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Role and deficiency/toxicity

symptoms of Micronutrients
in Banana
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Introduction

Micronutrient or trace elements are essential


for plant growth but it is needed in very small
quantities in the plant system.
The micro nutrient deficiency symptoms
are first expressed in younger leaves than
the older leaves.

The micronutrients are Zinc (Zn),


Molybdenum (Mo) Boron (Bo) Manganese
(Mn), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe).

They are usually found in association


with larger molecules such as
cytochromes, chlorophyll, and proteins
(usually enzymes).
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Micro Nutrients

Boron
Iron
Manganese
Zinc
Copper
Molybdenum
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Role of Zinc

Activator of enzymes viz., Enolase,


Yeast aldolase, Oxalaetic
decarboxylase , Carbonic anhydrase,
Alcohol dehydrogense
Maintenance of auxin in an active
state
Metabolic pathway from tryptophan
to auxin via tryptamine
Responsible for proper functioning of
Chloroplasts.
Involved in protein synthesis
mediated through RNA
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Deficiency Symptoms of Zinc

Bunchy foliage
Stunted growth
Leaf deformity
Increase in leaf length to breadth
ratioLeaves become either entirely
white
White towards the base
Chlorotic transverse stripes
alternating with greener bands
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Deficiency Symptoms of Zinc

Chlorotic parts show numerous small, oblong,


lighter patches
Severe deficiency viz.,
Fruit development is slow
Fingers twisted
Shorter
Thinner
Lighter green in color

Recommendation
Spraying Zinc Sulphate (0.5%) on the leaves is recommended.
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Role of Copper

Activator of several enzymes viz.,


tyrosinase,
laccase,
ascorbic acid oxidase,
butryl Co-A dehydrogenase
Light reaction in plants
Protein synthesis
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Absorbed by plants as the cupric ion (Cu++) and as a chelate both
by leaves and roots
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Deficiency Symptoms of Copper

Overall drooping appearance


Shortened intervals between leaf petioles
emerging from the pseudo stem.
The leaves droop and resemble like an
umbrella
Reduction in Leaf size
LB ratio reduced to 2.1 to 2.2
Susceptible to fungal and viral infections

Toxicity Symptoms
Root growth inhibited

Recommendation
Spraying Copper Sulphate (0.5%) on the leaves is recommended.
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Deficiency Symptoms of Iron

Iron deficiency has been


recorded in alkaline soils and
is identified by interveinal
chlorosis of young leaves.

Recommendation
Soil application of FeSO4 5/g/ha
or foliar spray of 0.5% FeSO4 at
weekly intervals.
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Role of Manganese
Essential in respiration and N metabolism in plants
A relatively immobile element in plant
Antagonistic to Fe and excessive feeding leads to Fe deficiency
Activation of enzymes like
arginase
cystcine desulfhydrase,
deoxyribose nuclease
yeast phosphatase
Specific activator of prolidase
glutamyl transferase
Prominent component of chloroplasts and particularly involved in Hill reaction
of photosynthesis

Absorbed by plants as manganese ion (Mn2++ ) and as a chelate of EDTA


through roots as well as leaves
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Deficiency Symptoms of Manganese

Interveinal chlorosis in the middle of the sub


terminal leaves indicate manganese
deficiency.

In moderate and acute stages of manganese


deficiency the dark green areas in the leaves
become dull green and the light green areas
persist throughout the life of the leaves

In severe cases, the light green areas often


become grey or even whitish, the foliage
becomes thin and shoots die back

Recommendation
Spraying Manganese Sulphate (0.5 %) on the leaves is recommended
After 14 weeks the disorder was cured.
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Role of Molybdenum

Essential in N Metabolism
Enzyme systems of symbiotic Nitrogen
fixation in legumes and non-legumes Protein synthesis
Acts as an activator of dehydrogenases and
phosphatases
Activator of nitrate reductase and xanthene oxidase
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Deficiency Symptoms Molybdenum

Lower levels of sugars and ascorbic acid


Very low aminoacids
Restricted vegetative growth and their leaves become pale
and wither
Flower formation restricted. Appears first in the middle and
older leaves
Leaves appear yellowish green
Rolling of leaf margins
Leaves become small and covered with necrotic spots
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Role of Boron

Involved in carbohydrate metabolism


Facilitates the movement of sugars by forming permeable
boron-sugar complex.
Regulates water relations
calcium in soluble form within the plant
Acts as a regulator of K ratio
Regulatory role in
Switching the degradation of glucose to either
glycolysis
Pentose shunt pathway
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Role of Boron

Implicated in
N metabolism
Photosynthesis
Cellular differentiation and development
Translocated from older to meristematic tissues is not ready
Absorbed by plants in one or more of its ionic forms
B4O7
H2BO3
HBO-3
BO-3
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Deficiency Symptoms of Boron


Stunted growth of plants

Newly emerging leaves found to be


malformed with incomplete laminar
development

Chlorotic streaks are aligned


perpendicular to the veins on the leaf
lamina

Severe interveinal chlorosis and


incomplete leaf formationRoot and flower
formation are inhibited

Recommendation
Application of Borax Salt (25 g/ Plant) in the soil around the root zone of
the plant is recommended.
Role and deficiency/toxicity symptoms of Micronutrients in Banana

Let Us Sum Up

Micronutrients are required in very small quantities by the plant


for their functions.

Since they are involved in various enzymatic activities ,their


deficiency causes in various malfunctioning of the plant
activities.

To manage these micro nutrient deficiencies spraying of


suitable chemicals at recommended levels by foliar application
will alleviate the deficiency.