# CONTROL CHARTS

Represented by:-
DHEERAJ DUBEY
HIMANSHU NINAWAT
HUNNY GUPTA

CONTROL CHARTS
 The control chart is a graph used
to study how a process changes
over time. Data are plotted in time
order. A control chart always has a
central line for the average, an
upper line for the upper control
limit and a lower line for the
lower control limit. These lines
are determined from historical
data.

4-2

WHERE TO USE CONTROL CHARTS  Process has a tendency to go out of control  Process is particularly harmful and costly if it goes out of control  Examples  at the beginning of a process because it is a waste of time and money to begin production process with bad supplies  before a costly or irreversible point. after which product is difficult to rework or correct  before and after assembly or painting operations that might cover defects  before the outgoing final product or service is delivered 4-3 .

CONTROL CHARTS  A graph that establishes control limits of a process  Control limits  upper and lower bands of a control chart  Types of charts  Attributes  p-chart  c-chart  Variables  range (R-chart)  mean (x bar – chart) 4-4 .

PROCESS CONTROL CHART Out of control Upper control limit Process average Lower control limit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 104-5 Sample number .

A PROCESS IS IN CONTROL IF …  … no sample points outside limits  … most points near process average  … about equal number of points above and below centerline  … points appear randomly distributed 4-6 .

4-7 .CONTROL CHARTS FOR ATTRIBUTES  p-charts  uses portion defective in a sample  c-charts  uses number of defects in an item  Gant charts  A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a production control tool.

an estimate of process average p = standard deviation of sample proportion p(1 .p) p = n 4-8 .P-CHART UCL = p + zp LCL = p .zp z = number of standard deviations from process average p = sample proportion defective.

P-CHART EXAMPLE NUMBER OF PROPORTION SAMPLE DEFECTIVES DEFECTIVE 1 6 .18 200 20 samples of 100 pairs of jeans 4-9 .04 : : : : : : 20 18 .00 3 4 .06 2 0 .

0.10) UCL = p + z = 0.10(1 .p) 0.) total defectives p = total sample observations = 200 / 20(100) = 0.P-CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.p) 0.10 .10 p(1 .3 n 100 LCL = 0.010 4-10 .10) LCL = p .10(1 .z = 0.0.190 p(1 .10 + 3 n 100 UCL = 0.

10 0.20 0.) 0.14 Proportion defective 0.16 0.12 p = 0.18 UCL = 0.010 4-11 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Sample number .02 LCL = 0.06 0.04 0.190 0.P-CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.10 0.08 0.

C-CHART UCL = c + zc c = c LCL = c .zc where c = number of defects per sample 4-12 .

67 + 3 12.) Number of defects in 15 sample rooms NUMBER OF SAMPLE DEFECTS 190 1 12 c= = 12.67 : : = 23.67 15 2 8 UCL = c + zc 3 16 = 12.67 .67 190 = 1.99 4-13 .35 : : LCL = c + zc 15 15 = 12.3 12.C-CHART (CONT.

67 15 12 9 6 3 LCL = 1.35 21 18 Number of defects c = 12.) 24 UCL = 23.C-CHART (CONT.99 4-14 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Sample number .

Gantt. and track specific tasks in a project. a Gantt chart provides a graphical illustration of a schedule that helps to plan. GANT CHARTS  A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a production control tool in 1917 by Henry L. coordinate. an American engineer and social scientist. Frequently used in project management. 4-15 .

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GANTT CHART .

CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES  Mean chart ( x -Chart )  uses average of a sample  Range chart ( R-Chart )  uses amount of dispersion in a sample 4-18 .

A2R where = x = average of sample means 4-19 . xk = x= k = = UCL = x + A2R LCL = x ...X-BAR CHART x1 + x2 + .

08 5.03 7 5.14 5.00 4.01 4.99 5.01 4.99 4-20 Example 15.08 9 5.06 5.96 4.98 4.03 5.91 5.99 5.08 5.89 5 4.96 2 5.96 5.98 5.99 8 5.05 5.03 4.02 5.10 5.RING DIAMETER.92 5.01 5.05 5.93 4.99 4 5.00 4.95 4.95 4.10 4.01 5.07 4.X-BAR CHART EXAMPLE OBSERVATIONS (SLIP.96 3 4.07 4.10 4.01 6 4.97 5.01 4. CM) SAMPLE k 1 2 3 4 5 1 5.06 4.94 4.99 4.99 5.03 5.09 5.4 .09 10 5.92 4.

01 .94 Retrieve Factor Value A2 4-21 .01 cm k 10 UCL = x= + A2R = 5.09 x= = = 5.) = x 50.(0.115) = 5.58)(0.01 + (0.58)(0.115) = 4.BAR CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.A2R = 5.X.08 LCL = x= .

98 – CHART 4.94 E 4.06 – 5.00 – X.) | | | | | | | | | | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sample number 4-22 .BAR 4.96 – EXAMPL 4. 5.10 – 5.08 5.94 – LCL = 4.04 – 5.01 Mean 5.92 – (CONT.08 – UCL = 5.02 – x= = 5.

CHART UCL = D4R LCL = D3R R R= k where R = range of each sample k = number of samples 4-23 .R.

00 4.96 5.99 5.01 5.10 7 5.98 0.01 4.91 5.3 .96 4.02 5.08 5.94 4.09 5.05 0.00 0.01 4.08 5.00 4.99 4.98 4.96 5.03 5.01 4.96 0.08 0.13 6 4.07 4.08 4 5.92 4.95 4.05 5.02 0.03 4.01 4.09 1.10 4.99 5.15 10 5.01 5.14 8 5.99 5. CM) SAMPLE k 1 2 3 4 5 x R 1 5.06 5.97 5.08 5.99 5.99 5.99 4.10 4.03 5.92 5.03 5.R-CHART EXAMPLE OBSERVATIONS (SLIP-RING DIAMETER.08 2 5.93 4.05 5.06 4.95 4.98 5.97 0.10 50.15 4-24 Example 15.10 5.07 4.14 5.03 0.99 0.01 0.14 5 4.09 5.11 9 5.12 3 4.89 4.96 4.

115 k 10 LCL = D3R = 0(0.11(0.243 R= = = 0.R-CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.) R 1.3 .15 UCL = D4R = 2.115) = 0 Retrieve Factor Values D3 and D4 4-25 Example 15.115) = 0.

243 0.08 – 0.20 – 0.24 – UCL = 0.115 0.04 – LCL = 0 0– | | | | | | | | | | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sample number 4-26 .R-CHART EXAMPLE (CONT.12 – 0.28 – 0.16 – Range R = 0.) 0.