Chapter 1 - Introduction

• What is materials science?
• Why should we know about it?

• Materials drive our society
– Stone Age
– Bronze Age
– Iron Age
– Now?
• Silicon Age?
• Polymer Age?

Chapter 1 - 1

Particularly those with large loads (such as hip). Example – Hip Implant • With age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate. 22.25.2 . Adapted from Fig. Chapter 1 . Callister 7e.

Callister 7e. Chapter 1 . Example – Hip Implant • Requirements – mechanical strength (many cycles) – good lubricity – biocompatibility Adapted from Fig.24. 22.3 .

22. Chapter 1 . Callister 7e.26.Example – Hip Implant Adapted from Fig.4 .

.) Chapter 1 . Callister 7e. IN. Warsaw. Inc. (Photograph courtesy of Zimmer. Hip Implant • Key problems to overcome – fixation agent to hold Ball acetabular cup – cup lubrication material – femoral stem – fixing agent Acetabular – must avoid any debris in cup Cup and Liner Femoral Stem Adapted from chapter-opening photograph. Chapter 22. USA.5 .

00 / lb Ex. $0. • Engineering Resins – small volume > $1.50 / lb Ex. Example – Develop New Types of Polymers • Commodity plastics – large volume ca. Polycarbonate Nylon Polysulfone etc. Polyethylene Polypropylene Polystyrene etc.6 . Can polypropylene be “upgraded” to properties (and price) near those of engineering resins? Chapter 1 .

8. 12. (Figures 30 μm 12. Figure 9.33.31(a) and 12.33 copyright 1971 by United 200 30 μm States Steel Corporation.30 courtesy of Republic Steel Corporation.) 100 0.29. & Properties • Properties depend on structure ex: hardness vs structure of steel (d) 600 Hardness (BHN) 30 μm 500 (c) Data obtained from Figs. 12. Processing.19. 12. Callister & Rethwisch 9e.32 with 4 wt% C composition. 4 μm 300 (b) Fig.7 .21. and from 400 (b) Fig.19. (c) Fig. Structure. 12. Callister & Rethwisch 9e.1 1 10 100 1000 Cooling Rate (ºC/s) • Processing can change structure ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel Chapter 1 . 12.01 0. and (d) Fig. 17.21. (a) Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig. 11. & 12.

elastic – Non-conducting (insulators) Chapter 1 . • Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) – compounds of metallic & non-metallic elements (oxides. low strength. • Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding  sharing of electrons – Soft. reflective. ductile. nitrides. glassy. carbides. low density – Thermal & electrical insulators – Optically translucent or transparent. ductile – High thermal & electrical conductivity – Opaque. sulfides) – Brittle. Types of Materials • Metals: – Strong.8 .

composition. Chapter 1 . vapor deposition. Material Identify required Processing Processing: changes structure and overall shape ex: casting. 2. sintering. Properties Identify candidate Material(s) Material: structure. optical. joining.9 . Pick Application Determine required Properties Properties: mechanical. doping forming. annealing. magnetic. The Materials Selection Process 1. 3. deteriorative. thermal. electrical.

219 (1932).A.10 . Thomson. ELECTRICAL • Electrical Resistivity of Copper: 6 Fig. 1970. Callister & Rethwisch 9e.O. Chapter 1 . • Deforming Cu increases resistivity. 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill Company. Ann Physik 5. Wert and R. 5 Physics of Solids.] Resistivity. New York.M. 19. and C. ρ (10-8 Ohm-m) 4 3 2 1 0 -200 -100 0 T (°C) • Adding “impurity” atoms to Cu increases resistivity. [Adapted from: J.8. Linde.

Silica fiber insulation of Copper: offers low heat conduction. Vol. 9th ed.4W. (Managing (Note: "W" denotes fig.) 100 μm Chapter 1 . Chapter 17.11 . Baker.] CD-ROM. Fig. -. Callister 6e.. CA) Metals. ASM International.) 300 (W/m-K) 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 Composition (wt% Zinc) Fig. H. 315. THERMAL • Space Shuttle Tiles: • Thermal Conductivity -. 19. 2. 20. 1979.4. is on Editor). Inc. Sunnyvale. (Courtesy of Lockheed [Adapted from Metals Handbook: Properties Aerospace Ceramics and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Systems.It decreases when Chapter-opening you add zinc! photograph. Thermal Conductivity (Courtesy of Lockheed 400 Missiles and Space Company. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. Callister & Rethwisch 3e. p.

1-7(a). (Courtesy of HGST. Materials. Inc. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. p. The Principles of Engineering Fig. and A. a Western Digital Company. 1973. MAGNETIC • Magnetic Storage: • Magnetic Permeability -. 21. New Jersey.D.S. makes Fe a better recording medium! Fe+3%Si Magnetization Fe Magnetic Field Adapted from C.12 . Chapter 1 . Tetelman.23. Nix.Adding 3 atomic % Si recording head. Upper Saddle River.Recording medium vs.R.. 9. Fig. W.) Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson Education. Composition: is magnetized by -. Barrett.

Lessing) Chapter 1 .. 1.Aluminum oxide may be transparent. and degree of porosity). or opaque depending on the material’s structure (i. single crystal vs.13 .2. OPTICAL • Transmittance: -. P. polycrystal: polycrystal: single crystal no porosity some porosity Fig. (Specimen preparation.e. polycrystal.A. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. translucent.

. Inc. Brown Boveri Co. (from Marine Corrosion.). p. 18.) Chapter 1 . Causes..20(b). "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.21. R. (Original source: Markus O.W. John Wiley and Sons.) Adapted from Fig. and Prevention.14 .. Speidel. DETERIORATIVE • Stress & Saltwater. Hertzberg. John Wiley and Sons.causes cracks! crack speed in salt water! 10-8 “as-is” crack speed (m/s) “held at 160°C for 1 hr before testing” Alloy 7178 tested in 10-10 saturated aqueous NaCl solution at 23°C increasing load Fig. 1996. • Heat treatment: slows -. 1975. 11. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. 505.

15 . • Recognize new design opportunities offered by materials selection. Chapter 1 . • Understand the relation between properties. structure. and processing. SUMMARY Course Goals: • Use the right material for the job.

16 . ANNOUNCEMENTS Reading: Core Problems: Self-help Problems: Chapter 1 .