Chapter 10: Failure

ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
• How do cracks that lead to failure form?
• How is fracture resistance quantified? How do the fracture
resistances of the different material classes compare?
• How do we estimate the stress to fracture?
• How do loading rate, loading history, and temperature
affect the failure behavior of materials?

Neal Boenzi/New York Times Pictures/Redux
Pictures

Ship-cyclic loading Computer chip-cyclic Hip implant-cyclic
from waves. thermal loading. loading from walking.
Chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 10, Adapted from Fig. 22.30(b), Callister 7e. Adapted from Fig. 22.26(b),
Callister & Rethwisch 9e. (Courtesy of National Semiconductor Corporation.) Callister 7e.

Chapter 10 - 1

Fracture mechanisms
• Ductile fracture
– Accompanied by significant plastic
deformation
• Brittle fracture
– Little or no plastic deformation
– Catastrophic

Chapter 10 - 2

Ductile vs Brittle Failure
• Classification:
Fracture Very Moderately
Brittle
behavior: Ductile Ductile

Adapted from Fig. 10.1,
Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

%AR or %EL Large Moderate Small
• Ductile fracture is Ductile: Brittle:
usually more desirable Warning before No
than brittle fracture! fracture warning

Chapter 10 - 3

p.many pieces -.1(a) and (b).J.A. Chapter 10 . Heiser.).large deformation • Brittle failure: -. 4. Analysis of Metallurgical Failures (2nd ed. Used with permission. Colangelo and F. Inc..one piece -. Fig. 1987. 66 John Wiley and Sons.4 . Example: Pipe Failures • Ductile failure: -.small deformations Figures from V.

(Orig. sites.J. Vol. Colangelo and F. p. Heiser. OH. CC Technologies. Inc. Fig.A. Roehrig.) Chapter 10 ..28. P. 1987. Used with nucleation and Sons. Moderately Ductile Failure • Failure Stages: void void growth shearing necking fracture nucleation and coalescence at surface σ • Resulting 50 50mm mm fracture surfaces (steel) 100 mm particles From V. 294. Sci.5 . J. Fracture surface of tire cord wire loaded in serve as void Analysis of Metallurgical Failures (2nd ed.. Courtesy of F. 6. 347-56. pp.). Mater. 11. 1971. Thornton. John Wiley tension. source: permission. Dublin.

Brittle Failure cup-and-cone fracture brittle fracture Fig. Chapter 10 . 10.Moderately Ductile vs.6 . Callister & Rethwisch 9e.3.

5(a). Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials.7 . Photograph courtesy of Roger Slutter. Inc. Brittle Failure Arrows indicate point at which failure originated Fig. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. Lehigh University.] Chapter 10 . Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons. 3rd edition. Hertzberg. 10. New York. [From R. W. Copyright © 1989 by John Wiley & Sons.

Argonne National Lab. Inc. International. ASM Park. 650. (Micrograph by International.8 . 7. Materials Copyright 1985. p. Park.) Polypropylene Al Oxide (polymer) (ceramic) Reprinted w/ permission Reprinted w/ permission from R. 3. Society. from "Metals Handbook". American Ceramic (4th ed. (Micrograph by Olsen.) Fig. Steel Reprinted w/permission (metal) from "Metals Handbook". Westerville.R. 1119. 633. Oak Ridge D. ICF4.35(d). OH. OH. Steel (through grains) (metal) 316 S. 1996. Materials J. Gruver and H. p.) 160 mm 4 mm National Lab. Keiser and A. from "Failure Analysis of "Deformation and Brittle Materials". 1977.R. The Engineering Materials". Friedrick.) 3 mm 1 mm (Orig. ASM 9th ed. p. p. CA. source: K. Fig. Vol. Copyright 1985. OH. Fig. Kirchner. Brittle Fracture Surfaces • Intergranular • Transgranular (between grains) 304 S. Hertzberg. 650.M. Reprinted w/ permission 9th ed. John Wiley and (Micrograph by R. 357. Waterloo. 303.R.) Chapter 10 . Diercks. Sons. 78. Fracture Mechanics of Copyright 1990..W. Fracture 1977. p.

-.. Hertzberg.W. Reprinted w/ permission from R.9 .. Inc.4.. 7. and Sons. -. 1996. Fracture Mechanics of Engineering • Reasons: Materials". John Wiley -.the longer the wire. (4th ed.larger samples contain longer flaws! Chapter 10 .flaws cause premature failure. the "Deformation and smaller the load for failure. Ideal vs Real Materials • Stress-strain behavior (Room T): σ perfect mat’l-no flaws E/10 TS engineering << TS perfect materials materials carefully produced glass fiber E/100 typical ceramic typical strengthened metal typical polymer 0.1 e • DaVinci (500 yrs ago!) observed.) Fig.

Flaws are Stress Concentrators! • Griffith Crack t where t = radius of curvature σo = applied stress σm = stress at crack tip Fig. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. Chapter 10 .10 .8(a). 10.

Chapter 10 . Callister & Rethwisch 9e. 10.Concentration of Stress at Crack Tip Adapted from Fig.8(b).11 .

K t = σ0 w σmax 2.0 increasing w/h radius Adapted from Fig. Eng. 82-87 1943. pp. 14.12 .) 1.5 r.5 1. Prod. Callister 6e. Neugebauer. 1. (Fig. Factor.5 8. h fillet 2. 8. (NY).0 sharper fillet radius Chapter 10 . Engineering Fracture Design • Avoid sharp corners! σ0 σmax Stress Conc.H.0 r/h 0 0. Vol.2W(c).2W(c) is from G.

deformed region brittle ductile Energy balance on the crack • Elastic strain energy- • energy stored in material as it is elastically deformed • this energy is released when the crack propagates • creation of new surfaces requires energy Chapter 10 . which “blunts” the crack. Crack Propagation Cracks having sharp tips propagate easier than cracks having blunt tips • A plastic material deforms at a crack tip.13 .

σm > σc where – E = modulus of elasticity – s = specific surface energy – a = one half length of internal crack For ductile materials => replace γs with γs + γp where γp is plastic deformation energy Chapter 10 . Criterion for Crack Propagation Crack propagates if crack-tip stress (σm) exceeds a critical stress (σc) i.14 ..e.

. Plenum Press PP (1986).15 .T. Cornie. Inc. Y2 O 3 /ZrO 2 (p) 4 p = particles. 3 PVC 4.. Golden. (20vol%) F. MA. Fracture Toughness Ranges Graphite/ Metals/ Composites/ Ceramics/ Polymers Alloys fibers Semicond 100 C-C(|| fibers) 1 70 Steels 60 Ti alloys 50 40 Al alloys 30 Mg alloys Based on data in Table B. 1 <100> Si crystal PS Glass 6 <111> 0. 7 (1986) pp. Vol.F. Proc.7 Glass -soda 0. Vol. 61-73.. Buljan et al. 978-82. 20 Composite reinforcement geometry is: f Al/Al oxide(sf) 2 = fibers. "Development of 2 PC Ceramic Matrix Composites for Application in Technology for Advanced Engines Program". Courtesy CoorsTek. OH (2001) p. 7. (55 vol%) Courtesy J. ORNL. Vol. Eng. 5 Al oxide PET 3. ASM Int.D.6 Polyester Concrete 0.5 Chapter 10 . 606. w = whiskers. 1992... Ceram. Sci. fraction of reinforcement): Al oxid/SiC(w) 3 1. (30 vol%) S. Diamond Si nitr/SiC(w) 5 Materials Park. 5. Addition data as noted 10 C/C( fibers) 1 (vol. 6. sf = short fibers. 6 Si carbide Glass/SiC(w) 6 Waltham. CO. Gace et al. 21. (55vol%) ASM Handbook. 7 Al oxid/ZrO 2 (p) 4 2. K Ic (MPa · m 0. (30 vol%) P.. Becher et al.5 ) Callister & Rethwisch 9e. pp.5. ORNL/Sub/85-22011/2. MMC. Fracture 4 Si nitride Mechanics of Ceramics.

Design Against Crack Growth • Crack growth condition: K ≥ Kc = • Largest. flaw size.16 . amax σ fracture fracture no no fracture amax fracture σ Chapter 10 . most highly stressed cracks grow first! --Scenario 1: Max. dictates max. flaw --Scenario 2: Design stress size dictates design stress.

5 • Two designs to consider. constant --Result: 112 MPa 9 mm 4 mm Answer: Chapter 10 ... Design Example: Aircraft Wing • Material has KIc = 26 MPa-m0. Design A Design B --largest flaw is 9 mm --use same material --failure stress = 112 MPa --largest flaw is 4 mm --failure stress = ? • Use. • Key point: Y and KIc are the same for both designs.17 ...

Mechanical Behavior.W. Inc.) final height initial height Chapter 10 . Impact Testing • Impact loading: (Charpy) -. John Wiley and Sons. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. Moffatt. III. The Structure and Properties of Materials. Vol.makes material more brittle -. 10.18 . Hayden. (Adapted from H. Wulff. W.decreases toughness Fig. and J.12(b).severe testing case -.G. (1965) p. 13.

FCC metals (e. Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature Chapter 10 . Influence of Temperature on Impact Energy • Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT). Ni) Impact Energy BCC metals (e... 10..19 ..g.15. iron at T < 914°C) polymers Brittle More Ductile High strength materials ( σy > E/150) Temperature Adapted from Fig.g. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. Cu.

(Orig. Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials". source: 7. John Wiley and Sons. "Behavior of Engineering Structures".W. "Deformation and Reprinted w/ permission from R. source: Dr.) Fig. Council. Parker. Res. Acad..) • Problem: Steels were used having DBTT’s just below room temperature. John Wiley and Sons. "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials". p. 7. 262. Hertzberg. Design Strategy: Stay Above The DBTT! • Pre-WWII: The Titanic • WWII: Liberty ships Reprinted w/ permission from R. Robert D. John Wiley and Sons.W. 262. Nat.) Earl R. Chapter 10 .1(a). NY. 1996. Inc.. Hertzberg. Ballard.1(b). (Orig. (4th ed. p.) Fig.. Nat.. Inc. Inc. 1996. Sci.20 . (4th ed. 1957. The Discovery of the Titanic.

key parameters are S.18(a). Adapted from Fig. and σ min time cycling frequency • Key points: Fatigue. 10. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. σm.21 .. σ σ max • Stress varies with time. Chapter 10 . --responsible for ~ 90% of mechanical engineering failures. σm S -.. --can cause part failure. Fatigue • Fatigue = failure under applied cyclic stress. even though σmax < σy.

19(b).22 .) limit! safe Adapted from Fig. 10. case for there is no fatigue unsafe Al (typ. Types of Fatigue Behavior S = stress amplitude • Fatigue limit. 10 3 10 5 10 7 10 9 N = Cycles to failure S = stress amplitude • For some materials. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. 10.19(a). 10 3 10 5 10 7 10 9 N = Cycles to failure Chapter 10 . Callister & Rethwisch 9e.) Sfat safe Adapted from Fig. Sfat: case for --no fatigue if S < Sfat unsafe steel (typ.

22.) Chapter 10 . Understanding How • loading freq. 1 to 6 increase in crack length per loading cycle crack origin • Failed rotating shaft -.23 . Callister & Rethwisch 9e. 1985.crack grew even though Kmax < Kc -. Materials Park. 10. Components Fail.crack grows faster as • Δσ increases Fig. OH. Reproduced by permission of ASM International. J. Rate of Fatigue Crack Growth • Crack grows incrementally typ. Wulpi. • crack gets longer (From D. increases.

10. Remove stress bad better concentrators. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. Improving Fatigue Life S = stress amplitude 1. Impose compressive Adapted from surface stresses Fig. 10.25. bad better Chapter 10 . (to suppress surface near zero or compressive σm cracks from growing) moderate tensile σm Larger tensile σm N = Cycles to failure --Method 1: shot peening --Method 2: carburizing shot C-rich gas put surface into compression 2. Fig.26. Callister & Rethwisch 9e.24 .

Secondary Creep: steady-state i.29.e..e 0 t Primary Creep: slope (creep rate) decreases with time. increases with time. Callister & Tertiary Creep: slope (creep rate) Rethwisch 9e. Chapter 10 . constant slope (Δe /Δt).25 .e. Adapted from Fig. time σ σ. 10. acceleration of rate. Creep Sample deformation at a constant stress (σ) vs. i.

26 . Creep: Temperature Dependence • Occurs at elevated temperature.4 Tm (in K) tertiary primary secondary elastic Figs. Chapter 10 . 10. Callister & Rethwisch 9e.30. T > 0.

38.strain hardening is balanced by recovery stress exponent (material parameter) activation energy for creep strain rate (material parameter) material const. 3. 10 131. 1980. Benjamin (Senior Ed. and Special Purpose Metals. Secondary Creep • Strain rate is constant at a given T.] 10 -2 10 -1 1 Steady state creep rate es (%/1000hr) Chapter 10 . Vol. 9. σ Materials. 649°C ASM International. D. 9th 20 ed. Tool T.27 .. s -. increases 100 [Reprinted with permission from Metals Handbook: 538°C with increasing 40 Properties and Selection: Stainless Steels. Callister & Stress (MPa) Rethwisch 4e. p.). applied stress Adapted from • Strain rate 200 427°C Fig.

cavities applied stress From V.J. 1987.28 . Analysis of Metallurgical Failures (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons. 87.32. Creep Failure • Failure: along grain boundaries. g. 4. Inc. Heiser.. source: Pergamon Press.) Chapter 10 .b. (Orig.A. p. Fig. Colangelo and F. Inc.

Miller. 10. Reprinted by permission of ASME) Ans: tr = 233 hr Chapter 10 .33.29 .R. tr Stress (MPa) temperature function of 100 applied stress time to failure (rupture) data for S-590 Iron 12 16 20 24 28 (1073 K)(20  log tr )  24x103 103 T(20 + log tr (K-h) Adapted from Fig. s = 140 MPa 1000 Time to rupture. T = 800°C. 74. 765 (1952). (From F. Trans. ASME. Callister & Rethwisch 9e. Prediction of Creep Rupture Lifetime • Estimate rupture time S-590 Iron. Larson and J.

30 .increased maximum flaw size.decreased T. Chapter 10 . .cycles to fail decreases as Δσ increases.For creep (T > 0. failure stress decreases with: . .time to rupture decreases as σ or T increases. • Failure type depends on T and σ : -For simple fracture (noncyclic σ and T < 0. SUMMARY • Engineering materials not as strong as predicted by theory • Flaws act as stress concentrators that cause failure at stresses lower than theoretical values.increased rate of loading.4Tm).For fatigue (cyclic σ): .4Tm): . • Sharp corners produce large stress concentrations and premature failure. . .

ANNOUNCEMENTS Reading: Core Problems: Self-help Problems: Chapter 10 .31 .