Introduction to Horticulture

Horticulture

 Word first used in 1600’s
 Comes from two Latin words
 Hortus “Garden”
 Cultura “Cultivation”
 Horticulture means “cultivated garden”
or “culture of garden plants”
 NOW MUCH MORE…

Life Sciences

 Biology is the branch of science that
deals with both plant and animal
organisms and life processes.
 Zoology is the part of biology that deals
with animals.
 Botany is the part of biology that deals
with plants.

Horticulture  The science and practice of growing. . and ornamental plants. processing and marketing fruits. vegetables.

wheat. . Agronomy  The science and practice of growing field crops such as cotton. tobacco. corn and soybeans.

 Pomology  The growing and study of fruits and nuts.  Viticulture  The growing and study of grapes or vines.  Floriculture  The growing and study of flowers. Branches of Horticulture  Olericulture  The growing and study of vegetables. .

and seed and sod production. municipal. sports turf maintenance. Branches of Horticulture  Greenhouse Management  The growing and study of plants in greenhouses. highway rights-of-way. . and commercial lawns.  Turfgrass Management  The growing and study of turfgrasses. This includes home.

 Known as silviculture in forestry.  Synonymous with urban forestry.  Arboriculture  The growing and study of trees. Branches of Horticulture  Nursery Management  The growing and study of trees and shrubs that are produced primarily for landscape purposes. .

. Branches of Horticulture  Landscape Horticulture  The application of design and horticultural principles to placement and care of plants in the landscape.  Interiorscaping  The application of design and horticultural principles to placement and care of plants in indoor environments.

Branches of Horticulture  Horticultural Therapy  The use of horticultural plants and methods as therapeutic tools with disabled and disadvantaged people. .

QUESTIONS? .

TPS  Where did horticulture begin?  Where will the history of horticulture originate?  Who invented it? . Hypothesize .

 Ultimate goal throughout history. History of Horticulture  “Garden of Eden”  Romanticized garden of paradise. .

 Collected seeds.  Hunters and gatherers. fruits. History of Horticulture  Prehistoric people were primarily…. . and nuts.

History of Horticulture  Primitive people began to study plants.  Is it edible?  Does eating it modify well-being?  Does it taste good?  Can it used to keep me warm? As fuel? As clothing?  Is it useful to combat pain? Disease? .

History of Horticulture  When were plants first cultivated?  Neolithic Age (7000 – 10000 years ago)  First farmers were women!!!! .

History of Horticulture  By 3000 B.C. in Egypt  Land preparation  Irrigation  Pruning .

000. Babylonia..  This system kept 10. and Assyria….  Irrigation canals lined with burnt brick and sealed with asphalt joints. figs. and olives. History of Horticulture  Meanwhile in Mesopotamia.000 square miles under cultivation…. dates. grapes.  Which fed 15. ..000 people  Cultivated roses.

History of Horticulture  Hanging Gardens of Babylon  Built by Nebuchadnezzar.  One of 7 Wonders of the Ancient World .

 How do they grow?  How do they reproduce?  How are they constructed?  How are they nourished?  How are they related to one another?  How are traits passed from one generation to the next? .. History of Horticulture  Eventually people began asking questions such as….

History of Horticulture  Meanwhile. back in America……  The Pre-Incas were cultivating maize (corn) .

TPS What other crops were Native American’s growing? .Hypothesize .

History of Horticulture  Other Indian crops included……  Potatoes  Sweet potatoes  Peppers  Squash  Tomatoes  Cocoa .

History of Horticulture  The use of plant products eventually led to physicians. pharmacists. . and scientists.

History of Horticulture  Theophrastus  1st scientific horticulturist  Student of Plato and Aristotle  Wrote the books History of Plants and The Causes of Plants. .

and agricultural practices. flowers. pith.  The Causes of Plants  Relationship of weather. History of Horticulture  History of Plants  Morphology of roots. soils. and leaves.  Anatomical features such as bark. fibers. and vessels.  Importance of seeds  Value of grafting  Tastes and flagrances of plants  Death of plants .

History of Horticulture  Dioscorides  Early Christian Era  Wrote about the medicinal uses of plants  Proposed ideas about the relationship of plants .

History of Horticulture  Middle Ages  Little advancement in horticulture  Arabs (established botanical gardens)  Scientific advances of Greeks and Romans were preserved in monasteries. .

History of Horticulture  Renaissance  Rebirth of energetic attention to scientific discovery.  More and more plants were discovered due to exploration which required a system of classification. morphology. and anatomy branches of botany began to grow.  Taxonomy. .

 Developed binomial classification scheme for plants.  Built upon the work of the Greeks.  Basis for all classification systems today. History of Horticulture  Linnaeus (1707-1778)  Swedish botanist.  Based on their sexual or flowering parts. especially Dioscorides. .

History of Horticulture  As the Renaissance evolved……  Creation of formal Gardens  Versailles  Belvedere in Vienna .

and vegetable production.  Some of these plants became mainstays of European diets. . History of Horticulture  Improvements in fruit.  Influx of new plants from “the colonies”. nut.

cuttings. and plants. Horticulture in America  When the Europeans arrived they brought seeds.  Orchards were established  Crops brought to America  Oranges  Wheat  Cabbage .

Horticulture in America  Early horticulturists in America  John Bartram  George Washington  Thomas Jefferson  John Chapman  aka. Johnny Appleseed .

.  Established land-grant universities. Horticulture in America  New life in horticulture  Morrill Act of 1862.  Encouraged the growth of agricultural knowledge.

Horticulture in America  Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858-1954)  “Father of American Horticulture”  Educated at Michigan Agricultural College  Present Day Michigan State University  Then was a professor at Michigan Agricultural College and at Cornell University. .

 Cyclopedia of Horticulture  Cultural and taxonomic information of plants. Horticulture in America  Established the 1st horticulture department  Prodigious Writer  Hortus  Taxonomic index of horticultural plants. .

 “things of the garden”  Established the (ASHS) American Society of Horticulture Science in 1903. . Horticulture in America  Established the Bailey Hortorium.

Modern Day Horticulture  New Cultivars  The Rhizosphere  Plant-Water  Integrated Pest Relationships Management  Temperature  Plant Growth Regulators  Light  Mechanization  Plant Nutrition  Post Harvest Factors .