DIMENSIONAL

ENGINEERING
Based on the ASME Y14.5M-
1994 Dimensioning and
Tolerancing Standard

INTRODUCTION

Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is an
international engineering language that is used on
engineering drawings (blue prints) to describe product in
three dimensions. GD&T uses a series of internationally
recognized symbols rather than words to describe the
product. These symbols are applied to the features of a
part and provide a very concise and clear definition of
design intent.

GD&T is a very precise mathematical language that
describes the form, orientation and location of part
features in zones of tolerance. These zones of tolerance
are then described relative to a Cartesian coordinate
system.
ASME Y14.5M-1994
American national Standards Institute/American Society
of Mechanical Engineers

Tolerances
of Form

Straightness Flatness
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.1) (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.2)

Circularity Cylindricity
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.3) (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.4)

1 25 25.Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance 25.1 25 (LMC) (MMC) 25.1 (LMC) MMC Perfect Form Boundary 25 (MMC) 25.1 (LMC) Internal Feature of Size .

Extreme Variations of Form
Allowed By Size Tolerance
25
24.9

25
24.9 (MMC)
(LMC)

24.9
(LMC)

MMC Perfect
Form Boundary
25
(MMC)

24.9
(LMC)

External Feature of Size

Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance

0.5 Tolerance

Straightness is the condition where an element of a
surface or an axis is a straight line

Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 Tolerance Zone

25.25 max
24.75 min

0.1 Tolerance Zone

In this example each line element of the surface must lie
within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines
separated by the specified tolerance value applied to each
view. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of
size and the applicable straightness limit.

The straightness tolerance is applied in the view where the
elements to be controlled are represented by a straight line

1 Tolerance Zone MMC In this example each longitudinal element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines separated by the specified tolerance value. The feature must be within the limits of size and the boundary of perfect form at MMC.1 Tolerance Zone MMC 0. . Any barreling or waisting of the feature must not exceed the size limits of the feature.1 0.1 Tolerance Zone MMC 0. Straightness (Surface Elements) 0.

1 0. the boundary of perfect form at MMC can be violated up to the maximum outer boundary or virtual condition diameter. . Straightness (RFS) 0.1 Diameter Tolerance Zone MMC Outer Boundary (Max) Outer Boundary = Actual Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual local size must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is equal to the specified tolerance value regardless of the feature size. However. Each circular element of the feature must be within the specified limits of size.

the diameter of the tolerance cylinder is allowed to increase by an amount equal to the departure from the local MMC size.25 Diameter (LMC) Tolerance Zone 15.85 0. As each circular element of the feature departs from MMC. .1 Virtual Condition Virtual Condition = MMC Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual local size must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is equal to the specified tolerance value at MMC. However. Each circular element of the feature must be within the specified limits of size.1 M 0.1 Virtual Condition 14. Straightness (MMC) 15 14.1 Diameter 15 Tolerance Zone (MMC) 15. the boundary of perfect form at MMC can be violated up to the virtual condition diameter.85 0.

All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the flatness limit.75 min In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes separated by the specified tolerance value.25 0.1 Tolerance Zone 25. The flatness tolerance must be less than the size tolerance. .1 25 +/-0. Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in one plane.25 max 24. Flatness 0.1 Tolerance Zone 0. Flatness must fall within the limits of size.

1 90 0. The circularity tolerance must be less than the size tolerance . Circularity is the condition of a surface where all points of the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common axis are equidistant from that axis.1 Wide Tolerance Zone In this example each circular element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric circles separated by the specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the circularity limit.1 90 0. Circularity (Roundness) 0.

and taper of a cylindrical feature.1 Tolerance Zone MMC In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric cylinders separated by the specified tolerance value. Cylindricity is a composite control of form which includes circularity (roundness). Cylindricity is the condition of a surface of revolution in which all points are equidistant from a common axis. Cylindricity 0. . All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the cylindricity limit.1 0. straightness.

________ and ____________are surface (3-D) controls. 3. Circularity can be applied to both ________and _______ cylindrical parts. 2. Form controls require a datum reference. Form controls do not directly control a feature’s size. straightness cylindricity angularity straight flatness tapered profile perfect form circularity true position Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. Size limits implicitly control a feature’s form. 4. 9. ___________. Form Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature. ________. 8. A feature’s form tolerance must be less than it’s size tolerance. 10. 7. and ____________. . The four form controls are ____________. ____________ and ___________ are individual line or circular element (2-D) controls. 5. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of size must have ____________at MMC.

6.Tolerances of Orientation Angularity (ASME Y14.2) Perpendicularity (ASME Y14.5M-1994 .5M-1994 .5M-1994 .6.6.6.6.6.4) Parallelism (ASME Y14.3) .

5 0. Angularity (Feature Surface to Datum Surface) 20 +/-0.3 Wide A Tolerance A Tolerance Zone Zone The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference plane.3 Wide 0. Angularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane.3 A o 30 A 19. . within the specified tolerance zone.5 min 20.5 max o o 30 30 0.

.3 Circular 0. Angularity (Feature Axis to Datum Surface) NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0.3 A 0. Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane. oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference plane. within the specified tolerance zone.3 Circular Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone o 60 A A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature.

. within the specified tolerance zone.3 Circular 0. Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference axis.3 Circular Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone 45 o Datum Axis A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature. oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference axis. Angularity (Feature Axis to Datum Axis) NOTE: Feature axis must lie within tolerance zone cylinder 0.3 A NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS A 0.

Perpendicularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a right angle to the datum reference plane.3 A A 0.3 Wide Tolerance Tolerance Zone Zone A The tolerance zone in this example is A defined by two parallel planes oriented perpendicular to the datum reference plane. within the specified tolerance zone.3 Wide 0. Perpendicularity (Feature Surface to Datum Surface) 0. .

3 Diameter Tolerance Zone NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS C 0. Perpendicularity (Feature Axis to Datum Surface) 0. Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right angle to the datum reference plane. oriented perpendicular to the datum reference plane.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.3 C The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature. within the specified tolerance zone. .

Perpendicularity (Feature Axis to Datum Axis) NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone Datum Axis A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented perpendicular to the datum reference axis. Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right angle to the datum reference axis. . within the specified tolerance zone.3 A A 0.

5 max 24. .3 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.5 min A The tolerance zone in this example A is defined by two parallel planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0. within the specified tolerance zone.5 A 0.3 A 25 +/-0. Parallelism is the condition of the planar feature surface equidistant at all points from the datum reference plane. Parallelism (Feature Surface to Datum Surface) 0.

3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0. Parallelism (Feature Axis to Datum Surface) NOTE: The specified tolerance does not apply to the orientation of the feature axis in this direction NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. . Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the datum reference plane.3 A A The tolerance zone in this example A is defined by two parallel planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane. within the specified tolerance zone.

3 Circular Tolerance Zone B NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. .3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0. oriented parallel to the datum reference planes. within the specified tolerance zone. Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the two datum reference planes.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0. Parallelism (Feature Axis to Datum Surfaces) 0.3 A B B The tolerance zone in this example is A defined by a cylinder equal to the A length of the feature.

1 Circular Tolerance Zone 0. . oriented parallel to the datum reference axis.1 A A 0. NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. Parallelism (Feature Axis to Datum Axis) The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature.1 Circular Datum Axis A Tolerance Zone Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the datum reference axis. within the specified tolerance zone.

7. perpendicularity datum target datum reference datum feature location parallelism angularity identical profile Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. ___________. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are _________. 3. Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature’s form. 2. 5. 9.Orientation Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. . 10. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension. Orientation tolerances do not control the ________ of a feature. 8. The three orientation controls are __________. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical. and ________________. ________________ is the appropriate geometric tolerance when controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum reference. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size. 4. A _______________ is always required when applying any of the orientation controls.

2.1.7.6.Tolerances of Runout Circular Runout (ASME Y14.5M-1994 .7.2.2) .1.5M-1994.1) Total Runout (ASME Y14. 6.

Features Applicable to Runout Tolerancing Internal surfaces constructed around a datum axis External surfaces constructed around a datum axis Angled surfaces constructed around a datum axis Datum axis (established from datum feature Surfaces constructed perpendicular to a datum axis Datum feature .

Circular Runout Total Circular runout can only be applied on an Tolerance RFS basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC. Maximum Minimum Full Indicator Movement Maximum Minimum Reading Reading Measuring position #1 (circular element #1) 0 + - Full Part Rotation Measuring position #2 (circular element #2) When measuring circular runout. . but not 3-dimensional characteristics such as surface profile (overall form) or surface wobble (overall orientation). circular runout can be used to detect 2- dimensional wobble (orientation) and waviness (form). In this example. the indicator must be reset to zero at each measuring position along the feature surface. Each individual circular element of the surface is independently allowed the full specified tolerance.

The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the .75 max. 360 o Part Rotation NOTE: Circular runout in this example only controls the 2-dimensional circular elements Single circular (circularity and coaxiality) of the angled feature element surface not the entire angled feature surface . Circular Runout (Angled Surface to Datum Axis) 0.2 As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the Allowable indicator true geometric shape of the feature surface when reading = 0.25 o o 50 +/.75 A A 50 +/-0. 0 + feature surface. the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum Full Indicator ( Movement ) axis. the indicator must be reset when repositioned Datum axis A along the feature surface. Collet or Chuck When measuring circular runout.

25 As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the Single circular feature surface.75 A A 50 +/-0. Circular Runout (Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis) 0. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. Rotation Datum axis A NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the planar surface (wobble and waviness) not the entire feature surface . 0 + When measuring circular runout. element . 360 o Part Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.

75 A A 50 +/-0. 0 + - When measuring circular runout.75 max. Allowable indicator the indicator must be reset when reading = 0. Single circular element 360 o Part Datum axis A Rotation NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the surface (circularity and coaxiality) not the entire feature surface .25 As Shown on Drawing The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal Means This: to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. repositioned along the feature surface. Circular Runout (Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis) 0. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.

Circular Runout (Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis) 0. repositioned along the feature surface. Machine center Single circular element Datum axis A-B Machine center 360 o Part NOTE: Circular runout in this example will Rotation only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the surface (circularity and coaxiality) not the entire feature surface . Allowable indicator the indicator must be reset when reading = 0.75 max. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.75 A-B A B As Shown on Drawing The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal Means This: to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. 0 + - When measuring circular runout.

75 A B 50 +/-0. Circular Runout (Surface Related to Datum Surface and Axis) A B 0. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.75 max.25 As Shown on Drawing The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is Means This: equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is located against the datum surface and rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. Datum plane A . Stop collar 360 o Part 0 + - Collet or Chuck Rotation Datum axis B When measuring circular runout. Single circular element Allowable indicator reading = 0. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

the indicator must not be reset to zero when moved to each measuring position. the indicator is moved in a straight line along the feature surface while the part is rotated about the datum axis. Total Runout Total Total runout can only be applied on an Tolerance RFS basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC. Maximum Minimum Full Indicator Movement Maximum Minimum Reading Reading + 0 - Indicator Full Part Path Rotation 0 + - When measuring total runout. In this example. total runout can be used to measure surface profile (overall form) and surface wobble (overall orientation). Because the tolerance value is applied to the entire surface. . It is also acceptable to measure total runout by evaluating an appropriate number of individual circular elements along the surface while the part is rotated about the datum axis.

75 A A 50 +/-0.75 max. the use of total runout will provide 3-dimensional composite control of the cumulative variations of circularity. . Total Runout (Angled Surface to Datum Axis) 0.25 o o 50 +/. 0 Allowable indicator reading = 0. taper and profile of the angled surface . 0 + surface. moved along the entire length of the feature . the indicator must not be reset when shape of the feature surface when the part is repositioned along the feature rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is surface. coaxiality.2 As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for the entire angled surface is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator positioned normal to the true geometric When measuring total runout. angularity. + (applies to the entire feature surface) Collet or Chuck Full Part Datum axis A Rotation NOTE: Unlike circular runout.

35 Allowable indicator reading = 0. (applies to portion of feature surface indicated) Full Part Rotation Datum axis A NOTE: The use of total runout in this example will provide composite control of the cumulative variations of perpendicularity (wobble) and flatness (concavity or convexity) of the feature surface. Total Runout (Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis) 0.75 max.25 A As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for the portion of the feature surface indicated is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is moved along the portion of the feature surface within the area described by the basic dimensions. 0 + must not be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. the indicator 10 . .75 A 10 35 50 +/-0. + When measuring total runout. 0 .

7. 6. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference. Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire feature surface. straightness. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements . Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit “wobble” of a rotating surface. Runout Control Quiz Answer questions #1-12 True or False 1. Runout tolerances are used to control a feature’s size. coaxiality. 8. 2. 4. angularity and any other surface variation. Total runout is a 2-dimensional control. Total runout can control circularity. taper. 10. 3. Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to surface relationships. . Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right angles to the datum reference. 11. 9. 12. 5. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts.

Tolerances
of Profile

Profile of a Line
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2b)

Profile of a Surface
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2a)

Profile of a Line
20 X 20

A1 B

20 X 20

A3

20 X 20

A2

C

1 A B C

17 +/- 1

A

1 Wide Profile
2 Wide Size Tolerance Zone
Tolerance Zone

18 Max

16 Min.

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two
parallel lines oriented with respect to the datum reference
frame. The profile tolerance zone is free to float within the
larger size tolerance and applies only to the form and
orientation of any individual line element along the entire
surface.

Profile of a Line is a two-dimensional tolerance that can be applied to a
part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature surface as
a single entity is not required or desired. The tolerance applies to the line
element of the surface at each individual cross section indicated on the
drawing.

Profile of a Surface
20 X 20

A1 B

20 X 20

A3

20 X 20

A2

C 2 A B C

23.5

A
2 Wide Tolerance Zone
Size, Form and Orientation

Nominal
23.5
Location

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel
planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile
tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part
surface to vary equally about the true profile of the feature.

Profile of a Surface is a three-dimensional tolerance that can be applied
to a part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature
surface as a single entity is desired. The tolerance applies to the entire
surface and can be used to control size, location, form and/or orientation
of a feature surface.

5 Outboard C 50 Nominal Location The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location.5 Inboard 0. the tolerance zone allows the trim edge variation and/or locational error to be on both sides of the true profile. Profile of a Surface (Bilateral Tolerance) 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 1 A B C C 50 1 Wide Total B Tolerance Zone 0. When a bilateral value is specified. . The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary equally about the true profile of the trim.

Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location. When a unilateral value is specified.5 Wide Total B Tolerance Zone C 50 Nominal Location The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. the tolerance zone limits the trim edge variation and/or locational error to one side of the true profile. Profile of a Surface (Unilateral Tolerance) 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 0. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that allows the trim surface to vary from the true profile only in the inboard direction. . The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.5 A B C C 50 0.

5 1.2 Wide Total B Tolerance Zone 0. Typically when unequal values are specified. The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.2 A B C C 50 1.7 Outboard C 50 Nominal Location The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. the tolerance zone will represent the actual measured trim edge variation and/or locational error. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary from the true profile more in one direction (outboard) than in the other (inboard). Profile of a Surface (Unequal Bilateral Tolerance) 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 0. Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location. .5 Inboard 0. form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface.

25 24.5 A Orientation 0.Profile of a Surface Location & 0.75 A Composite Profile of Two Coplanar Surfaces w/o Orientation Refinement .1 Form Only 25 A 0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.

1 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.75 A Composite Profile of Two Coplanar Surfaces With Orientation Refinement .1 Wide Tolerance Zone 24.5 A Location 0.1 A Form & Orientation 25 A 0.Profile of a Surface 0.25 A 0.

5. Profile of a line tolerances apply to an entire surface. 9. Profile of a line controls apply to individual line elements. 3. 6. Composite profile controls should be avoided because they are more restrictive and very difficult to check. Profile of a line tolerances should be applied at MMC. 7. Profile Control Quiz Answer questions #1-13 True or False 1. Profile tolerances can be applied in both freestate and restrained datum conditions. Profile of a surface tolerance is a 2-dimensional control. 4. Profile tolerances only control the location of a surface. Profile tolerances can be applied to features of size. Tolerances shown in the lower segment of a composite profile feature control frame control the location of a feature to the specified datums. 11. 2. Profile of a surface tolerance should be used to control trim edges on sheet metal parts. 10. . 13. 8. Profile tolerances can be combined with other geometric controls such as flatness to control a feature. 12. Profile tolerances always require a datum reference. Profile tolerances can be applied either bilateral or unilateral to a feature.

a ______ __________ is not required in the feature control frame. 9. In composite profile applications. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of a feature. 4. 7. When using profile tolerances to control form only. _________________ tolerances are 2-dimensional controls. Profile Control Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. ____. and ____________________. _________________ can be used when different tolerances are required for location and form and/or orientation. and sometimes size of a feature. a _______________ must be included in the feature control frame. The two types of profile tolerances are _________________. 8. 6. the tolerance shown in the upper segment of the feature control frame applies only to the ________ of the feature. 3. Profile tolerances can be applied _________ or __________. composite profile bilateral virtual condition profile of a surface primary datum orientation datum reference unilateral profile of a line location true geometric counterpart form . 2. Profile tolerances can be used to control the ________. ____________________ tolerances are 3-dimensional controls. 5. ___________ .

5. 5.Tolerances of Location True Position (ASME Y14.5M-1994.13) .2) Concentricity (ASME Y14.12) Symmetry (ASME Y14.5M-1994. 5.5M-1994.

Notes .

25 +/.0. Coordinate vs Geometric Tolerancing Methods 8.5 +/.4 +/.0.5 Rectangular Tolerance Zone Circular Tolerance Zone Circular Tolerance Zone 57% Larger Tolerance Zone Rectangular Tolerance Zone Increased Effective Tolerance .5 +/.0.0.25 +/.5 1.0.5 10.1 1.0.25 B 10.1 Rectangular Circular Tolerance Tolerance Zone Zone 10.5 10.25 C A Coordinate Dimensioning Geometric Dimensioning +/.4 A B C 8.

Positional Tolerance Verification (Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated) X Z Feature axis actual location (measured) Positional tolerance zone Y cylinder Actual feature Feature axis true boundary position (designed) Formula to determine the actual radial position of a feature using measured coordinate values (RFS) Z= X2 + Y2 Z positional tolerance /2 Z = total radial deviation X2 = “X” measured deviation Y2 = “Y” measured deviation .

MMC) 2 = positional tolerance Z = total radial deviation X2 = “X” measured deviation Y2 = “Y” measured deviation .Positional Tolerance Verification (Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated) X Z Feature axis actual location (measured) Positional tolerance zone Y cylinder Actual feature Feature axis true boundary position (designed) Formula to determine the actual radial position of a feature using measured coordinate values (MMC) Z = X2 + Y2 Z +( actual .

Bi-directional True Position Rectangular Coordinate Method 2X 1.5 Wide to Datum Reference Frame Tolerance Zone C 10 B 10 35 0.25 Means This: True Position Related 1.5 rectangular tolerance zone basically located to the datum reference frame .5 A B C C A 10 B As Shown 10 35 on Drawing 2X 6 +/-0.5 A B C 2X 0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone Each axis must lie within the 1.5 X 0.

5 Wide Tolerance Zone Each axis must lie within the 1.5 A B C A 10 B As Shown 10 35 on Drawing Means This: True Position Related 1.5 rectangular tolerance zone basically located to the datum reference frame . Bi-directional True Position Multiple Single-Segment Method 2X 6 +/-0.5 X 0.25 1.5 A B C 0.5 Wide to Datum Reference Frame Tolerance Zone C 10 B 10 35 0.

25 maximum boundaries when the part is positioned with 12.5 M A B C BOUNDARY BOUNDARY C A 10 B As Shown 10 35 on Drawing 5.25 2X 6 +/-0.25 maximum boundary portion of their surfaces may lie within the area described by the 11. True position boundary related to datum reference frame C 90 o 10 A 10 35 B .50 Position tolerance Both holes must be within the size limits and no 5. The -1.5 M A B C 0.25 x 5.75 MMC width of slot respect to the datum reference frame. Bi-directional True Position Noncylndrical Features (Boundary Concept) 2X 13 +/-0.50 Position tolerance boundary concept can only be applied on an 11.75 MMC length of slot Means This: -0.25 Maximum boundary MMC basis.25 1.

5 Pattern-Locating 0.5 A C A 10 B As Shown 10 35 on Drawing Means This: 1.5 A B C 0.25 1.5 Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Cylinder Tolerance Zone Cylinder pattern location relative pattern orientation relative to to Datums A. and C Datum A only (perpendicularity) C 10 True Position Related B to Datum Reference 10 35 Frame Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously . Composite True Position Without Pattern Orientation Control 2X 6 +/-0. B.

25 1. B.5 Pattern-Locating True Position Related Tolerance Zone Cylinder pattern location relative to Datum Reference to Datums A.5 Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Cylinder 10 35 pattern orientation relative to Datums A and B Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously . and C Frame C 10 B 0.5 A B C A 10 B As Shown 10 35 on Drawing Means This: 1. Composite True Position With Pattern Orientation Control 2X 6 +/-0.5 A B C 0.

35 +/. all median points of diametrically opposed elements must lie within a 0.95 15. The axis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of datum feature A.5 cylindrical tolerance zone.5 Coaxial Feature A Tolerance Zone Derived Median Points of Diametrically Opposed Elements Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size. .5 A A 15. Location (Concentricity) Datum Features at RFS 6.05 0.0.90 As Shown on Drawing Means This: Axis of Datum 0. Concentricity can only be applied on an RFS basis.

35 +/. Location (Symmetry) Datum Features at RFS 6.5 apart.0. 0. all median points of opposed elements must lie between two parallel planes equally disposed about datum plane A.90 As Shown on Drawing Means This: Center Plane of 0.5 Wide Datum Feature A Tolerance Zone Derived Median Points Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size.05 0. Symmetry can only be applied on an RFS basis.95 15.5 A A 15. .

2. Composite true position tolerances can only be applied to patterns of related features. or RFS basis. 9. True position tolerances can be used to control center distance relationships between features of size. The tolerance value shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. Positional tolerances are applied to individual or patterns of features of size. 5. Composite true position tolerances should be avoided because it is overly restrictive and difficult to check. 10. True Position Quiz Answer questions #1-11 True or False 1. 4. 7. True position tolerances can control a feature’s size. Positional tolerances can be used to control circularity 11. True position tolerance values are used to calculate the minimum size of a feature required for assembly. LMC. . 6. Cylindrical tolerance zones more closely represent the functional requirements of a pattern of clearance holes. 3. The tolerance value shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. 8. Positional tolerances are applied on an MMC.

The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the ________________ tolerance zone. Functional gaging principles can be applied when __________ ________ condition is specified surface boundary floating feature-relating pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical 3-dimensional basic dimensions projected location maximum material axis fixed . 7. or spherical 2. True Position Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. 5. Positional tolerance can apply to the ____ or ________________ of a feature. Positional tolerancing is a _____________ control. _____ and ________ fastener equations are used to determine appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details 6. ________________ are used to establish the true (theoretically exact) position of a feature from specified datums. 9. 8. Positional tolerance zones can be ___________. 3. ___________. _________ tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener interference in mating details. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the ________________ tolerance zone. 4.

Notes .

Notes .

Fixed and Floating Fastener Exercises .

25 -10 A T = ______ remember: the size tolerance must be ??.25 ?. Fastener Size = 10 T = Positional Tolerance = 0. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter 2x 10.0.?? +/. Fastener Size = 10 T = 10. the floating fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance requirements to ensure assembly.25 F = Max. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance 2x M10 X 1.0.50 B H = 10 + 0.? M Calculate Required Positional Tolerance T=H-F H = Minimum Hole Size = 10. Floating Fasteners In applications where two or more mating details are assembled.25 added to the calculated MMC hole size to Calculate 2x obtain the correct nominal value.5 (Reference) General Equation Applies to Each Part Individually A H=F+T or T=H-F B H= Min.50 H = ______ . and all parts have clearance holes for the fasteners. Nominal Size 0.50 +/.5 M H = F +T F = Max.

The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance 2x M10 X 1.5 (Reference) General Equation Applies to Each Part Individually A H=F+T or T=H-F B H= Min.75 +/.50 +/.0.25 0.5 Minimum REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .25 M Calculate Required Positional Tolerance T=H-F H = Minimum Hole Size = 10. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter 2x 10.25 -10 A T = 0.0. Fastener Size = 10 T = 10.5 H= 10.5 M H = F +T F = Max. Floating Fasteners In applications where two or more mating details are assembled. 0.25 F = Max.25 remember: the size tolerance must be Calculate 2x 10.25 added to the calculated MMC hole size to Nominal Size obtain the correct nominal value.5 B H= 10 + . the floating fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance requirements to ensure assembly. Fastener Size = 10 T = Positional Tolerance = 0. and all parts have clearance holes for the fasteners.

?? MMC size to obtain the correct 0. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts. Fastener Size = 10. Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances.0.5 (MMC For Calculations) T = Positional Tolerance = 0.00 + 2(0. A H = F + 2T Nominal Size F = Max.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.25 must be added to the calculated Clearance Hole Size.8 M P 10 H = 10. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.00 2X M10 X 1.80 0.8 M nominal value. diameter of clearance hole B F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter remember: the size tolerance Calculate Required +/. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly.8) H = _____ B . 2x ??.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min.

5 (MMC For Calculations) T = Positional Tolerance = 0.8 M P 10 H = 10.8) H = 11. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min. diameter of clearance hole B F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter remember: the size tolerance Calculate Required +/. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly. A H = F + 2T Nominal Size F = Max.00 + 2(0.8 M nominal value. Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances.85 MMC size to obtain the correct 0.0.25 must be added to the calculated Clearance Hole Size.60 Minimum B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1. 2x 11.00 2X M10 X 1.80 0. Fastener Size = 10.

the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly.25 must be added to the calculated Clearance Hole Size. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.8) H = 11. Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances. diameter of clearance hole B F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter remember: the size tolerance Calculate Required +/. A H = F + 2T Nominal Size F = Max.5 (MMC For Calculations) T = Positional Tolerance = 0.8 M nominal value.85 MMC size to obtain the correct 0. Fastener Size = 10 2X M10 X 1. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min.8 0.6 Minimum B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .8 M P 10 H = 10 + 2(0. 2x 11.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.0.

10)/2 T = 0. diameter of clearance hole B F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter 2x 11. Fixed Fasteners In applications where two mating details are assembled. (Note: in this example the resultant positional tolerance is applied to both parts equally.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min.5 M P 10 T = (11 . (Both Parts) A T = (H . the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate appropriate hole sizes and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly.5 F = Max. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.5 M Positional Tolerance . and one part has restrained fasteners.50 B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .25 +/. Fastener Size = 10 (MMC For Calculations) 0.0.F)/2 H = Minimum Hole Size = 11 Nominal Size 2X M10 X 1.25 Calculate Required 0.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.

diameter of clearance hole F = Maximum diameter of fastener B T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) remember: the size tolerance must be Calculate Required added to the calculated MMC hole size to 2x ??.5 + 1) H = ____ B .??+/. Fastener Size = 10 2X M10 X 1. (A) = 0.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1. 0.5 M A H=F+(T1 + T2) Nominal Size F = Max. obtain the correct nominal value.5 (MMC For Calculations) T1 = Positional Tol. Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional tolerances.0.50 1 M P 10 T2 = Positional Tol.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal 10 A H=F+(T1 + T2) H = Min. (B) = 1 H = 10+ (0.25 Clearance Hole Size. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are not equal. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.

5 1 M P 10 T2 = Positional Tol.0. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly.25 Clearance Hole Size. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are not equal. Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional tolerances.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal 10 A H= F+(T1 + T2) H = Min.75+/.5 (MMC For Calculations) T1 = Positional Tol.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1. Fastener Size = 10 2X M10 X 1.5 + 1) H = 11. (A) = 0. diameter of clearance hole F = Maximum diameter of fastener B T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) remember: the size tolerance must be Calculate Required added to the calculated MMC hole size to 2x 11.5 Minimum B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC . 0. obtain the correct nominal value. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (B) = 1 H = 10 + (0.5 M A H=F+(T1 + T2) Nominal Size F = Max.

0.05 T2 = Positional Tol. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance.5 + 0. (A) = 0. depth of pin (Part A) P= Maximum projection of pin remember: the size tolerance must be Calculate 2x ??. Fixed Fasteners In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated.5(1 + 2(15/20)) B H= __________ . P = Max. diameter of clearance hole P A F= Maximum diameter of pin T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) D B D= Min. APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED H F H= Min.5 D 0. pin size = 10 T1 = Positional Tol.?? +/-0.5 M H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D)) A F = Max. pin projection = 15 H = 10.00 + 0.5 2x 10. it is necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the fastener. pin depth = 20.25 added to the calculated MMC hole size to Nominal Size obtain the correct nominal value. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure assembly. (B) = 0.05 +/-0.5 M = Min.

pin depth = 20 P = Max.75 Minimum REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .5 D 0. APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED H F H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D)) H= Min. diameter of clearance hole P A F= Maximum diameter of pin T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) D B D= Min. (A) = 0. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure assembly. pin projection = 15 H = 10 + 0. 0.05 +/-0.5 2x 10.5 M = Min. depth of pin (Part A) P= Maximum projection of pin remember: the size tolerance must be Calculate 2x 12 +/-0.5 + 0.5 M H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D)) A F = Max. pin size = 10 T1 = Positional tol.25 added to the calculated MMC hole size to Nominal Size obtain the correct nominal value.05 T2 = Positional tol. it is necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the fastener.5(1 + 2(15/20)) B H= 11. Fixed Fasteners In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated. (B) = 0. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance.

Answers to Quizzes and Exercises .

A material modifier symbol is not required for RFS. TRUE 6. Unless otherwise specified size tolerances control form. Size tolerances control both orientation and position. TRUE 9. A free state datum modifier applies to “assists” & “rests”.Rules and Definitions Quiz Questions #1-12 True or False 1. FALSE 2. The use of GD&T improves productivity. Virtual condition applies regardless of feature size. FALSE 7. FALSE 8. FALSE 4. TRUE 10. A material modifier symbol is not required for MMC. TRUE 12. A free state modifier can only be applied to a tolerance. TRUE 3. TRUE 5. A surface on a part is considered a feature. Bilateral tolerances allow variation in two directions. FALSE . Tight tolerances ensure high quality and performance. FALSE 11. Title block default tolerances apply to basic dimensions.

2 123.890 External Features MMC LMC 10.2 23.05/-0.25/-0 10.890 .890 .1 123.25 10.885 .05/-0.885 Calculate appropriate values .45 +0.75 11 23.25 23.45 +0.6 .75 +0.6 123.4 . 5 +/-0.75 10.895 .1 123.5 123.4 123. 5 +/-0.890 .75 +0/-0.5 23.5 23.25 23.Material Condition Quiz Fill in blanks Internal Features MMC LMC 10.895 .

F/A. All datum features must be dimensionally stable. Datum features are imaginary. Primary datums have only three points of contact. TRUE 11. Datum planes constrain degrees of freedom. FALSE 3. Datum simulators are part of the gage or tool. Tertiary datums are not always required. Datum Quiz Questions #1-12 True or False 1. Datum simulators are used to represent datums. Datums should represent functional features. TRUE 9. FALSE 8. All tooling locators (CD’s) are used as datums. TRUE 7. & C/C. FALSE 2. FALSE 12. FALSE 4. Datums are actual part features. TRUE 10. The 6 Degrees of Freedom are U/D. TRUE . Datum target areas are theoretically exact. TRUE 6. FALSE 5.

A datum must be functional. 9. 4. and coordinated. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain five degrees of freedom. 2. restrain movement five coordinated repeatable tertiary two 3-rotational primary 2-rotational three functional one datum simulator 1-linear datum feature datum secondary 3-linear six . and tertiary. A datum simulator is a precise surface used to establish a simulated datum. 5. 8. The primary. The purpose of a datum reference frame is to restrain movement of a part in a gage or tool. 10. A datum feature is an actual feature on a part. axis or plane. An unrestrained part will exhibit 3-linear and 3-rotational degrees of freedom. 6. repeatable. Datum Quiz Questions #1-10 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. secondary and tertiary datum planes together will restrain all six degrees of freedom. 7. 3. secondary. The three planes that make up a basic datum reference frame are called primary. A datum is a theoretically exact point. A planar primary datum plane will restrain 1-linear and 2-rotational degrees of freedom.

and cylindricity. circularity. A feature’s form tolerance must be less than it’s size TRUE tolerance. Size limits implicitly control a feature’s form. Form controls require a datum reference. straightness cylindricity angularity straight flatness tapered profile perfect form circularity true position Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature. TRUE 8. 2. 3. Form Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. FALSE 10. 9. Flatness and cylindricity are surface (3-D) controls. Form controls do not directly control a feature’s size. The four form controls are straightness. FALSE 7. Circularity can be applied to both straight and tapered cylindrical parts. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of size must have perfect form at MMC. 5. 4. TRUE . flatness. Straightness and circularity are individual line or circular element (2-D) controls.

5. 2. . Orientation tolerances do not control the location of a feature. TRUE 7. A datum reference is always required when applying any of the orientation controls. Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature’s form. parallelism. and perpendicularity. The three orientation controls are angularity. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical. Perpendicularity is the appropriate geometric tolerance when controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum reference. FALSE 10. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are identical. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle FALSE must be indicated as a basic dimension.Orientation Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must TRUE be indicated as a basic dimension. 9. 3. TRUE 8. 4. perpendicularity datum target datum reference datum feature location parallelism angularity identical profile Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6.

11. TRUE 4. Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference. 7. FALSE 10. TRUE coaxiality. . Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part. taper. TRUE 8. TRUE 3. 9. FALSE 12. FALSE 2. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit TRUE “wobble” of a rotating surface. 6. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements . Total runout can control circularity. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts. Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right TRUE angles to the datum reference. FALSE 5. Runout tolerances are used to control a feature’s size. Runout Control Quiz Answer questions #1-12 True or False 1. Total runout is a 2-dimensional control. straightness. angularity and any other surface variation. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to TRUE surface relationships. Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire FALSE feature surface.

6. a datum reference is not required in the feature control frame. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of a feature. 7. the tolerance shown in the upper segment of the feature control frame applies only to the location of the feature. and sometimes size of a feature. When using profile tolerances to control form only. Profile tolerances can be applied bilateral or unilateral. 5. Profile of a surface tolerances are 3-dimensional controls. orientation. form. Profile Control Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. 2. The two types of profile tolerances are profile of a line. a datum reference must be included in the feature control frame. In composite profile applications. Profile tolerances can be used to control the location. Profile of a line tolerances are 2-dimensional controls. 3. 8. 9. Composite Profile can be used when different tolerances are required for location and form and/or orientation. and profile of a surface. composite profile bilateral virtual condition profile of a surface primary datum orientation datum reference unilateral profile of a line location true geometric counterpart form . 4.

12. Profile of a line tolerances should be applied at MMC. FALSE 2. FALSE 3. Composite profile controls should be avoided because FALSE they are more restrictive and very difficult to check. FALSE 5. Profile tolerances can be combined with other geometric TRUE controls such as flatness to control a feature. Profile tolerances can be applied either bilateral or TRUE unilateral to a feature. Profile of a line controls apply to individual line elements. Profile of a surface tolerance is a 2-dimensional control. 11. Profile Control Quiz Answer questions #1-13 True or False 1. 13. Tolerances shown in the lower segment of a composite FALSE profile feature control frame control the location of a feature to the specified datums. . 4. 7. Profile of a surface tolerance should be used to control TRUE trim edges on sheet metal parts. FALSE 10. TRUE 9. Profile tolerances can be applied to features of size. TRUE 6. Profile of a line tolerances apply to an entire surface. Profile tolerances always require a datum reference. FALSE 8. Profile tolerances can be applied in both freestate and TRUE restrained datum conditions. Profile tolerances only control the location of a surface.

The tolerance value shown in the upper segment of a TRUE composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. 4. 8. FALSE 5. or TRUE RFS basis. 9. Composite true position tolerances can only be applied TRUE to patterns of related features. True position tolerances can be used to control center TRUE distance relationships between features of size. 2. Cylindrical tolerance zones more closely represent the TRUE functional requirements of a pattern of clearance holes. LMC. . 10. Composite true position tolerances should be avoided FALSE because it is overly restrictive and difficult to check. Positional tolerances can be used to control circularity FALSE 11. 3. Positional tolerances are applied to individual or patterns TRUE of features of size. Positional tolerances are applied on an MMC. True Position Quiz Answer questions #1-11 True or False 1. 6. 7. True position tolerances can control a feature’s size. True position tolerance values are used to calculate the TRUE minimum size of a feature required for assembly. The tolerance value shown in the lower segment of a FALSE composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums.

Fixed and floating fastener equations are used to determine appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details 6. Projected tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener interference in mating details. 5. Positional tolerance can apply to the axis or surface boundary of a feature. Functional gaging principles can be applied when maximum material condition is specified surface boundary floating feature-relating pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical 3-dimensional basic dimensions projected location maximum material axis fixed . 9. Positional tolerance zones can be rectangular. Basic dimensions are used to establish the true (theoretically exact) position of a feature from specified datums. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the feature-relating tolerance zone. or spherical 2. 7. cylindrical. True Position Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. Positional tolerancing is a 3-dimensional control. 8. 3. 4. The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the pattern-locating tolerance zone.

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Notes .

Notes .

Notes .

1 24.1 25 25 (LMC) 24.9 (MMC) (MMC) (LMC) 25.Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance 25.9 25.9 (LMC) (LMC) .1 24.1 25 25 24.9 (LMC) (LMC) MMC Perfect Form Boundary 25 25 (MMC) (MMC) 25.

Virtual and Resultant Condition Boundaries Internal and External Features (MMC Concept) .

5 1M A B C A C XX.Virtual Condition Boundary Internal Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.5 MMC Size of Feature 1 Applicable Geometric Tolerance 12.X B As Shown on Drawing Virtual Condition 1 Positional Inner Boundary Tolerance Zone at ( Maximum Inscribed Diameter ) MMC True (Basic) Position of Hole Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of MMC Hole True (Basic) Position of Hole Axis Location of Shown at Extreme Limit MMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit Calculating Virtual Condition 13.X XX.5 Virtual Condition Boundary .0.

0.Resultant Condition Boundary Internal Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.X B As Shown on Drawing Resultant Condition 2 Positional Outer Boundary Tolerance Zone at LMC ( Minimum Circumscribed Diameter ) True (Basic) Position of Hole Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of LMC Hole True (Basic) Position of Hole Axis Location of Shown at Extreme Limit LMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit Calculating Resultant Condition (Internal Feature) 14.5 1M A B C A C XX.X XX.5 Resultant Condition Boundary .5 LMC Size of Feature 2 Geometric Tolerance (at LMC) 16.

Virtual Condition Boundary External Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.5 1M A B C A C XX.0.X B As Shown on Drawing Virtual Condition 1 Positional Outer Boundary Tolerance Zone at MMC ( Minimum Circumscribed Diameter ) True (Basic) Position of Feature Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of MMC Feature True (Basic) Position of Feature Axis Location of Shown at Extreme Limit MMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit Calculating Virtual Condition 14.XX XX.5 Virtual Condition Boundary .5 MMC Size of Feature 1 Applicable Geometric Tolerance 15.

X B As Shown on Drawing Resultant Condition 2 Positional Inner Boundary Tolerance Zone at ( Maximum Inscribed Diameter ) LMC True (Basic) Position of Feature Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of LMC feature True (Basic) Position of Feature Axis Location of Shown at Extreme Limit LMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit Calculating Resultant Condition (External Feature) 13.0.Resultant Condition Boundary External Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.5 1M A B C A C XX.X XX.5 Resultant Condition Boundary .5 LMC Size of Feature 2 Geometric Tolerance (at LMC) 11.

the largest pin or the smallest hole.for example. .• 3X 5. the smallest pin or largest hole. Least Material Condition (LMC): The condition where the feature contains the least material with in the stated limits of size .0  5mm is 3 times repeated. A space is used after X Maximum Material Condition (MMC): The condition where the feature contains the maximum material within the stated limits of size – for example.

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS TYPE OF CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL TOLERANCE STRAIGHNESS FOR INDIVIDUAL FLATNESS FORM FEATURES CIRCULARITY (ROUNDNESS) CYLINDRICITY FOR PROFILE OF A INDIVIDUAL SURFACE FROFILE OR RELATED PROFILE OF A FEATURES LINE ANGULARITY PERPENDICULARITY ORIENTATION PARALLELISM FOR POSITION RELATED FEATURES CONCENTRICITY LOCATION SYMMETRY CIRCULAR RUNOUT RUNOUT TOTAL RUNOUT .