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Coastal Engineering

Challenges
(Motril, 2005)
J. W. Kamphuis
Queen’s University
Kingston, ON, Canada
K7L 3N6
kamphuis@civil.queensu.ca
J.W. Kamphuis - Coastal Challenges 1

Challenges for
Coastal Morphology and
Evolution

(I cheat a little)

J.W. Kamphuis - Coastal Challenges 2

Approach
I trust others will adequately
address science requirements.
This presentation addresses very
practical needs for engineering
studies and designs.

J.W. Kamphuis - Coastal Challenges 3

Kamphuis . Co-operation and Communication J. Data Aquisition 3.W. Sediment Transport (as example) 2. Integration 5. Uncertainties 4.Coastal Challenges 4 . Summary 1.

Sediment Transport (as example) • Bulk • Direct measurements J.Coastal Challenges 5 . Kamphuis .W.1.

01 0.Coastal Challenges 6 .1 0.W.1 Measured Transport Rate (kg/sec under water) J.73 1. Model Results – Kamphuis (1991) 1 Calculated Transport Rate (kg/sec under water) 0.001 0.27 0.001 0. 7 0. Kamphuis .01 Qcalc Eq.

001 0. 7 0.Coastal Challenges 7 . Kamphuis .001 0. Model and Field Results – Kamphuis (1991) 1000 Larger Calculated Transport Rate (kg/sec under water) 100 Uncertainty ! 10 1 0.W.01 0.1 Verification ! Qcalc Eq.73 1.1 1 10 100 1000 Measured Transport Rate (kg/sec under water) J.27 0.01 0.

01 0.Coastal Challenges 8 . Filling the Gap: VHP Model Tests Added Calculated Sediment Transport Rate (kg/sec) 1000 100 10 1 Model 0. Kamphuis .1 Field Eq.1 1 10 100 1000 Measured Sediment Transport Rate (kg/sec) J. 12 CERC VHP-Irr 0.01 VHP-Reg 0.W.001 0.001 0.

Kamphuis .1 1 10 100 1000 Measured Sediment Transport Rate (kg/sec) J.Coastal Challenges 9 .01 0.W. 12 0.01 0. more “modern” results ! Calculated Sediment Transport Rate (kg/sec) 100 Same scatter ! 10 1 Model Field LM 0. Newer Field Data 1000 Newer.1 IR Miller Balouin Eq.001 0.001 0.

Sediment Transport • Bulk • Direct measurements • Inferred J.1. Kamphuis .W.Coastal Challenges 10 .

Ghana 1000 900 More-or-Less 800 Unidirectional Transport Sediment Transported (1000 m3) 700 600 500 400 300 V(Eq.Coastal Challenges 11 . Sediment Transport at Keta.W. Kamphuis . 15) 200 V(Cosmos) Vmin 100 Vmax 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time (days) J.

Denmark 50000 40000 Low with respect to 30000 y=x DHI model Eq 15 Transport Rate (m3/day) 20000 10000 0 -10000 -20000 -30000 -40000 -50000 -50000 -40000 -30000 -20000 -10000 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 DHI Transport Rate (m3/day) J. Kamphuis .Coastal Challenges 12 . Comparison of Sediment Transport Rates at Bovbjerg.W.

Denmark 4000 3000 y=x 2000 Eq 15 Transport Rate (m3/day) 1000 0 y = 0.62 -2000 -3000 -4000 -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 DHI Transport Rate (m3/day) J.94x -1000 R2 = 0.Comparison of Sediment Transport Rates at Bovbjerg.W.Coastal Challenges 13 . Kamphuis .

W. Spain 35 30 Much Room for 25 Sediment Transport Rate (1000 m3/yr) Interpretation 20 15 10 Qcalc 5 Qmeas 0 -5 -10 -15 1 2 3 4 5 Region J. Sediment Transport at Adra.Coastal Challenges 14 . Kamphuis .

Kamphuis . 15 Q(net) Q (north) -500 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 Year J. South Africa 2000 Qnet = Pavg ? 1500 Sediment Transport (1000 m3/yr) 1000 500 P+D (P+D)avg P = Profiling the beaches P 0 D = Dredged Material Pavg Q = Eq.W.Coastal Challenges 15 . Sediment Transport at Richards Bay.

Kamphuis . J.Coastal Challenges 16 .W. So…?  Simplest Calculation – Bulk Sediment Transport is:  Crude  Not good  Does not look like it will improve substantially in the near future.

1. Sediment Transport

• Bulk
• Direct measurements
• Inferred
• Detailed

J.W. Kamphuis - Coastal Challenges 17

Comparison of Detailed Expressions

Hs = 1.0 m

100 > 2 orders !
10
Bijker (DUT)
1 BB (DH)
S (kg/ms)

0.1 Van Rijn (DH)
IMAR
0.01 UCNW
0.001 HR
DHI
0.0001

0.00001
0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Um (m/s)

J.W. Kamphuis - Coastal Challenges 18

Is this OK ?

 No
 Credibility
 So how can we improve on this
very basic computation (and
other unknowns)?

J.W. Kamphuis - Coastal Challenges 19

Coastal Challenges 20 . Kamphuis . Obtain more data  Reduce uncertainties in the data (better data)  Write better models for detailed sediment transport  Generalities ? J.W.

Sediment Transport 2. Kamphuis .Coastal Challenges 21 . Data Aquisition J.1.W.

but:  Test conditions cannot be designed  Boundary conditions cannot be manipulated  Long-term steady conditions impossible  Tests cannot be repeated  Close observation of details is difficult  Bias toward low energy and good weather  Expensive (therefore. Kamphuis . Field measurements are the truth.W.Coastal Challenges 22 . few and short) J.

Coastal Challenges 23 .W. Kamphuis . Improve field measurement by:  Reduction of mobilization and other costs  Making experiments more transportable  Use new or different technologies  Develop some common standards  And … J.

Kamphuis . etc.  The shortcomings of field measurements (expense.Coastal Challenges 24 .W. poor observation. long-term steady conditions.) are strengths of physical modelling  Perfect match? J. Improve dataset through the use of physical models in addition to field data.

 Who will build the facility?  Is it economically justified?  Commercially not viable.  VLPM studies have all the strengths of physical modelling.. The model studies may (will?) need to be Very Large Physical Model (VLPM) studies.Coastal Challenges 25 . but.W. Kamphuis . J.

W.Coastal Challenges 26 . recovery takes years?  Therefore extensive downtime of facility  Someone needs to finance  Experiments  Facilities  Downtime J. Also: VLPM experiments are like field experiments:  Extensive planning and long lead times  Collective exhaustion of the researchers. Kamphuis .

 Of course there is more we can get from VLPM’s than data. we cannot do without the VLPM simulation of prototype conditions. J.Coastal Challenges 27 .W. And:  We have not mentioned a 3-D VLPM  Yet. Kamphuis .

3. Support and awakening to VLPM simulation of prototype conditions to add to data bank. Kamphuis .W. Challenges 1.Coastal Challenges 28 . Good estimates of sediment transport rate (and other basics) 2. 3-D VPLM J.

Sediment Transport 2. Data Aquisition 3. Uncertainties J.1.Coastal Challenges 29 .W. Kamphuis .

 Examples of uncertainties are:  Natural (climate seismic. geo. maintenance.)  Process (from beginning to end) • Data • Model J.Coastal Challenges 30 . etc. Kamphuis . etc. deterioration.)  Operational (construction.W.

Kamphuis .W. Process uncertainties are:  Uncertainties in the end result  Cumulative  More sophisticated study  more uncertainty  Cause projects to be challenged J.Coastal Challenges 31 .

Kamphuis . frequency. duration)  Handling. time.Coastal Challenges 32 . transcription. etc.  Solutions are obvious  Discussed earlier as Data Aquisition J.W. Data uncertainties are:  Measurement errors  Inadequate sampling (space.

 Model uncertainties are due to:  Formulation (improving)  Parameters (up to 2 orders and not improving)  Numerical methods (improving)  (So… Not just the data!) J.W.Coastal Challenges 33 . Kamphuis .

Pipe J.Primary Chain of Impacts Fish Dredge Plume Birds Less Exposed Mammals Lee Shore Fishing Construction Widening of Littoral Zone Safety Recreation Decrease in Nearshore Depth Ports New Sea-Land Navigation Interface Cables. Kamphuis .Coastal Challenges 34 .W.

One Secondary Chain of Impacts Dredge Plume Dredging Silt Content Foam Formation Operation Phytoplankton Recreation ZooPlankton Benthic Community Fish Fishing Birds Mammals J.Coastal Challenges 35 .W. Kamphuis .

W. Another Secondary Chain of Impacts: New Sea-Land Interface Feeding Island Birds Airport Breeding Mammals J.Coastal Challenges 36 . Kamphuis .

etc Sediment. Kamphuis . Mammals Morphology Uncertainty Near-Field Far-Field J.Coastal Challenges 37 . Growth of Uncertainty Primary Production Fisheries. Birds. Flow Fish.W.

Trial and Error Best Engineering Estimates.W. Includes Subjective Probabilities (Engineering Judgment) Decision-making authority (GAMSI) Decision J. who do and Data not understand how to deal with uncertainties Models. Kamphuis .Coastal Challenges 38 .Contemporary Decision Making Process Stakeholders from many backgrounds. Design. each with Knowledge personal and (Theory + Uncertainty organisational biases and Experience) perception of risks.

Kamphuis . Suggestions to reduce Process Uncertainty J.Coastal Challenges 39 .W.

verification data J. numerical  Research on interactions (e. flow and) • Cohesive materials (erosion) • Pollutants (water quality) • Vegetation (fish habitat)  Better calibration. parameters.g.W.Coastal Challenges 40 .Suggestion Uncertainty  Improve the numerical models (now the most crucial tool in analysis and design!)  Formulation. Kamphuis .

Coastal Challenges 41 . chemists.  (Much) more communication with biologists.  (Much) more interdisciplinary research and exchange of technologies J. etc. fisheries.W. Kamphuis . etc.Suggestion Uncertainty  (Much) more (good) research on biology.

Suggestion Sediment and Morphology Flow New (Aggregate) Models Uncertainty Near-Field Short Term Far-Field Long Term J.W.Coastal Challenges 42 . Kamphuis .

Suggestion Uncertainty Engineering means solutions to real-life problems  Statistics and mathematics walked away from reality (pure vs ??.Coastal Challenges 43 . objective vs subjective)  But pure and objective alone cannot provide the complete answers for real problems.  Therefore judgment (subjective) needs to be:  Cultivated and used  Explained to decision makers and stakeholders  Developed in our young people J. Kamphuis .W.

W.Suggestion Uncertainty  Significance needs to be carefully defined and determined (large uncertainty in an insignificant aspect is OK) J.Coastal Challenges 44 . Kamphuis .

Sediment Transport 2. Data Aquisition 3.1.Coastal Challenges 45 . Integration J.W. Kamphuis . Uncertainties 4.

Coastal Challenges 46 . J.Integration  Clearly the heart of any solution today is the numerical model.W.  But it needs to be carefully integrated with the other tools and information. Kamphuis .

Integration Prototype Data Data Input Cal-Ver Monitoring Computational Physical Model Module Physical Model Physical Model(s) Numerical Model(s) Output J.W. Kamphuis .Coastal Challenges 47 .

Coastal Challenges 48 . inexpensive. easy to understand tests  generic tests and results  repeatable results  repeated tests J.W. Kamphuis .Integration Composite Model  Processes are modelled  physically and/or numerically  models must be trustworthy representations  Process model results forms the “bricks”  simple.

W. Kamphuis .Coastal Challenges 49 .Integration Composite Model  Computational module forms the “mortar”  not necessarily a numerical model (spreadsheet)  calibration (inexpensive)  what if? (inexpensive)  Not necessarily same provider for various parts  Bank of process model “bricks” (I wish) J.

Kamphuis .W.C.Coastal Challenges 50 .Integration Composite Model Data Input Cal-Ver Monitoring Computational Output Module Model B. Results Process Models J.

Data Aquisition 3.Coastal Challenges 51 .W. Sediment Transport 2. Co-operation and Communication J. Integration 5. Kamphuis . Uncertainties 4.1.

W. Kamphuis . animals and man  Research is not only university based J.Coastal Challenges 52 .Co-operation and Communication  Anti-fragmentation  Tsunami is not an Indonesian Problem  Katrina is not an American problem  Global Climate change  Coastal erosion is not only a management problem  Coastal is more than rocks and sand. includes plants.

W. Kamphuis .Co-operation and Communication  Co-operation between:  Coastal scientists and engineers  Coastal managers with scientists and engineers  Coastal scientists and engineers with related coastal disciplines  Universities with consultants and contractors  Sharing of technology (as EU) J.Coastal Challenges 53 .

 Examples: • Fluid flow • Sediment transport and morphology • Mathematical and numerical methods (basic tools development) • Physical modelling • Coastal biology J.Coastal Challenges 54 . Kamphuis .W. rather than geography.Co-operation and Communication  World Centres of Excellence  Distinguished through topics and disciplines.

Co-operation and Communication  Technology Platforms  C of E’s set up and manage  Information is “sold” by shareholders  Information is “sold” to shareholders  Only contributors benefit J. Kamphuis .W.Coastal Challenges 55 .

Coastal Challenges 56 . nationalities) into our shop  We must communicate to funding agencies that we can no longer work on a disciplinary or national basis. J.Co-operation and Communication  Who will fund this?  No-one will leap forward  We must plant the seed  We must start co-operating more  We must make an effort to invite strangers (other disciplines. Kamphuis .W.

Coastal Challenges 57 .Co-operation and Communication  I see this happening !  But we need more  And we need it soon J.W. Kamphuis .

Data Acquisition 3.W. Sediment Transport (as example) 2. Kamphuis . Summary 1. Uncertainties 4. Integration 5. Co-operation and Communication J.Coastal Challenges 58 .

Uncertainties – medium cost 4. Co-operation and Communication – medium cost J.Coastal Challenges 59 . 4. 5) 2. Integration – low cost 5.W. Kamphuis . Data Acquisition – high cost 3. 3. Sediment Transport (as example of 2. Summary 1.

Coastal Challenges 60 .queensu.ca google: kamphuis canada J. Thank You The paper is posted on www.civil. Kamphuis .W.