Prenatal/Neonatal Drug

Exposure and Its Effects on
Child Development
Kylie Levin
Inclusion Exclusion

Child development Alcohol abuse

Drug exposure Fetal alcohol syndrome

Prenatal/neonatal Nicotine/cigarette smoking

Pregnancy Over the age of 5

Development

Birth to 3 years
What is Prenatal Drug Exposure?

When a mother participates in drug use during pregnancy,
her fetus is introduced to the drug through the mother’s
bloodstream and into the placenta…resulting in possible
dependency and/or developmental difficulties
History of Drug Exposure
and Child Development
More research on alcohol use during pregnancy…more research needed on
drug abuse

“In 1999, the number of Americans who had tried MA in their lifetime was 9.4
million (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2002),
double from what it was in 1994 (Office Applied Studies, 1995). By 2004, the
number had reached nearly 12 million (Office of Applied Studies, 2005)” (Smith et
al., 2011)

“Between 2000 and 2009, the incidence of newborns who exhibited signs of
withdrawal and required treatment for NAS (neonatal abstinence syndrome)
increased from 1.20 to 3.39 per 1000 hospital births per year” (Patrick et al., 2009)
Article #1-
Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database

Purpose: Evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic
drugs on psychomotor development in children

Methods: Psychomotor assessment completed by doctor, mom
delivered in Haute-Garonne (SW France) in a 5-year span, found
through database and excluded first trimester drug use and non-
psychotropic drugs (493: 32,796)

Results: Exposed group reached fewer milestones at 9 and 24 months
Article #2-
Neurological and developmental outcomes of prenatally cocaine-exposed offspring from 12 to 36 months

Purpose: Compare the development and neurological outcomes of
children exposed and children not exposed to drugs before birth

Methods: Physical and neurological exam during 12, 18, 24, and 36
month visits, BSID (Mental and Psychomotor developmental indices),
behavior checklist questionnaire (147: 89)

Results: CG women reported having less support from family and
friends, CG offspring exhibited suspicious or abnormal neurological
signs at birth and across ALL testing periods
Article #3-
Motor and cognitive outcomes through three years of age in children exposed to prenatal methamphetamine

Purpose: Examine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on motor and
cognitive development in children at 1, 2, and 3 years of age

Methods: Substance Use Inventory Questionnaire, PDMS, BSID (179:
177)

Results: Heavy MA exposure was associated with significantly lower
grasp scores than some MA-exposed and no use, no effects of heavy
MA exposure on MDI and PDI at any age, still uncertain of MA’s affects
Heroin kids: Doctors help children impacted by the heroin epidemic
New and Improved Perspective

This topic is becoming more and more common…
especially in NE Ohio
Part C: SEC. 637. State Application and Assurances
“. . . require the referral for early intervention services under this part of
a child under the age of 3 who—
Is involved in a substantiated case of child abuse or neglect; or
Is identified as affected by illegal substance abuse, or withdrawal
symptoms resulting from prenatal drug exposure;”
References
Beckwith, A.M. & Burke, S.A. (2014). Identification of early developmental deficits in infants with prenatal heroin, methadone, and other opioid exposure.
Clinical Pediatrics, 54(4), 328-335. Doi: 10.1177/000992281454549545.

Hurault-Delarue, C., Damase-Michel, C., Finotto, L., Guitard, C., Vayssière, C., Montastruc, J., Montastruc, F., & Lacroix, I. (2016). Psychomotor
developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 30, 476-482. Doi:
10.1111/fcp.12209

Lewis, M.W., Misra, S., Johnson, H.L., & Rosen, T.S. (2004). Neurological and developmental outcomes of prenatally cocaine-exposed offspring from 12 to 36
months. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(2), 299-320. Doi: 10.1081/ADA-120037380

Patrick S.W., Schumacher R.E., Benneyworth B.D., Krans E.E., McAllister J.M., Davis M.M. Neonatal abstinence syndrome and associated health care
expenditures: United States, 2000-2009. JAMA. 2012;307:1934-1940.

Smith, L.M., LaGasse, L.L., Derauf, C., Newman, E., Shah, R., Haning, W.,…, & Lester, B.M. (2011). Motor and cognitive outcomes through three years of age
in children exposed to prenatal methamphetamine. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 33, 176- 184. Doi: 10.1016/j.ntt.2010.10.004