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Represented by:-

DHEERAJ DUBEY

HIMANSHU NINAWAT

HUNNY GUPTA

CONTROL CHARTS

The control chart is a graph used

to study how a process changes

over time. Data are plotted in time

order. A control chart always has a

central line for the average, an

upper line for the upper control

limit and a lower line for the

lower control limit. These lines

are determined from historical

data.

4-2

WHERE TO USE CONTROL CHARTS Process has a tendency to go out of control Process is particularly harmful and costly if it goes out of control Examples at the beginning of a process because it is a waste of time and money to begin production process with bad supplies before a costly or irreversible point. after which product is difficult to rework or correct before and after assembly or painting operations that might cover defects before the outgoing final product or service is delivered 4-3 .

CONTROL CHARTS A graph that establishes control limits of a process Control limits upper and lower bands of a control chart Types of charts Attributes p-chart c-chart Variables range (R-chart) mean (x bar – chart) 4-4 .

PROCESS CONTROL CHART Out of control Upper control limit Process average Lower control limit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 104-5 Sample number .

A PROCESS IS IN CONTROL IF … … no sample points outside limits … most points near process average … about equal number of points above and below centerline … points appear randomly distributed 4-6 .

4-7 .CONTROL CHARTS FOR ATTRIBUTES p-charts uses portion defective in a sample c-charts uses number of defects in an item Gant charts A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a production control tool.

an estimate of process average p = standard deviation of sample proportion p(1 .p) p = n 4-8 .P-CHART UCL = p + zp LCL = p .zp z = number of standard deviations from process average p = sample proportion defective.

P-CHART EXAMPLE NUMBER OF PROPORTION SAMPLE DEFECTIVES DEFECTIVE 1 6 .18 200 20 samples of 100 pairs of jeans 4-9 .04 : : : : : : 20 18 .00 3 4 .06 2 0 .

0.10) UCL = p + z = 0.10(1 .p) 0.) total defectives p = total sample observations = 200 / 20(100) = 0.P-CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.p) 0.10 .10 p(1 .3 n 100 LCL = 0.010 4-10 .10) LCL = p .10(1 .z = 0.0.190 p(1 .10 + 3 n 100 UCL = 0.

10 0.20 0.) 0.14 Proportion defective 0.16 0.12 p = 0.18 UCL = 0.010 4-11 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Sample number .02 LCL = 0.06 0.04 0.190 0.P-CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.10 0.08 0.

C-CHART UCL = c + zc c = c LCL = c .zc where c = number of defects per sample 4-12 .

67 + 3 12.) Number of defects in 15 sample rooms NUMBER OF SAMPLE DEFECTS 190 1 12 c= = 12.67 : : = 23.67 15 2 8 UCL = c + zc 3 16 = 12.67 .67 190 = 1.99 4-13 .35 : : LCL = c + zc 15 15 = 12.3 12.C-CHART (CONT.

67 15 12 9 6 3 LCL = 1.35 21 18 Number of defects c = 12.) 24 UCL = 23.C-CHART (CONT.99 4-14 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Sample number .

Gantt. and track specific tasks in a project. a Gantt chart provides a graphical illustration of a schedule that helps to plan. GANT CHARTS A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a production control tool in 1917 by Henry L. coordinate. an American engineer and social scientist. Frequently used in project management. 4-15 .

.

GANTT CHART .

CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES Mean chart ( x -Chart ) uses average of a sample Range chart ( R-Chart ) uses amount of dispersion in a sample 4-18 .

A2R where = x = average of sample means 4-19 . xk = x= k = = UCL = x + A2R LCL = x ...X-BAR CHART x1 + x2 + .

08 5.03 7 5.14 5.00 4.01 4.99 5.01 4.99 4-20 Example 15.08 9 5.06 5.96 4.98 4.03 5.91 5.99 5.08 5.89 5 4.96 2 5.96 5.98 5.99 8 5.05 5.03 4.02 5.10 5.RING DIAMETER.92 5.01 5.05 5.93 4.99 4 5.00 4.95 4.95 4.10 4.01 5.07 4.X-BAR CHART EXAMPLE OBSERVATIONS (SLIP.96 3 4.07 4.10 4.01 6 4.97 5.01 4. CM) SAMPLE k 1 2 3 4 5 1 5.06 4.94 4.99 4.99 5.03 5.09 5.4 .09 10 5.92 4.

01 .94 Retrieve Factor Value A2 4-21 .01 cm k 10 UCL = x= + A2R = 5.09 x= = = 5.) = x 50.(0.115) = 5.58)(0.01 + (0.58)(0.115) = 4.BAR CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.A2R = 5.X.08 LCL = x= .

98 – CHART 4.94 E 4.06 – 5.00 – X.) | | | | | | | | | | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sample number 4-22 .BAR 4.96 – EXAMPL 4. 5.10 – 5.08 5.94 – LCL = 4.04 – 5.01 Mean 5.92 – (CONT.08 – UCL = 5.02 – x= = 5.

CHART UCL = D4R LCL = D3R R R= k where R = range of each sample k = number of samples 4-23 .R.

00 4.96 5.99 5.01 5.10 7 5.98 0.01 4.91 5.3 .96 4.02 5.08 5.94 4.09 5.05 0.00 0.01 4.08 5.00 4.99 4.98 4.96 5.03 5.01 4.96 0.08 0.13 6 4.07 4.08 4 5.92 4.95 4.05 5.02 0.03 4.01 4.09 1.10 4.99 5.15 10 5.01 5.14 8 5.99 5. CM) SAMPLE k 1 2 3 4 5 x R 1 5.06 5.97 5.08 5.99 5.99 5.99 4.10 4.03 5.92 5.03 5.R-CHART EXAMPLE OBSERVATIONS (SLIP-RING DIAMETER.08 2 5.93 4.05 5.06 4.95 4.98 5.97 0.10 50.15 4-24 Example 15.10 5.07 4.14 5.03 0.99 0.01 0.14 5 4.09 5.11 9 5.12 3 4.89 4.96 4.

115 k 10 LCL = D3R = 0(0.11(0.243 R= = = 0.R-CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.) R 1.3 .15 UCL = D4R = 2.115) = 0 Retrieve Factor Values D3 and D4 4-25 Example 15.115) = 0.

243 0.08 – 0.20 – 0.24 – UCL = 0.115 0.04 – LCL = 0 0– | | | | | | | | | | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sample number 4-26 .R-CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.12 – 0.28 – 0.16 – Range R = 0.) 0.

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