Verbs: Forms (introduction

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In this lesson we will look at recognizing verb groups. All verbs fall into one of three groups. The verbs in
each group (except the irregular group) are conjugated in the same way. Before you are able to
conjugate, however, you must recognize which verbs are related to which group.

*If you know the dictionary form, you can make other usages:

There are only 3 basic verb groups.
1) The ~u Group (group 1 verbs): -u: ends in -u, -ru, -tsu, -bu, -su, -mu, -nu, -ku, but not -eru or -iru (with few exceptions)
Also called 五段動詞 godan doushi or strong verbs (not important, but it may be helpful when reading grammar books)

書く kaku (to write) ENDS IN k U
話す hanasu (to speak) ENDS IN s U
泳ぐ oyogu (to swim) ENDS IN g U
買う kau (to buy) ENDS IN U

2) The ~ru Group (group 2 verbs): -ru: ends in -eru or -iru
Also called 一段動詞 ichidan doushi or weak verbs

見る miru (to see) ENDS IN IRU
食べる taberu (to eat) ENDS IN ERU
教える oshieru (to teach) ENDS IN ERU

3) The irregular Group (group 3 verbs): There are ONLY 2 verbs to worry about.

する suru (to do) This is the most important verb! But, alas, another day.
来る kuru (to come) Another very useful verb

. you will get かわない (kawanai). change the u-sound to a-sound in the last word. instead of changing it to あ (a). Therefore you need to change う (u) to わ (wa). However there is one exception. Adding ない (nai) at the end. After that append ない (nai) to the changed words and you will get the nai-form of the verb. For group 1 verbs end up with the word う (u). For example. If you change the u-sound to a-sound. You just need to change る (ru) to ない (nai) and you will get the nai-form Japanese verbs. Verbs: Forms (Dictionary-form to Nai-form “Negative form”) Rules for Changing dictionary-form to nai-form For this section you will learn how to change dictionary-form (Plain Present Affirmation) to nai-form (Plain Present Negative). Group 3 Verbs Group 3 verbs are irregular verbs. Group 1 Verbs To change group 1 verbs from dictionary-form to nai-form. you will get かかない (kakanai). You just need to memorize them. く (ku) becomes か (ka). this group 1 verb かう (kau) ends up with う (u). you need to change it to わ (wa). Group 2 Verbs Group 2 verbs are much simpler. this group 1 Japanese verb かく (kaku) ends up with く (ku). The following are the rules for the 3 groups of Japanese verbs. Adding ない (nai) at the end. For example. The nai-form of くる (kuru) is こない (konai) and the nai-form of する (suru) is しない (shinai).

the following diagram shows the rules when changing dictionary-form to nai-form for Japanese verbs.In summary. .

However. . the ta-form of する (suru) is した (shita) and the ta-form of くる (kuru) is きた (kita). you just need to replace る (ru) with た (ta). change it to いだ (ida). For those verbs which end up with the words む (mu). For the Japanese verb いく (iku) which means "to go". replace these words with った (tta). change it to した (shita). And for those which end up with the word す (su). replace the words with んだ (nda). つ (tsu) or る (ru). change the word to いた (ita). Group 3 Verbs For group 3 verbs. Verbs: Forms (Dictionary-form to Ta-form “Past tense form”) How to Make Japanese Verbs た -form (ta-form)? Group 1 Verbs For Group 1 verbs which end up with the words う (u). there is one exception. Group 2 Verbs Group 2 verbs always end with the word る (ru). For group 1 verbs which end up with the word く (ku). For those which end up with the word ぐ (gu). ぬ (nu) or ぶ (bu). the ta-form is いった (itta).

Continue………. . The following diagram shows the summary of how to change from dictionary-form to ta-form for Japanese verbs.

nai-form and nakatta-form . Verbs: Forms (nakatta-form) How to Make Japanese Verbs なかった -form (nakatta-form)? Let's see some examples of changing Japanese verbs from dictionary-form to ta-form. Group 1 Verbs dict-form Meaning ta-form nai-form nakatta-form ある (aaru) Exist (Thing) あった (aatta) ない (nai) なかった (na katta) かかる (kakaru) Hang/Take かかった (kakatta) かからない (kakaranai) かからなかった (kakarana katta) よむ (yomu) Read よんだ (yonda) よまない (yomanai) よまなかった (yomana katta) きく (kiku) Listen/Ask きいた (kiita) きかない (kikanai) きかなかった (kikana katta) あそぶ (aasobu) Play あそんだ (aasonda) あそばない (aasobanai) あそばなかった (aasobana katta) Group 2 Verbs           いる (iru) Exist (Human いた (ita) いない (inai) いなかった (ina katta)   /Animal) たべる (taberu) Eat たべた (tabeta) たべない (tabenai) たべなかった (tabena katta) みる (miru) See みた (mita) みない (minai) みなかった (mina katta) でる (deru) Appear/Leave でた (deta) でない (denai) でなかった (dena katta) あげる (aageru) Give/Offer/ あげた (aageta) あげない (aagenai) あげなかった (aagena katta)   Raise           Group 3 Verbs                     くる (kuru) Come/Arrive きた (kita) こない (konai) こなかった (kona katta) する (suru) Do/Execute/ した (shita) しない (shinai) しなかった (shina katta)   Play べんきょうする (benkyou べんきょうした (benkyou べんきょうしない (benkyou shinai) べんきょうしなかった (benkyou shina katta) Study suru) shita) .

How to make potential verb ( 可能動詞) Convert last word into e to eru to meet あう あえる あえない to go いく いける いけない 1st group to drink のむ のめる のめない Remove last word add られる to eat たべる たべられる たべられない to see みる みられる みられない 2nd group to go out でる でられる でられない Learn as it is mentioned to come くる こられる こられない 3rd group to do する できる できない .