You are on page 1of 30


Designing comfort garment for children

Clothing is one among the most important three basic needs in

every human life.

It protects our body from various climates and gives us a good

appearance. In this youthful world, children are given more care for
the selection of their garments.

Today children are largely exposed through various media. They

themselves have become the customers in their own rights.

They also have their own definite opinions about the clothes they
wear. While developing their own styles children reveal their own
creative streaks.
Children classification

Generally kids are grouped according to their age.


Infant Or Babies

Babies up to two years come under this classification. Infant's

clothing is sized according their age: 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 months.

During this age, the head does not correctly stand on their neck.
So, garments should be selected with full opening.

According to the seasons, the material should be selected, ie, thick

or thin. Normally soft materials with lightweight should be selected.

Children from the age of two to eight are called as toddlers. From
the age of two, the average child loses fat until about the age of
eight. This slimming down process is very apparent.

Toddlers have very little waist shaping and protruding stomach.

These features decrease as the child grows and loses fat.

Age groups above seven to twelve are normally said as children.

Manufactures decided to accept a 6 cm height interval as a base for
coding scheme as this approximates to the average growth per year
over this period.

It is to be noted that the range of heights for any particular age

group is larger than the amount of growth that occurs in any one

It is better to link other body measurements to height rather than

Requirements of children's clothing

The ideal baby clothing should be:

Soft, comfortable, easy to put on and take off and comparatively


Easy access to his/her nappy because it requires frequent

Underclothes should be essentially made of organic fibres.
Allow quick transmission of sweat from skin to environment.
Garment classifications

Children garments are generally classified into many categories. They

are as follows:
Garments designed for informal occasions are termed as casuals:
They are T-shirts, knitted garments, etc. Knitted fabrics give more
freedom of movement than woven fabrics and are ideal for casual
wear. During the movement these knitted loops helps in pumping air
through close-fitting garments, thus removing body heat during
summer. It gives pleasing appearance, loose elastic structure,
comfort and softness.
The fabric's selected to wore as daytime wear are cotton, gingham,
gabardine and sail doth during summer season.
Double knits velveteen and corduroys are selected during winter
season. Children's day garment has to be made up with a fabric that will
stand for repeated laundering, the seams should be strong and
fastenings should be secure.

While selecting the garment it should not possess any harmful ingredient and
accessories, as the skin of children is very tender and smooth. The garment selected
should have good drape and it should serve the purpose.
Industries focus on manufacturing luxurious garments for children in
various styles and prevailing trends. These are also called as special
occasion garment. Fabrics like velvet, denim, satin, etc, are used in
party wears with different styles.

The uniform worn by children should be subjected to certain treatments like antibacterial
finish, etc, and it should be free from odour.
It should have freedom of movements. Knitted garments have higher
extensibility in both length and widthwise directions. Hence, knitted materials
are mostly selected as sports wear for children. Active sports wear can be
classified as summer sports wear and winter sports wear.
High fashionwear
Fashion in clothing has always been a reflector of change in life style of
people. A complete range with the most luxurious look and superior
comfort is an absolute must. Greater spectrums of bright, vivid colours
and designs have become the key for the purchase of high fashioned
wear. They look only for latest fashions and these can be worn during
special occasion like parties.
Selection of material for children garments

Fibre -Organic cotton: It is a specific name of cotton, which is grown without

the use of any pesticide, fertiliser and harmful chemical.

Linen: It is more safe fibre than cotton because very less amount of pesticide
is used on linen than Cotton: So, linen fibre-based garment, either 100%
pure or with blend cotton or other suitable fibre, can be used for clothing
after appropriate eco-friendly softening treatment.

Wool: Conventional wool is a polluted fibre because; it is subjected to various

processes such as scouring, dyeing and finishing treatments using various
chemicals. Hence, organic wool is suitable for children clothing.

Coir: The coir has the properties of moisture absorption and holding capacity of
any amount of moisture until the air is circulated and wicks it away leaving
the mattress dry and healthy.
Bamboo fibre
Bamboo fibre is a kind of antibiotic fibre. This fibre has good dye ability
and drape, soft, easy to weave, deodorant, special elastic
resilience,higher wear resistance and high comfort value. It has high air
permeability and can absorb moisture instantly. It is biodegradable and
environment-friendly fibre. The bamboo fibre can be blended with cotton
and synthetic fibres like polyester, nylon, etc. This fibre can be used for
underwear, baby towel, bath towels, etc.

Viscose fibre
It has a great sense of softness and luxurious feel. Fabrics made from it
have stable shape with silky touch. Inherent flame-retorted viscose fibre
is also very effective to produce baby clothing.
Chitcel fibre
It is a multiplex cellulosic fibre added with natural antimicrobial high
polymer chitin. It has merits of both chitin and cellulose fibre. It has a
wide application in medical textiles also. This fibre is soft and luxurious
with higher dyeing and rate and affinity. The fabric made from this fibre
provides soft and smooth feeling, comfortable due to its high moisture
and air permeability. The raw materials are formed from natural
regenerated resources. The product is biodegradable and can be
thoroughly decomposed within three months being buried 5 cm under
the ground.

Ring spun yarn is suitable because, due to its highly migrated structure,
it provides better fabric hand than rotor and friction spun yarns. Combed
yarns can be used for yarn of children clothing should be less than adult
wearing because more loftiness is required in case of baby clothing.
In summer, the fabric should be more open for frequent transfer of moisture
vapour. Satin and sateen weaves are more popular summer wear. It is
smooth, soft, lustrous and excellent drape, floats, snags easily. In baby
blanket, leno, towel and bath towel, felts are used. Twill weaves are also
very suitable due to diagonal effect, less dust capturing tendency and more

While selecting the fabrics choose durable fabrics that will take a lot of war
and tear. Firm knits and firmly woven fabrics such as denims, poplins,
broadcloths, and corduroys are good choices. Avoid loosely woven and
knitted fabrics that may snag or catch. Children prefer soft, absorbent
fabrics that do not "Scratch". Polyester cotton blends provide comfort,
durability, and easy care.

Children's pattern types are based on body measurements.

Because children go rapidly, measurements need to be taken often.
It is designed for infants who are not yet walking. Patterns for babies are
chosen primarily by weight and length. There are two sizes, new born and

It is designed for a figure that is taller than a baby but shorter than a child.
Toddler pants have diaper allowance. Choose size closest to chest
measurement. Toddler patterns often apply to boys and girls.

It has the same chest and waist, as toddler but is taller with wider
shoulders and back. Many patterns suit boys and girls. For children's
patterns choose the size most closely matching the chest and back waist
length measurements. The chart shows the body measurements for exact
pattern measurements and sizes.
Selection based on seasons

Children's garments are selected with respect to season in order to

protect their body. During selection, the garment is selected
according to two seasons, summer and winter season.

Summer season
Lightweight garments should be preferred on summer season
because the lightweight fabric can be able to breathe the body
moisture in to the environment easily. Children feel more
comfortable on wearing cotton fabric. The garment selected should
be loose to wear. Colour also plays vital role. Colour differs
according to different climatic condition. During hot season light
colours like white, blue, green, purple, etc, should be given
importance. Black colour should be totally avoided during summer
Winter season
To give a warm condition, the garment should be in thick nature. Hence
materials like wool, acrylic are mostly preferred. The colours preferred for
this season are red, red-orange, maroon etc, during this season children
easily get affected by cool air. So, knitted garments like sweater come into
their existence. Sweaters can be designed as smooth and bulkier, shagged,
hairy, etc, which prevents the loss of heat from the body. Sweaters are also
named as pullover. Cashmere type of sweater is used for great softness and
Children wider their selection based on



Accessory works

Painting and printing

Fashion reflects the changing life style of garment. Fashion changes
accordingly to the new development techniques. Now-a-days
fashions are created according to the mindset of children. The
garments are designed and styled based on these fashions.

Children like bright colours: Red, blue and yellow. Brown, warm/cool
colours combination, the royal purple is some of the colours that are
raising its peak in this youthful world. The colour reflects the mood
of the children. The colours used in children's garments should not
be sensitive to their skin.
Accessory works

The value added works in children garment mostly consist of:

Patch work
Printing and Painting

Trim can make a garment special to child. Decorative machine stitching,

embroidery, smocking, ribbons, braid, rickrack, appliqus, ruffles. Lace
and bias binding are some trimming possibilities. Be sure the care
requirements are compatible with the fabric while selecting the trim.

Children also like designs. Such as printed designs, stripes, and plaids
should be small and in scale with the child's size.
Finishes for children wear

A finish is a process given to a fabric to improve its qualities such as

appearance, hand, drape and certain other properties.
Antistatic finish
Synthetic fabrics are hydrophobic in nature and tend to accumulate
static electricity. This static electricity causes problem such as
clinging of the garment, attraction of dirt and sparking. These fabrics
are given a chemical treatment, which enables the fabric to attract
and retain water molecules. This helps to dissipate electric charge
from the fabric surface and making the fabric more comfortable to
Antibacterial static finish
This is a chemical treatment, which makes the fabric resistant to
bacterial growth. It renders the microbes inactive, which come in contact
with it. Some of these finishes also make the fabric mildew resistant and
even prevent damage of the fabric by perspiration.

Antimicrobial finish -Antimicrobial finishes are applied to the garments

like sports wear, leisure wear, T-shirts, socks, wipes etc. Antimicrobial
are used to control the growth of algae, bacteria and yeast. This
prevents the fabric from rotting, staining, unpleasant odours and other
health concerns like physical irritation, allergic sensitisation etc.

Crease-retentive finish -It is also called as permanent press finish, or

durable press finish. A resin treatment is given to a fabric, which is then
stitched into a garment, eg, a pleated skirt for girls. Heat treatment is
applied to the garment to have a permanent pleat. It does not require
ironing but may require light pressing.
Mildew resistant finish -Cotton/linen and cotton/wool blended fabrics
are mostly liable to mildew in humid climates or if left moist in the dark.
Cotton and rayon's containing starch are particularly vulnerable to attack
by mildew. If a mildew resistant finish is given, these fabrics resist the
growth of mildew or mould. This is mainly given to children's bed
spread, towels etc.

Moth-resistant finish -Wool is susceptible to attack by moth. If the wool

is treated with certain chemicals like fluorine compounds, chlorinated
sulphonamides, quaternary phosphonium compounds it is not damaged
by moth and carpet beetle. This is given to woollen sweaters and
woollen garments of children.
Soil release finish -This finish is mainly applied to sports-wear of
the children, which helps the garment from getting stained. The
finishes that give soil release are:
Polymer containing carboxylic groups.
Compounds containing oxyethylene or hydroxyl groups.
Fluorocarbons containing hydrophilic groups chemically reactive
This helps the garment from getting stained.
Anti-shrink/anti-stretch treatment
Anti-shrinking is a process in which the dimensional instability is
avoided. This makes the fabric dimensionally stable. The material
used for children's wear should be treated with anti-shrink or anti-
stretch treatment.
Non-apparel textiles for children

Diapers-Diaper cloth is a twill dobby or plain-woven water

absorbent cotton. Diapers are of two types: Disposal diaper and
non-disposal diaper. Diapers are made of gauze, flannelettes in
rectangular or fitted type. Gauze allows air to circulate there by
keeping the children comfortable. These types of diapers are easy
to wash and dry, this implies that these diapers are non-disposable.
Flannelette is soft but bulky this could be used during long travels.

towels-The towels used for children should be capable of

absorbing the water, which should have soft and smooth feel. It
should be treated with special finishes like antimicrobial finish which
avoids the growth of microbes. These finishes must not affect the
tender skin of children. Figure 15. Children's Towels
socks-Socks are made from cotton, linen and wool. Socks are
normally used along with uniform and it can also be used during
cold climate to protect the body by preventing the direct contact of
cool air. It should be surely treated with antibacterial finish. This
prevents the garment from the growth of the bacteria.

bed sheets and bedspreads-It should also be selected on the

basis of season. During cold season the bed sheets should be
thicker to give warmth. During summer season it should be thin and
have good air permeability and it should have good air circulation
capacity. Children's bedspreads mostly in the colour of pink, purple,
red etc. Colourful, fun and creative patterns and fabrics for a child's
bedspread can spark imagination, enhance play and make naps
and bedtime something to look forward to!

The selection of suitable cloth to the children is imperative to their

enjoyment of health. The cloth should not irritate the delicate skin of
the children. When selecting children clothes, there are a few things
needed to be aware of in order to keep your children safe and
comfortable. So, the construction of the children garment should be
simple and comfort.