.5 for open or sandfilled fissures in clay

drilling underreaming grouting time is very important. Even few hors may be critical. (Because of softening)

Underreaming is suitable for clays cu>90 kPa (also problemmatic for 60-70 kPa , not possible for cu<50 kPa), low plasticity PI<20

Fixed anchor length in clay 3-10 m.


Fixed anchor spacing 1.5-2 m. min
Spacing to any adjacent foundation/underground service 3 m. min
Distance to surface foundation 5 m. min
Fixed Anchor Design in Rock

Type A to type D can be all applied in rock but straight shaft tremie or packer grouted type A is more popular in practice.

Type B (low pressure grouting) to enchange rock/grout bond or to increase rock/grout interface area.
Type C proving & site suitability tests are required.

Type A
Ass : Uniform bond distribution
D : diameter of fixed anchor
Tf = . D . L . wet L : length of fixed anchor
wet : ultimate bond or skin friction at rock/ grout interface

In weak & deformable rock stress concentrations


Tendon/grout failures initiate grout/rock interface failures

Strong rock : 10 % of qu (wet limit = 400 kPa)


Lfixed anchor : 3 m. min
Table 24 p.131 BS8081 : 1989 Rock/Grout Bond values
Very poor rocks : u1.5*102 2.5*102 kPa Marls
3.5*102 kPa Shale
3.7*102 kPa Soft sandstone+shales (working 1-1.4*102 kPa)
Grout/Tendon Interface
Grout is in tension like the tendon. Not similar to reinforced concrete.
Ass : Uniform ultimate bond stress
Limits recommended.
Clean plain wire or plain bar : 1000 kPa (1.0 N/mm2)
Clean crimped wire 1500 kPa
Clean strand or deformed bar 2000 kPa

For min grout compressive strength of 30 N/mm2 (30000 kPa , 300 kg/cm2) prior to stressing.
Min bond length : 3m where tendon homed & bonded in-situ
2m where tendon homed & bonded under factory controlled conditions
Bond strength can be significantly affected by the surface condition of the tendon, particularly when loose & lubricant materials are present
at the interface : loose rust, soil, paint, grease, soap or other
If protected (protected oils or greases) remove

Asteel 15% borehole area for multi unit tendons


20% borehole area for single unit tendons

Encapsulations For Rock Bolt Recommended by manufacturer


At grout/encapsulation interface max. ultimate bond 3 N/mm2 (3000 kPa) unless adequately proven Fig. 11 BS

Encapsulations generally take the form of single or multi-unit tendons grouted with a single corrugated duet or within two concentric
ducts which effectively protect the tendon bond length against corrosion.

Encapsulation length 2m min (whole length for underreamed fixed lengths)


Strands tests to investigate the strand/grout force to be transferred to encapsulation/grout interface.
Materials

Cement
Ordinary Portland cement is generally used.It should be fresh (at most 1-month old) and should be kept in ideal storage (damp
free/not over hut) conditions. (Partial dehydration or carbonation can lead to particle agglomeration & reduction in postmix
hydration.)
If there is a risk of chemical attack, sulphate resisting Portland cement should be used. Use of high alumina cement is restricted.
(only <6 months, reaction anchors)

-Suitable water/cement (W/C) ratio is between 0.40-0.45 between 0.40 & 0.70 there are applications.Higher values in sandy
alluvial deposits.
-There are limits for total sulphate content (4% (m/m) SO3 of cement in grout)
total chloride content of the grout from all sources (0.1% (mm) of cement)
-Fillers (inert) : fine sand, limestone dust, ground quartz Not common.
-Mixing water : Generally if drinkable suitable
no oil, organic matter, deterious substances
sulphate <0.1%
chloride ions 500mg/1 liter
Admixtures Chemical Optimum dosage of %
cement by weight
Accelerator CaCl2 Calcium chloride 1-2 Accelerates set &
hardening
Retarder Calcium lignosulfonate 0.2-0.5
Also increases fluidity
Tartaric acid 0.1-0.5 May affect set
strengths
Sugar 0.1-0.5
Fludifier Calcium lignosulfonate 0.2-0.3

Detergent 0.5 Entrains air


Expander Aluminum powder 0.005-0.02 15% expansion
Antibleed Cellulose ether 0.2-0.3 Equiv. to 0.5% of water
Entrains air
Aluminum sulphate 20
Excess water results in bleeding of the mix and low strength, as well as greater shrinkage and lower durability of the hardened grout.

50
Compressive strength (MPa)

40

30

20

10

0
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
W/C ratio
-Recommended unconfined comp. Strength of grout : 30 MPa 70 days
40 MPa 28 days

-Bleeding of (tendon bonding) grout at 20o C should generally 2% (4% at most) of volume 3 hrs. after mixing.

Higher values may be allowed in gravels etc.

Resinous Grouts
Resins: Epoxy & polyster resins are most commonly used in capsules (rock bolting), fixed anchor protection encapsulations.

Follow manufacturers recommendations (mix time, setting time, fillers strength etc.)

Stronger than cement grout > 75 kPa in compression


>15 kPa in tension
(Full scale tests needed.)

TENDON
Tendons usually consist of steel bar, strand or wire either singly or in groups. For soil anchors. Typical data for prestressing
steel that may be used in tendon design is shown in the following table: (In the following page)

For high strength steels above the loss of prestress due to relaxation is small. (Relaxation: loss of prestress load at the same strain)

Under normal circumstances working loads should not exceed 62.5% & 50% of the characteristic strength of the tendon for
temporary and permanent works, respectively.

To distribute load to the soil more uniformly, strands of different length are sometimes used within the fixed anchor zone. When
these strands are stressed simultaneously displacements at the anchor head are the same for all strands, and thus the strains and
hence stresses differ in individual strands.
Nom. Dia. (Ult. Load) Specified
Type of steel Nom. Steel Area mm2
mm characteristic strength (kN)
7.0 60.4 38.5
Non-alloy steel wire 12.9 186 100
7-wire strand
15.2 232 139
15.7 265 150
12.7 209 112
7-wire drawn strand
15.2 300 165
18.0 380 223

Low alloy steel bar 26.5 568 552


Grade 1030/835 32 830 804
36 1048 1018
40 1300 1257
Grade 1230/1080
25 600 491
32 990 804
36 1252 1018

Stainless steel
7 44.3 38.5
Wire
Bar 25 491 491
32 804 804
40 1257 1257