 Speech coding is an application of data compression of digital audio signals
containing speech.
 3 Mechanisms for minimizing channel errors
 A rate ½ convolutional code.
 Transmitted data are interleaved for each speed coder frame over two time
slots to reduce the effects of Rayleigh fading.
 A cyclic redundancy check is performed on the most significant bits of the
digitized speech data with USDC; 1) analog voice signals (input signal) are
sampled 2) the converted to a binary PCM in a special speech coder
(vocoder) called a vector sum exciter linear predictive (VSELP) coder.
 Motorola developed the VSELP algorithm, which was adopted for the IS-54 standard.
 Error- detection and correction (EDC) bits are added to reduce the effects of the
interference bringing the final voice data to rate to 48.6 kbps.
 Compression/Expansion and error-detection/correction functions are implemented in
the telephone handset by the digital signal processor (DSP).
 VSELP Coders output 7950 bps and produce a speech frame every 20 ms, or

7950 𝑏𝑖𝑡𝑠 20 𝑚𝑠
∗ = 159 𝑏𝑖𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑒
𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑒

Fifty speech frames are outputted each second containing 159 bits each second
containing 159 bits each , or

50 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑠 159 𝑏𝑖𝑡𝑠
∗ = 7950 𝑏𝑝𝑠
𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑒
The 159 bits are divided to two classes.
There are 77 class 1 bits and 82 class 2 bits.
Class 1 bits are most significant and therefore error
The less significant class 2 bits have no error
After coding the 159 bits, each speed code frame is
converted in a ½ convolution code to 260 channel-
coded bits per frame and 50 frames are transmitted
each second so, from 7950 bps to 13 kbps:
260 𝑏𝑖𝑡𝑠 50 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑠
∗ = 13 𝑘𝑏𝑝𝑠
𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑
 The fig shows the time slot and frame for the forward and reverse links of a USDC
digital voice channel.
 USDC voice channels use frequency-division duplexing; thus forward and reverse
channel time slots operate on different frequencies at the time.
 Each time slot carries interleaved digital voice data from the two adjacent frames
outputted from the speech coder.

323 𝑏𝑖𝑡𝑠 6 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑡
∗ = 48.6 𝑘𝑏𝑝𝑠
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑡 40 𝑚𝑠
 A third frame format, called a shortened burst is shown in
Figure 20-10.
 The default delay between the receive and transmit
slots in mobile is 44 symbols, which results in maximum
distance at which a mobile station can operate in a cell
to 72 miles for an IS-54 cell.
 To achieve 48.6 kbps in a 30 kHz Amps voice channel, bandwidth efficiency of 1.62
bps/Hz is required. (Bandwidth or spectral)
 The spectral efficiency requirements can be met by using conventional pulse-
shaped, 4-phase modulation schemes such as QSK and OQPSK.
 USDC voice and control channels use a symmetrical differential, phase-shift keying
technique known as π/4 DQPSK, or π/4 differential quadriphase shift keying (DQPSK).
 A 48.6 kbps requires a baud rate of 24.3 kbps with 41.1523 µs.
 The bandwidth efficiency using π/4 DQPSK is
48.6 𝑘𝑏𝑝𝑠 𝑏𝑝𝑠
𝑛 =3∗ 30 𝑘𝐻𝑍
= 4.86 𝐻𝑧

 The four possible differential phase changes produce by a π/4 DQPSK are π/4,-π/4,
3π/4 and -3π/4.
 Using pulse shaping with π/4 DQPSK allows for the simultaneous transmission of three
separate 48.6 kbps speech signals in a 30 kHz bandwidth.
 The NA-TDMA power classifications are listed in Table 20-4. The
highest power level is 4 W (36 dBm), and successive levels differ
by 4 dB, with the lowest level for classes I through III being 8 dBm
(6.6 mW). The lowest transmit power level for dual-mode mobile
units is -4 dBm (0.4 mW) ± 9 dB.
 In dual-mode system, the three lowest power levels can be
assigned only to digital voice channels and digital control
 Interim Standard 95 (IS-95) was the first ever CDMA-based digital cellular technology.
 It was developed by Qualcomm and later adopted as a standard by
the Telecommunications Industry Association in TIA/EIA/IS-95 release published in
 The proprietary name for IS-95 is cdmaOne.
 It is a 2G mobile telecommunications standard that uses CDMA, a multiple
access scheme for digital radio, to send voice, data and signaling data (such as a
dialed telephone number) between mobile telephones and cell sites.
 IS-95, like IS-54, was deigned to be compatible with existing analog cellular
telephone systems (AMPS) frequency band; therefore, mobile units and base station
can easily be designed for dual mode operation.
The IS-95 standard specifies the
 Modulation - digital OQPSK (uplink) and digital QPSK (downlink).
 800-MHz band (IS-95A).
 45-MHz forward and reverse separation
 50-MHz spectral allocation
 1900-MHz band (IS-95B)
 90-MHz forward and reverse separation
 120-MHz spectral allocation
 2.46-MHz total bandwidth
 1.23-MHz reverse CDMA channel bandwidth
 1.23-MHz forward CDMA channel bandwidth
 Direct-sequence CDMA accessing
 8-kHz voice bandwidth
 64 total channels per CDMA channel bandwidth
 55 voice channels per CDMA channel bandwidth
 CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) is a channel access method used
by various radio communication technologies.
 It is a form of multiplexing, which allows numerous signals to occupy a
single transmission channel, optimizing the use of available bandwidth.
 The technology is used in ultra-high-frequency (UHF) cellular telephone
systems in the 800-MHz and 1.9-GHz bands.
 CDMA employs analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) in combination with
spread spectrum technology.
 Offers several advantages over TDMA and FDMA because it allows users
to differentiate from one another by a unique code rather than a
frequency or time assignment.
 Has increased capacity and improved performance and reliability.
Characteristics of CDMA
 CDMA can effectively reject narrow band interference. Since narrow band
interference affects only a small portion of the spread spectrum signal, it can
easily be removed through notch filtering without much loss of information.
 CDMA devices use a rake receiver, which exploits multipath delay components
to improve the performance of the system.
 In a CDMA system, the same frequency can be used in every cell, because
channelization is done using the pseudo-random codes.
 Reusing the same frequency in every cell eliminates the need for
frequency planning in a CDMA system.
 CDMA systems use the soft hand off, which is undetectable and provides a more
reliable and higher quality signal.
General Specification of CDMA

Rx: 869-894MHz Tx: 824-849MHz
20 Channels spaced 1250kHz apart (798 users/channel)
QPSK/(Offset) OQPSK modulation scheme
1.2288Mbps bit rate
IS-95 standard
Operates at both 800 and 1900 MHz frequency bands
Advantages of CDMA techniques:

 Efficient practical utilization of fixed frequency spectrum.
 Flexible allocation of resources.
 Many users of CDMA use the same frequency, TDD or FDD may be used.
 Multipath fading may be substantially reduced because of large signal bandwidth.
 No absolute limit on the number of users, Easy addition of more users.
 Impossible for hackers to decipher the code sent.
 Better signal quality.
 No sense of handoff when changing cells.
 The CDMA channel is nominally 1.23 MHz wide.
 CDMA networks use a scheme called soft handoff, which minimizes signal breakup as
a handset passes from one cell to another.
 CDMA is compatible with other cellular technologies; this allows for nationwide
Disadvantages to using CDMA

As the number of users increases, the overall quality of
service decreases.
Near- Far- problem arises.
Uses of CDMA
 One of the early applications for code division multiplexing is
in GPS. This predates and is distinct from its use in mobile
 The Qualcomm standard IS-95, marketed as cdmaOne.
 The Qualcomm standard IS-2000, known as CDMA2000. This
standard is used by several mobile phone companies,
including the Globalstar satellite phone network.
 The UMTS 3G mobile phone standard, which uses W-CDMA
 CDMA has been used in the OmniTRACS satellite system for
transportation logistics.