reduced in HARD water. . SOAP… EFFECTIVENESS: Effective in Effective soft water.

React with soap anion. Form non-soluble PRECIPITATE (soap scum) in water. . What is HARD water… Contain mineral salt. Contain magnesium and calcium ions.

Soap scum… Sodium stearate Calcium ion Insoluble calcium stearate (scum) Sodium ion .

Sodium stearate Magnesium ion Sodium ion Insoluble magnesium stearate (scum) .

Soap scum structure… .

sinks. . YELLOW Attaches to the inside of bathtubs.Do not easily clean. GREY Form deposits on clothes. washing machines.

Examples of soap scum… Soap scum in sink Soap scum in bathtub .

Cause wastage of soap. Affects of soap scum… Reduce the amount of soap available for cleaning. Soap can not produce bubbles in HARD water. .

water. DETERGENTS… EFFECTIVENE SS: Effective in both Do not form soft water and scum in hard hard water. .

Form bubbles in both soft and hard water. .A strong ionic bond with magnesium and calcium in hard water. Ionic head (hydrophilic) dissolve in water Hydrocarbon tail region (hydrophobic) dissolve in dirt such as grease.

which one of them is the most EFFECTIVE????? .Friends.