Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. direction. and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Persistence: how long a person tries . Key Elements 1.DEFINE MOTIVATION The processes that account for an individual’s intensity.

THEORIES  Maslow Theory  Douglas McGregor Theory  Edwin Locke Theory .

safety.HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY (MASLOW) Hierarchy of Needs Theory There is a hierarchy of five needs— physiological. as each need is substantially satisfied. esteem. and self-actualization. social. the next need becomes dominant. .

NEED HIERARCHY THEORY Higher-order needs Self- actualization needs Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs Lower-order needs .

lack ambition. are capable of making decisions.THEORY X AND THEORY Y (DOUGLAS MCGREGOR) Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work. seek responsibility. . and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal. avoid responsibility. Theory Y Assumes that employees like work. and must be directed and coerced to perform.

Factors influencing the goals– performance relationship: Goal commitment. and national culture. task characteristics. with feedback. adequate self- efficacy.GOAL-SETTING THEORY (EDWIN LOCKE) Goal-Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals. . Self-Efficacy The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. lead to higher performance.

MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS  To Motivate Employees:  Recognize individual differences  Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them  Link rewards to performance  Check the reward system for equity .

GOING “BEYOND THE FRINGE” IN BENEFITS: ESPECIALLY CREATIVE REWARD PRACTICES Company Reward Apple Computer Stock purchase options Publix Super Markets Partial ownership in the company Advanta Corporation Opportunity to help train new employees Westin Hotels Free meals while on the job Worthington Industries Haircuts for $2 while at work Steelcase Access to camping facilities and equipment Delta Airlines Free airline travel for employees and spouses .