1

Plant Design Project I
GROUP 9 :
KONG KAH SHIN 17478
IZZUDDDIN BIN JAMALUDDIN 18672
FAULIYANA BINTI MOHD FAUDZI 19218
KANAPATHY MOHANAN 18672
SUPERVISOR: DR. DZULKARNAIN ZAINI

Outline 2

 Problem Statements
 Objectives
 Market Analysis
 Selection of Plant Location
 Main Process Design
 Selection of Separations

Problem Statements 3

 Glycerol is a byproduct in biodiesel production.
 Crude glycerol from biodiesel plant contains: glycerol, ash, water
and MONG (matter organic non-glycerol).
 Conversion of crude glycerol to value-added products not widely
and commercially adopted in Malaysia.
 An investment company, Tronoh Invest wanted to built 1.3-
Propanediol (1,3-PDO) plant using crude glycerol as feedstock.
 Develop a conceptual process design for a potential 1,3-PDO plant
in Malaysia.

8 MONG 25.Problem Statements: 4  The given crude glycerol composition is as follows: Component Percentage (wt) Glycerol 53.2 .8 Water 18.2 Ash 2.

.  To design plant that is simple and safe to operate which follows the HSE guidelines.  To design plant with top concerns for environmental issues.Objectives 5  To design a conceptual process design for a potential 1.  To suggest best plant location in Malaysia.3-PDO plant in Malaysia using crude oil as feedstock.  To determine an appropriate plant capacity.

6 Market Analysis .

biodiesel has become widely used as an alternative fuel . where palm oil is the main element in biodiesel production due to the higher number of crop yield and lower production cost (Mukherjee & Sovacool. 2014). Southeast Asia is also the main producer of biodiesel other than the western countries. . Glycerol Market 7  Over a decade.  Furthermore.

. 2011). Leja & Czaczyk. 8  The increasing of biodiesel production resulting in the increasing of abundance glycerol. which one part of glycerol is formed for every 10 parts of biodiesel is produced and environmental pollution will occur if the waster is not treated properly (Drozdzynska.

2013) . Coronado & Carvalho. 9 (Quispe.

2016). the price of both crude and refined glycerol is increasing. the production of 10 glycerol is increasing since 2001 however.com. 2016). From the graph above.  The market price for the 50-60% crude glycerol is in the range of US $5-6/Gallon (Alibaba.com. .  The market price of the 80% crude glycerol is about US $1-10 / kilogram (Alibaba.

2015).  Major product of PD is the polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT). fragrances. 2015). 1. Phillips & Smith. (DuPont Tate & Lyle.  Asia pacific is estimated to be the largest producer of PD materials by 2019 due to the increase of the PTT. a type of polyester used in the textile industry and it has been widely used over the years (Molel. 2012). (Transparency Market Research.3-Propanediol (PD) is used in the production 11 of the polymers and composite materials such as paints.3-Propanediol Market  1. coatings and etc. .

2015) .9 kilo tons with growing Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 5.8% from 2015 until 2022 (Abnewswire. In 2014. (Grand View Research.3-Propanediol and it is 12 expected by 2022 to reach about 225. 2016). about 146 kilo tons global market demand of 1.

Metabolic Explorer SA (France).5% PD is in the range of US $1500 – 1600 / Metric Ton (Alibaba. (China) and Zouping Mingxing Chemical Co.com. 13 • Top companies of the PD market are Dupont Tate & Lyle Bio Products Company (U. Ltd. 2016). Zhangjiagang Glory Biomaterial Co. .S). 2015) • The latest market price for the 99.com. (China). Ltd. (Marketsandmarkets.

14 Plant Location Study .

 Geographic location of plant plays a major role in the success of the business running. The main factor 15 in choosing the plant site is to locate plant where the production cost is at minimum with safety environment to be considered (Peters.  Below are the factors needed to be consider:  Raw Materials Availability  Market  Energy Availability  Water Supply  Transportation Facilities  Labour Supply . 1980).

 Three locations have been chosen for this 16 project:  Nusajaya Industrial Park. Pahang  Port Klang.00 psf RM18. Selangor Port Klang Nusajaya Gebeng Land Price RM42. Johor  Gebeng.00 psf RM100.00 psf Area 20 acres 6 acres 250 acres (max) Availability (Malaysia Real Estate. 2016) .

17 Nusajaya Gebeng Port Klang .

Johor • IOI Oleochemical Industries Sdn Bhd • Am Biofuels Sdn. Bhd. Selangor • Emery Oleochemicals (M) Sdn Bhd.Bhd. Bhd. radius of 39.Raw Materials Availability 18 State Company Nusajaya. Bhd. Bhd. Gebeng. estimated • Mission Biotechnologies Sdn. • Ypj Palm International Sdn. 44. Shah Alam and Port • Innovans Bio Fuel Sdn. Klang. • Plant Biofuels Corporation Sdn.5km) . Bhd. estimated radius of • Nexsol (Malaysia) Sdn. Pahang • FPG Oleochemicals Sdn. estimated • Sime Darby Biodiesel Sdn. Pasir Gudang. Port Klang.1km) • Vance Bioenergy Sdn. Kuantan. Bhd. Bhd. (mostly located in • Mission Biofuels Sdn. Bhd. radius of <30km) • Fima Biodiesel Sdn. Bhd. Bhd. Bhd. (mostly located in • Aj Oleo Industries Sdn. Bhd. (mostly located in • Kl-Kepong Oleomas Sdn.

This is to reduce the shipping cost and delivery time to the buyers.Market 19  It is an advantage to locate plant nearby major buyers.  All of the three locations located only a distant from the port. . where this ensure in the efficiency of transportation of the goods.

Energy Availability 20 .

which sufficient power is supplied throughout the major town.30/kWh and is all the same in the peninsular area. 21 • The figure above shows the electricity grid system of Peninsular Malaysia. • The number of power stations are greater in the west coast compared to east cost. • The electricity will be supplied by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) for all of the three locations. . • The tariff for the industrial area is about RM20.

Pulau Pinang. Labuan.Water Supply 22  Water supply is needed for water utility in the plant and the table below shows the production capacities of water supply in Malaysia. Perak. Johor. which lead them to a strategic plant location. Sarawak and Terengganu shows high number of reserve margins and production capacities. .

BHD.07/m3 RM2. (Johor) • Semambu Water Treatment Plant (Pahang) Port Klang Nusajaya Gebeng Band 1 RM2.84/m3 (>35 metre cube) (>35 metre cube) (>227 metre cube) National Water Services Commission (2015) .28/m3 RM3. BHD.• Below are the main water supplier for each state: 23 • Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor SDN.92/m3 (0-35 metre cube) (0-35 metre cube) (0-227 metre cube) Band 2 RM2.30/m3 RM0.80/m3 RM0. (Selangor) • Syarikat Air Johor SDN.

.Transportation Facilities 24  Land. water and air are the common transportation medium used in the industrial companies. The type of transportation used is depend on the type and amount of raw materials and products.

5km (33mins • Changi International Airport. East Coast Highway railway NKVE Highway Distance from Kuantan to station to Elite Highway Gebeng: 39.68.Kuantan Port (5.32. Port Klang Selangor Nusajaya. Singapore away) -61.Gebeng bypass (Distance from Federal Highway Distance from Pasir Gudang to Nusajaya : 44. Johor Gebeng.1km) 25 .0km (1h 1min) Highway Pulau Indah Highway JB East Coast Highway .3km (33 mins away) • Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport. Pahang Port facility Port Klang (5km) Port Tanjung Pelepas (18.8km • Senai International Airport Sultan Ahmad Shah Airport- (52 mins away) -35. Kertih – Kuantan Port Railway Railway (Distance (Raw materials available just a stone throw from Port Tanjung Pelepas Station Line by PETRONAS (77km) of raw location) (53km) (Raw materials available just a materials availability Nearest railway station from location is the Port Klang (Most raw materials available in Pasir Gudang) stone throw from location) to the Station -Near railway station from location is Port Tanjung Nearest railway station from location) Pelepas Station location is Kuantan Port Railway .9km) .1 km .5km (30 mins away) 37.2km Port Klang Station Pasir Gudang Port Station .Kemaman Port (35km) Airport • Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA).5km the location) Distance from Shah Alam to Port Klang: 31.

26 .

 Urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru need to take into consider in paying worker with high wages due to high living cost compared to rural areas.Labour Supply 27  This factor is crucial in running manpower in the plant.  Skilled and experience local workers are needed this is to reduce the cost of importing foreign workers. .

553.874. 28 • Below are the number of populations in the three states of location: • Selangor population (5.623.100) • Johor population (3.200) .600) • Pahang population (1.

30/m3 RM0. • Aj Oleo Industries Sdn.Bhd. • Mission Biotechnologies Sdn. • Mission Biofuels Sdn. Raw Materials • Sime Darby Biodiesel Sdn.623. Bhd. Bhd. Bhd. <30km) estimated radius of 44. Bhd. (mostly located in Shah Alam and Port Klang.07/m3 RM2. Bhd. Pahang criteria Land Price RM42.00 psf • Emery Oleochemicals (M) Sdn • IOI Oleochemical Industries Sdn • FPG Oleochemicals Sdn. Bhd.00 psf RM100.84/m3 (>35 metre cube) (>35 metre cube) (>227 metre cube) Labour (Population 5. • Ypj Palm International Sdn.553. Availability • Fima Biodiesel Sdn. Bhd. Bhd.92/m3 (0-35 metre cube) (0-35 metre cube) (0-227 metre cube) Water supply Band 2 RM2. • Nexsol (Malaysia) Sdn. estimated radius of (mostly located in Pasir Gudang.1km) estimated radius of 39. Bhd.00 psf RM18.80/m3 RM0. • Vance Bioenergy Sdn. Bhd. Bhd. Sdn.200 of State) . Bhd.28/m3 RM3.100 3. • Am Biofuels Sdn. Selangor Nusajaya.600 1. • Plant Biofuels Corporation • Innovans Bio Fuel Sdn. (mostly located in Kuantan.5km) Band 1 RM2. SUMMARY 29 Selection Port Klang.874. • Kl-Kepong Oleomas Sdn. Johor Gebeng. Bhd Bhd.

Kuantan Port (5.located stone throw location) -Near railway station from location is Port Tanjung away from location) Pelepas Station Pulau Indah Highway JB East Coast Highway .1 km .5km (Domestic) Port Klang Station Pasir Gudang Port Station .9km) Port Facility .1km) .Kemaman Port (35km) International Airport. Domestic Airport- • Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) • Senai International Airport Sultan Ahmad Shah Airport Airport Domestic Airport. Johor Gebeng. Singapore • Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport Distance from the 68.Gebeng bypass Highway (Distance of raw Federal Highway Distance from Pasir Gudang to Nusajaya : 44.Selection criteria Port Klang.East Coast Highway materials NKVE Highway Distance from Kuantan to Gebeng: availability to the Elite Highway 39. Pahang 30 Port Klang (5km) Port Tanjung Pelepas (18. Selangor Nusajaya.2km . International Airport.8km (International) 35.5km 37.5km location) Distance from Shah Alam to Port Klang: 31.3km airport 32. Kertih – Kuantan Port Railway Line by Railway (Does not require to use railway as raw Port Tanjung Pelepas Station PETRONAS (77km) (Distance from materials just a stone throw from the location) (53km) (Does not require to use train service to raw materials availability to the (Most raw materials available in Pasir Gudang) obtain raw materials. • Changi International Airport.

50/m3 >RM2.50/m3 Port Facility 3 <10km 10-20km >20km Airport 3 Availability of international airport Availability of domestic airport Unavailability of airport Railway (Distance from raw 3 <30km 30-50km >50km materials availability to the location) Highway (Distance of raw 4 <30km 30-50km >50km materials availability to the location) Labour Supply 5 >5 000 000 3 000 000 – 5 000 000 <3 000 000 .00-2.Importance 1 2 3 4 5 Scale 31 Description Not Important Maybe Important Considerable Important Very Important Selection criteria Importance 4-5 3 1-2 Price of land Land Price 4 Price of land <RM25psf Price of land >RM50psf Range from RM25-RM50psf Raw Materials Ability to obtain raw materials within the Ability to obtain raw materials within Ability to obtain raw materials within 5 availability distance of <30km the range distance of 30-50km the distance of >50km Water supply 5 <RM1.00/m3 RM1.

Selangor Gebeng. Johor Port Klang.MATRIX ANALYSIS 32 Selection criteria Importance Nusajaya. Pahang Land Price 4 1x4=4 3 x 4 = 12 5 x 4 = 20 Raw Materials 5 3 x 5 = 15 4 x 5 = 20 3 x 5 = 15 availability Water supply 5 3 x 5 = 15 2 x 5 = 10 5 x 5 = 25 Port Facility 3 3x3=9 5 x 3 = 15 5 x 3 = 15 Airport 3 5 x 3 = 15 4 x 3 = 12 3x3=9 Railway 3 1x3=3 5 x 3 = 15 5 x 3 = 15 Highway 4 3 x 4 = 12 3 x 4 = 12 3 x 4 = 12 Labour Supply 5 3 x 5 = 15 4 x 5 = 20 2 x 5 = 10 Total 88 116 121 Ranking 3 2 1 .

33 Main Process Design .

Chemical process: Dehydroxylation (Hydrogenalysis) of glycerol to 1. 2.3-PDO. Bioprocess: Fermentation using bacteria to convert glycerol to 1.Main Process Design 34  Two alternatives: 1. .3-PDO.

 Fermentation is one of the bioprocess that referred as a process of growing culture of microbes in nutrient medium at maintained physicochemical conditions and thereby converting feed into desired product.First alternative: Bioprocess 35 (Fermentation)  Bioprocess is any process that uses complete living cells or their components (e. chloroplasts) to obtain desired products.  Fermentation is carried out within a bio-reactor (fermentation vessel) . enzymes.g. bacteria.

3-PDO by a NAD+.  The processes goes as below: Step 1: Glycerol is catalyzed by dehydratase into 3.) (Eqn 1.linked oxidoreductase (Eqn 2.) Step 2: 3-HPA is redueced to 1.hydroxypropionaldehyde (3- HPD) and water (Eqn 1.) (Eqn 2.3-PDO can be attained by anaerobic bacteria fermentation process or micro-aerobic fermentation. 36 PDO  Biological conversion of glycerol to 1.3.) (Pagliaro & Rossi. 2010) .Fermentation of Glycerol into 1.

Fermentation of Glycerol into 1. 2003) .3-PDO (Raynaud. Meynial-Salles. & Soucaille.)(Pagliaro & Rossi. Sarçabal. 37 PDO  The overall reaction consumes a reducing equivalent in the form of a cofactor.) Figure shows the pathway of conversion from glycerol to 1.3. reduced beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). 2010) (Eqn 3. Croux. which is oxidized to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) (Eqn 3.

3.E coli Reaction Conditions: • Klebsiella pneumoniae . 2015) • Citrobacter freundii • Lactobacillus diolivorans .5 • Clostridium pasteurianum .Temperature: 37℃ .5-7..Fermentation of Glycerol into 1.PH value: 6.Suitable reactor: Batch/Fed batch • Enterobacter agglomerans (Lee et al.Pressure: Atmospheric pressure (1 • Klebsiella oxytoca atm) • Clostridium butyricum . 38 PDO Type of bacteria strains: • Escherichia Species .

3-PDO Figure show a review on the different types of bacterial strain used in fermentation of glycerol to 1..3-PDO (Lee et al.A review on types of bacteria used in 39 fermentation of glycerol to 1. 2015) .

Matrix analysis of Production of 1.3-Propanediol 40 from Glycerol through Bio-process Factors Rating 1 2 3 4 5 Importance Not relevant Relevant Relatively important Very important important Yielding Vey low low Significant High Very high Bacterial Not available Less available Available in Highly Abundant in availability some places available in everywhere certain places Production Vey low low Significant High Very high rate Reaction Not Less Achievable Achievable Easily conditions achievable achievable with high with little achievable control control Overall cost Very high High Medium Low Very low Complexity Very complex Complex Little complex Simple Very simple .

3-Propanediol 41 from Glycerol through Bio-process Factors Importance of factor Rating Bio-process Yielding 5 4*5 Bacterial availability 4 3*4 Production rate 3 4*3 Reaction conditions 4 5*4 Overall cost 5 5*3 Complexity 4 3*4 Total 91 .Matrix analysis of Production of 1.

3-Propanediol from Glycerol Factors Importance of factor Rating Bio-process Yielding 5 4*5 Bacterial availability 4 3*4 Production rate 3 4*3 Reaction conditions 4 5*4 Overall cost 5 5*3 Complexity 4 3*4 Total 91 .Matrix analysis of Both Processes Production of 42 1.

Cognet. L. & Rossi. M..033  Pagliaro. Pérès- Lucchese.rser. 42. Daud. (2010). .10.1016/j. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.. P..References: 43  Lee. . L. (2015).. Aroua. M.. C. 963-972.. Y. W. A. . A review: Conversion of bioglycerol into 1. K. Latapie. M. P. .3-propanediol via biological and chemical method. S. The Future of Glycerol: Royal Society of Chemistry.2014. W.. doi: 10. Fabre. M.

(Lee et al. 2015) .Second alternative: Chemical Process: 44 Dehydroxylation of Glycerol (Glycerol hydrogenalysis)  Glycerol hydrogenalysis: a catalytic chemical process that breaks a chemical bond of carbon-carbon or carbon-oxygen in glycerol followed by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen atom to from a molecular fragment.  The process selectively transforms the central hydroxyl group of glycerol into a tosyloxyl group and then removes the transformed group by catalytic hydrogenalysis..

2015) ..Second alternative: Chemical Process: 45 Dehydroxylation of Glycerol (Glycerol hydrogenalysis)  Consists of 3 steps: Step 1: Acetalization (Lee et al.

2015) ..Second alternative: Chemical Process: 46 Dehydroxylation of Glycerol (Glycerol hydrogenalysis)  Consists of 3 steps: Step 2: Tosylation (Lee et al.

Second alternative: Chemical Process: Dehydroxylation of Glycerol (Glycerol 47 hydrogenalysis)  Consists of 3 steps: Step 3: Detosylation (Lee et al.. 2015) .

Second alternative: Chemical Process:
Dehydroxylation of Glycerol (Glycerol 48
hydrogenalysis)

Condtions:
The hydrogenolysis reaction was carried out over
Raney¨CNi catalyst under H2 pressure 3 MPa and 433 K for
24 h. (Lee et al., 2015)

Influence of solvents on hydrogenolysis of 49
glycerol over the Pt/WO3/ZrO2 catalyst
Selectivity 1,3-PD Reaction conditions:
Solvent Conversion 1)10% glycerol solution
1,3-PD 1,2-PD 1-PO Others Yield(%)
40 ml
DMI 32.5 15.2 18.2 42.0 22.7 4.9 2)initial H2 pressure 5.5
Mpa
Sulfolane 33.8 5.3 14.6 19.9 57.2 1.8 3)reaction
Ethanol 38.2 23.0 13.6 46.6 12.7 8.8 temperature 170 ºC
4)reaction time 12 h
Water 24.7 25.7 15 21.3 35.0 6.3 5) catalyst 1 ml
DMI-
31.6 34.9 8.7 20.5 4.0 11.0
water
DMI-
45.6 29.3 18.9 33.1 16.7 13.3
Ethanol
DMI—1,3-dimethyl-
Ethanol-
45.7 21.2 8.0 32.1 35.7 9.7 2-imidazolidinone
water

Leifeng et al.. (2009). Solvent Effect on Selective Dehydroxylation of Glycerol to 1,3-Propanediol
over a Pt/WO3/ZrO2 Catalyst . CHINESE JOURNAL OF CATALYSIS , 30(12), 1189-1191.

Matrix analysis of Both Processes Production of
50
1,3-Propanediol from Glycerol

Rating
Factors Importance of factor
Bio-process Chemical Process

Yielding 5 4*5 5*5
Bacterial availability/
Catalyst availability
4 3*4 4*4

Production rate 3 4*3 4*3
Reaction conditions 4 5*4 5*4

Overall cost 5 5*3 3*4

Complexity 4 3*4 4*4

Total 91 101

E.  Shanthi priya et al.A.T. (2003). Martin.S.. Ind Eng Chem Res. C & Scott. Ind Eng Chem Res. . High Efficiency Conversion of Glycerol to 1. 54(37).3-Propanediol Using a Novel Platinum–Tungsten Catalyst Supported on SBA-15. Conversion of Glycerol to 1.D. 42(1). 9104-9115.H.3-Propanediol via Selective Dehydroxylation.References 51  Keyi wang. J. (2015).O. 2913-2923.

Comparison between 2 processes: 52 Bioprocess Chemical process High yield(depends on type of High (up to 72%) bacteria used) Expensive equipment and High raw material cost. . which complicated procedures. a chemical currently produced only on a small scale because of the low demand. mainly results from consumption of tosyl chloride.

53 Selection Of Separation SEPARATION SYSTEM SYNTHESIS .

 Acidification of a biodiesel plant waste crude glycerol (containing approximately 13 wt% glycerol and 6 wt% ash) for a total processing time of 1 h.  High value applications of the phosphates with easy scalability of the process make it very promising for commercialization.1(1): 1004. 2014. Austin Chem Eng. Purification of Crude Glycerol using Acidification: Effects of Acid Types and Product Characterization.Purification of Crude Glycerol using 54 Acidification  Crude glycerol was purified by acidification using phosphoric acid as it was found to be the best purifying agent among the others. .7 wt% ash. Poirier MA and Chunbao X. Yuan Z. Qin W. and 0. Nanda MR. produced a purified product containing approximately 96 wt% glycerol.

separator funnel evaporation of water further purified by activated charcoal to at 110OC for 2h and solvent extraction de-color and remove filtration to remove the process using odor and some metal precipitated salt. gentle stirring was 55 acidified with formation crude glycerol was phosphoric acid to a melted at 55OC of three separate desired pH layers level The fatty The bottom phase was acid-rich top phase glycerol neutralized separated by simple was separated using a using KOH solution decantation. methanol as solvent ions .

 Product: 96. the glycerin content has increased without using the expensive vacuum distillation.Purification of Glycerin By-product from 56 Biodiesel Production Using Electrolysis Process  A cost-effective alternative to purify crude glycerin by using electrolysis. low viscosity and low voltage.4% Glycerol T Surrod. MONG and aluminum. as well as obtaining the technical and economical feasibility. 2011.  5 pretreatment steps together with the electrolysis process.  Electrolysis process can be remove some of free fatty acid. Krabi .  Requires that glycerin is a good move. C Pattamaprom: Purification of Glycerin By-product from Biodiesel Production Using Electrolysis Process : The Second TSME International Conference on Mechanical Engineering 19-21 October.

2(g) - Al + 3e Al 3+ .Anode: Al Al + 3e (s) 3+(aq) - 57 (lose electrons) Al + 3H O Al(OH) + 3+(aq) 2 3 3H + nAl(OH)3 Al (OH) n 3n Cathode: 2H O + 2e H + 2OH 2 . (s) (gain electrons) .

Technol. H.2% (w/w). N. This type of adsorbent is stable and could possibly be used for adsorption of other toxic metals in waste water systems. Sci. low-cost and rapid adsorption. Saifuddin.. 2014 .Rapid Purification of Glycerol by-product from Biodiesel Production through Combined Process of Microwave Assisted Acidification and 58 Adsorption via Chitosan Immobilized with Yeast  The stages starts with using microwave assisted acidification process and the next process utilizing a bioadsorbent synthesized from dead yeast cells immobilized on chitosan.  Bioadsorbents were characteristic of broad sources. J. Refal and P.  Final yield of glycerol was about 93.1-94. Appl. Kumaran: Rapid Purification of Glycerol by-product from Biodiesel Production through Combined Process of Microwave Assisted Acidification and Adsorption via Chitosan Immobilized with Yeast :Res. Eng. 7(3): 593-602.

59 Immobilization of dead Ultrasonic pre-treatment yeast cells on chitosan beads Initial purification of pretreated waste Crude glycerol glycerol by reduction of refinement steps free fatty acid and salt levels via microwave assisted acidification Final purification of the partially purified glycerol using the bioadsorbent chitosan immobilized with yeast cells .

A Universal Procedure for Crude Glycerol 60 Purification from Different Feedstocks in Biodiesel Production  A universal procedure for crude glycerol purification. Eng. Chem.G Xiao.: A Universal Procedure for Crude Glycerol Purification from Different Feedstocks in Biodiesel Production: Experimental and Simulation Study: Ind. including as key steps initial microfiltration of the crude glycerol. 2013.  Product: >93.and A Varma. 52.  Universal procedure is suitable to purify a variety of crude glycerol samples. acidification. Res. saponification. phase separation. and biphasic extraction of upper- and lower-layer products.0% glycerol Y Xiao. 14291−14296 .

61 .

1-94 93.4 93. Comparison 62 Type Acidification Electrolysis Microwave Assisted Universal Acidification and Procedure Adsorption Main Component Phosphorus Aluminium Bioadsorbent Vacuum -availability -number of unit Acid Chitosan and Yeast Evaporation and Microfiltration Complexity Not complex Not Complex Complex Complex -number of stages -pressure and temperature requirement Cost Low Cost Low Cost Low Cost High Cost -number of equipment -component Feed Specific No specification Specific No Specification -purification of feed Product Glycerol 96 96.0 -weightage .

Matrix Analysis 63 Factors Main Complexity Cost Feed Product Total Compone Glycerol (%) nt Importance 3 4 5 2 4 Acidification 4 x 3= 12 3 x 4 = 12 4 x 5 = 20 3x2=6 5 x 4 = 20 70 Electrolysis 4 x 3= 12 3 x 4 = 12 5 x 5 = 25 4x2=8 5 x 4 = 20 77 Microwave Assisted 3 x 3= 9 2x4=8 4 x 5 = 20 3x2=6 4 x 4 = 16 59 Acidification and Adsorption Universal Procedure 2 x 3= 6 2x4=8 2 x 5 = 10 5 x 2 = 10 4 x 4 = 16 50 Importance Scale 1 2 3 4 5 Description Not Importance Maybe Important Considerable Important Very Important Factors Scale 1 2 3 4 5 Description Not Preferable Less Preferable Considerable Preferable Most Preferable .