Anggota :
Mhd Aulia Pratama (14-098)
Faiz Syarif Hutabarat (14-100)
Bella Anggiani Siregar (14-101)
Willy Setiawan (14-104)

Settlement Calculation
4.8 Elastic Settlement Based on the Teory of
The elastic settlement of a shallow foundation can be estimated
by using the theory of elasticity. Referring to figure 4.16 and
using Hooke’s law,

respectively Theoretically. ∆Py.28) (center of the flexible foundation) (4. according to Harr (1966) the settlement may be expressed as (figure 4. y.17) (corner of the flexible foundation) (4.29) .H = ∞. (4. ∆Px = stress increase due to the net applied foundation load in the z. if the depth of foundation Df = 0.27) Where: Se = elastic settlement Es = modulus of elasticity of soil H = thickness of the soil layer μs = Poisson’s ratio of the soil ∆Pz. and the foundation is perfectly flexible. and x direction.

where B = width of foundation L = length of foundation .


4.10 Settlement of Sandy Soil use of Strain Influence Factor .

11 Range of Material Parameters for Computing Elastic Settlement .4.

4.66) (1. (See Figure 4. consolidation settlement occurs over time in saturated clayey soils subjected to an increased load caused by construction of the foundation.64) (1. we write Where.12 Consolidation Settlement As mentioned before. (1.24.) On the basis of the one- dimensional consolidation settlement equations given in Chapter 1.68) .

𝜎′𝑜 = average effective pressure on the clay layer before the construction of the foundation ∆𝜎′𝑎𝑣 = average increase in effective pressure on the clay layer caused by the construction of the foundation 𝜎′𝑐 = preconsolidation pressure 𝑒𝑜 = initial void ratio of the clay layer 𝐶𝑐 = compression index 𝐶𝑠 = swelling index 𝐻𝑐 = thickness of the clay layer . Consolidation settlement calculation Where.24. FIGURE 4.

the average increase in pressure may be approximated by (4.5.43) where Δ𝜎′𝑡 . The method of determining the pressure increase caused by various types of foundation load using Boussinesq’s solution is discussed in Sections 4. Note that the increase in effective pressure. The magnitude of Δσ will decrease with the increase in depth measured from the bottom of the foundation. Δ𝜎′𝑎𝑣 can also be directly obtained from the method presented in Section 4. Δσ. the effective pressure increases at the top.2 through 4. However.7.The procedures for determining the compression and swelling indexes were discussed in Chapter 1. respectively. and bottom of the clay layer that are caused by the construction of the foundation. on the clay layer is not constant with depth. . Δ 𝜎′𝑚 and Δ𝜎′𝑏 are. middle.

25 calculation of primary consolidation settlement for a foundation .6 FIGURE 4.Example 4.


64).68). are in turn based on one-dimensional laboratory consolidation tests. The underlying assumption is that the increase in pore water pressure. (1. as shown in Chapter 1.68) ∆σ 1 = vertical stress increase (note the change of notation from ∆σ ) 𝑚𝑣 = volume coefficient of compressibility (see Chapter 1) . In this case.64).4.66). and (1. and (1. 𝑠𝑐(𝑜𝑒𝑑) = Consolidation settlement calculated by using Eqs.66). ∆𝑢 immediately after application of the load equals the increase in stress. (1. Where.13 Skempton-Bjerrum Modification for Consolidation Settlement The consolidation settlement calculation presented in the preceding section is based on Eqs. ∆σ at any depth. These equations. (1. (1.

Consider the case of a circular foundation on a clay layer. such an assumption will not be correct. when a load is applied over a limited area on the ground surface. as shown in Figure 4. however. the pore water pressure increase at that depth (see Chapter 1) is (4. For this case.26. In the field.44) Where A = pore water pressure parameter. The vertical and the horizontal stress increases at a point in the layer immediately below the center of the foundation are ∆σ 1 and ∆𝜎 3 respectively.45) Thus.46) Where 𝐾𝑐𝑖𝑟 = settlement ratio for circular foundations . For a saturated clay. (4. we can write (4.

and B= width of a continuous foundation. 𝑆𝑐(𝑜𝑒𝑑) . A. 3. using the procedure outlined in Section 4. Obtain the settlement ratio – in this case from Figure 4. FIGURE 4.27.12. 1.27 5.47) . (Note: diameter of a circular foundation. The variation of 𝐾𝑐𝑖𝑟 and 𝐾𝑠𝑡𝑟 with A and 𝐻𝑐 /𝐵 is given in Figure 4. Calculate the actual consolidation settlement: 𝑆𝑐 = 𝑆𝑐 𝑜𝑒𝑑 x settlement ratio (4.26 Circular foundation on a clay layer The settlement ratio for a continuous foundation (𝐾𝑐𝑖𝑟 ) can be determined in a manner similar to that for a circular foundation. Determine the pore water pressure parameter. Determine the consolidation settlement.) Following is the procedure for determining consolidation settlement according to Skempton and Bjerrum (1957). Determine 𝐻𝑐 /B 4. (Note the change of notation from 𝑆𝑐 ) 2.

FIGURE 4.27 Settlement ratios for circular (𝐾𝑐𝑖𝑟 ) and continuous (𝐾𝑠𝑡𝑟 ) foundations. . This technique is generally referred to as the Skempton-Bjerrum modification for consolidation settlement calculation.

4.14 Consolidation Settlement-General Comments and A Case History .

15 Allowable Bearing Pressure In Sand Based on Settlement Consideration . Allowable Bearing Capacity 4.

) in diameter. . can be effectively determined from the field load test. Its is generally referred to as the plate load test (ASTM.) are also used.4. as well as the allowable bearing capacity based on tolerable settlement consideration. To 30 in. Occasionally.1982. The plates that are used for tests in the field are usually made of steel and are 25mm (1in.16 Field Load Test The ultimate load bearing capacity of a foundation.) thick and 150 mm to 762 mm (6 in. square plates that are 305 mm X 305 mm (12 in. Test designation D- 1194-72). X 12 in.

Figure 4. For test in Clay Equation (4.31a.) of settlement. The plate is placed at the center of the hole. or at least until the plate has gone through 25 mm (1in. a hole is excavated with a minimum diameter 4B (B = diameter of the plate) to a depth of Df (Df = depth of the proposed foundation). from which the ultimate load per unit area can be determined. To conduct a plate load test. .61) implies that ultimate bearing capacity in clay is virtually independent of the size of the plate. Shows the nature of the load-settlement curve obtained from such test. Load is applied to the plate in steps – about one-fourth to one-fifth of the estimated ultimate load – by means of a jack. The test should be conducted until failure.31b. A schematic diagram of the test arragement is shown in figure 4.

31) Plate load test : (a) test arragement. Figure (4. For test in sandy soil . (b) nature of load- settlement curve.

.The allowable bearing capacity of a foundation.q. based on settlement considerations and for a given intensity of load.is .


17 Presumptive Bearing Capacity .4.

4.18 Tolerable Settlement of Buildings .