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PENGANTAR KULIAH

ANATOMI

. Thontowi Djauhari NS M.Kes
Laboratorium Anatomi
Program Pendidikan Dokter
Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang

Sine Anatomi Nihil Medicine

Tidak Ada Ilmu Kedokteran Tanpa Anatomi

ANATOMI
Asal Kata. Greek “ temnein”
artinya
“memotong”
( dissecting )
Pengertian.
Adalah ilmu yang mempelajari struktur
tubuh
melalui pemotongan ( dissecting )
--------- Ilmu Urai.

. . Selayang Pandang 130-201 : .Galen.Dokter Yunani melakukan dissecting pada hewan.mengetahui bahwa darah mengalir dari jantung.menerbitkan buku anatomi pertama berjudul De Fabrica Corporis Humani 1578-1657: William Harvey seorang Anatomis menerangkan bahwa aliran darah merupakan aliran darah searah Jantung arteri vena Jantung .Andreas Vesalius Dokter Belgia tinggal di Italia melakukan dissecting pada manusia .Membuat hypotese bahwa susunan syaraf terdiri dari devisi sensoris dan motoris. 1538 : .

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. Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh dengan menggunakan mikroskop • Makroskopik Anatomi ( Gross Anatomy = Ilmu Urai.Pembagian anatomi • Mikroskopik Anatomi ( Histologi = Ilmu Jaringan).) Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh tanpa alat pembesar.

Approaches to Studying Anatomy
• Systemic Anatomy
Undergraduate courses are
taught systemically, mainly
because physiology is
taught along with anatomy.

• Regional Anatomy
Medical school courses are
taught regionally.
Dissection of a cadaver is
best done in this manner.

Regional Anatomy

This course will be divided into
4 units:

1. Back and Upper Limb
2. Thorax and Abdomen
3. Pelvis and Lower Limb
4. Head and Neck

SISTEM TUBUH MANUSIA

• Atoms
• Molecule
• Organelle
• Cell
• Tissue
• Organ
• Organ System
• Organism

Organ Systems .

Organ Systems .

. made up of kidneys. urinary bladder. rids the body of nitrogenous wastes. and regulates fluid balance and pH. The urinary system. and tubes that convey urine.

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Regio-regio Dalam Tubuh manusia Nama Regio Nama Anatomi. Cephalic Cephalon Cervicalis Cervicis Thoracalis Thorax Brachialis Brachium Abdominalis Abdomen Gluteus Glutea Femoralis Femur Cruris Crural Pedis Pes .

Regional Terms .

= venae = veins mm. = nervi = nerves. = arteri = artery v. = musculus = muscle aa. = vena = vein n. = musculi = muscles nn. . = arteriae = arteries vv.Terminologi Anatomi Abreviation a. = nervus = nerve m.

distal • Dorsal vs.) . palmar • Dorsal vs. (See figure. lateral • Superior vs. posterior • Proximal vs. plantar Be able to use each term in a sentence. inferior • Cranial vs. deep • Medial vs.Terms of Relationship and Comparison • Superficial vs. caudal • Anterior vs.

MOVEMENT .

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Anatomic Positions Prone Supine Trendelenburg’s position Fowler’s position .

ras. Ilmu yang mempelajari perkembangan mahluk dari fertilisasi sampai dewasa – Anthropology Ragawi. • Comparative Anatomi • Radiographic Anatomi . Ilmu yang mempelajari anatomi sebelum lahir . Adalah bagian dari phylogeny yaitu ilmu yang mempelajari terjadinya suatu phylum--. Disebut juga morphogenesis – Ontogeny. Cabang Lain Anatomi • Anatomi Perkembangan – Embryology.

Penugasan kelompok .Presentasi • Modul • Praktikum . Sistem Perkuliahan • Kuliah Semi PBL (Problem Base Learning) .Kuliah Klasikal .

Ujian diambilkan dari materi kuliah dan materi presentasi kasus Praktikum masih memakai metode identifikasi .Semi PBL -Perkuliahan dilaksanakan model presentasi dan tanya jawab ( satu arah dan dilanjutkan dengan presentasi mahasiswa -Awal kuliah mahasiswa dibentuk 1 kelompok antara 8 – 10 orang dan diterangkan tata cara perkuliahan -Mahasiswa telah diberikan modul untuk dikerjakan -Kuliah kedua mahasiswa telah diberi kasus-kasus klinik yang harus didiskusikan dengan kelompoknya -Semua kelompok mengerjakan kasus klinik dan tiap kelompok harus siap untuk mempresentasikan -Mahasiswa diberikan triger faktor untuk mencari materi tersebut oleh dosen -Mahasiswa dapat berkonsultasi dengan pemateri kuliah atau dosen lain -Hasil presentasi dikumpulkan berupa CD beserta referensi yang didapatkan dari internet .

Jadwal Kuliah .

00 – 14. clavicula.00 NO TANGGAL PENGAJAR 10. Osteologi TJ Pembagian Kelompok & Preparat 2006 Umum. 14 Kuliah Pendahuluan Penjelasan Tata Tertib & Buku Hijau 1 September Terminologi. sacrum. Myologi Umum Osteologi khusus 1 Pre test 1 Kamis (vertebrae. os sternum.50 WIB KAMIS. pelvis. ossa coatae 2006 cranium) Kamis Osteologi khusus 2 Pre test 2 3 28 September (scapula. sternum. femur. Collumna verterbralis.00 – 16. 12. tarsal) Kamis Pre-Test 4 Arthrologi umum + 5 12 Oktober TJ Cranium khusus 2006 1427 H ( 18 0ktober – 1 November 6 LIBUR HARI RAYA 1 SYAWAL 2006) Kamis Review 7 2 November KASUS TJ 2006 .00 – Reguler pkl. TOPIK PRAKTIKUM – PENGAJAR : TOPIK KULIAH STAFF Reguler pkl. os coxae. 14. NH Skeleton Extremitas Cranialis 2006 radius.00 11. 2 21 September NH costae.00 – Mengulang pkl. ulna.50 WIB Mengulang 11. tibia. carpal) Osteologi Khusus 3 Pre test 3 Kamis Skeleton Extremitas Caudalis 4 (coxae. 10. TJ 5 Oktober 2006 fibula.

6 2006 Fossa Poplitea 1 – 6 Pre-Test 2 Axilla 7-11 Kamis Regio Scapularis 8-12 13 30 November Extremitas Cranialis 3-4 TJ Regio femoris anterior 10-17 2006 Regio glutea 1-3 Pre-Test 3 . Sabtu UJIAN PRAKTIKUM 1 8 4 NOVEMBER Regio Pectoralis 1-7 Kamis Axilla 1-6 9 9 NOVEMBER KASUS TJ Regio femoris anterior 1-9 2006 Pre-Test 1 Sabtu 10 11 NOVEMBER UTS 1 2006 Regio Pectoralis 1-7 Kamis Axilla 1-6 11 16 NOVEMBER Extremitas Cranialis 1-2 TJ Regio femoris anterior 1-9 2006 Pre-Test 1 Regio Scapularis 1-7 Regio deltoidea 1 – 5 Kamis Regio glutea 4 – 8 12 23 november Extremitas Caudalis 1-2 ON Regio femoris posterior 1 .

Pre – test 4 Kamis REVIEW Extremitas CAUDALIS 14 7 DESEMBER ON 3-4 2006 Kamis Pre – test 4 15 14 Desember Embriologi Umum RML REVIEW 2006 Sabtu Ujian Praktikum Extremitas 1 16 16 DESEMBER 2006 Regio humeri 1 .3 Regio brachii anterior 1 – 6 Kamis Articulatio coxae 1 – 4 17 21 Desember KASUS TJ Regio cruris anterior 1 – 1 2006 Regio brachii posterior 1 – 4 Regio antebrachii anterior 1 – 2 Pre-Test 1 Fossa cubiti 1 – 9 Kamis Regio cruris posterior 1 – 10 18 28 Desember KASUS TJ Regio antebrachii posterior 1 – 10 2006 Articulatio cubiti 1 – 7 Pre-Test 2 .

Pre-Test 3 Palma manus 1 – 5 Kamis Dorsum manus 1 – 4 19 KASUS TJ Plantar pedis 1 – 3 4 JANUARI 2007 Dorsum pedis 1 – 5 Kamis REVIEW 20 11 JANUARI UTS 2 2007 Sabtu Ujian Praktikum Extremitas 2 21 14 JANUARI 2007 PENGUMUMAN HASIL Kamis-sabtu SEMENTARA DAN 22 18 .2 .21 JANUARI PENDAFTARAN UPTS 1- 2007 2 23 25 Januari 2007 UPTS 1 .

Evaluasi  Jenis Ujian : – Teori : UTS 1 UTS 2 (UPTS1 & UPTS2) – Praktikum :  Ujian Praktikum (UP)  Pre Test .

Nilai Akhir Semester 0 – 44 = E >44 – 50 = D >50 – 55 = D+ >55 – 60 = C >60 – 65 = C+ >65 – 76 = B >76 – 80 = B+ >80 = A .

.F. ATLAS OF HUMAN ANATOMI  Internet .H.et al. Bahan Pengajaran  Martini.  Bannister.. Lawrence H. Human Anatomy.  Gardner. HUMAN ANATOMY  Spalteholz.. Gray’s Anatomi. HANDATLAS der ANATOMIE  Sobotta. ANATOMY A REGIONAL STUDY OF HUMAN STRUCTURE  Langman’s. MEDICAL Embryology  Robert Carola.

Ketentuan lain  Tidak ikut Ujian/Pretest tanpa keterangan diberi nilai = 0  Surat Keterangan Sakit Tidak Berlaku  Presensi <80% -> tidak diijinkan ikut ujian .

1 Buku Petunjuk Kuku dipotong pendek Masuk Tepat Waktu Berdoa Sebelum Praktikum Dipimpin Oleh Ketua/Komting Keluar Lab. Harus Seijin Dosen Tempat Sholat disediakan . Praktikum Menghargai preparat/cadaver Jas Praktikum Rapi + Tanda Pengenal 1 Mhs.

WARNING !!!! .

SISTEM TUBUH PERMUKAAN MUSCULOSKELETAL .

Vertebral column 26 costae Ribs and sternum 25 ---- 80 Appendicular skeleton : • Appendicular Skeleton – Upper extremity 64 berbungan dengan penyusun tubuh : Lower extremity 62 ---. Contoh : extremitas atas bawah dan pelvis 126 Total 206 . SKELETON (Kerangka Tulang) Axial skeleton : • Axial Skeleton – Skull 22 merupakan tulang axis dari tubuh : Auditory ossicles 6 Hyoid bone 1 Contoh : cranium. sacrum. vertebrae.

ribs. sternum) Appendicular skeleton (bones of limbs including pectoral/pelvic girdles) . Skeletal System • Structure: – Bones – Cartilage • Function – Protection – Support – Movement – Storage for salts (e. calcium) – Supply of new blood cells • Parts Axial skeleton (skull. hyoid.. vertebrae/sacrum.g.

Panjang Pendek JENIS TULANG Pipih Tak beraturan Sesamoid .

• A fibrous protein that provide flexibility. . • Inorganic Constituent (~50%) – Calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. • Mineral salts that provide hardness. KOMPOSISI TULANG • Water (25%) • Organic Constituent (~25%) – Collagen.

. secrete matrix & collagen fibers.stem cells. • Osteocytes. Bone Cell Types • Osteogenic cells. • Osteoblasts. • Osteoclasts.mature bone cells that no longer secrete matrix.bone digestion.bone building cells.

• Metaphysis.the space in the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow.shaft. • Medullary cavity.regions in a mature bone where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis. • Articular cartilage.Anatomy of a Long Bone • Diaphysis. • Epiphysis.the distal and proximal ends of a long bone. .a thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers each epiphysis.

Lamellae. Haversian Canals Structure of Long Bone Long Bone Formation and Growth Bone Growth in Width . Canaliculi.Lacunae.

the epiphyseal plates close. . Bone Growth in Length • Epiphyseal plate – Cartilage cells in this plate divide rapidly. – Zone of proliferating cartilage. – Cartilage cells in the plate stop dividing and bone replaces the cartilage. • Growth in length stops at age 25. • Between ages 18-25.

• Calcium and phosphorus for bone growth. • Vitamins K and B12 for protein synthesis. . • Vitamin C for collagen formation.Factors Affecting Bone Growth 1 • Nutrition – Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals.

• Human growth hormone (hGH) • Thyroid hormones • Insulin – Sex steroids at puberty initiate male and female characteristics. .Factors Affecting Bone Growth 2 • Hormones – During childhood growth factors stimulate cell division.

• Estrogen is responsible for closing the growth plate. – Both men and women that lack estrogen receptors on cells grow taller than normal. • Undersecretion of hGH or the thyroid hormones during childhood produces dwarfism. . – The epiphyseal plate closes before normal height is reached. Hormonal Abnormalities • Oversecretion of hGH during childhood produces giantism.

loss of minerals. Aging and Bone Tissue • Demineralization. . • Decrease in protein synthesis – Decrease in growth hormone. – In males. – Decrease in collagen production. – Very rapid in women 40-45 as estrogen levels decrease. begins after age 60. but is gradual. this causes bone to become brittle and susceptible to fracture. which gives bone its tensile strength.

– Fracture. .Cold spots indicate – Decreased metabolism of decalcified bone. – Bone infection.

16 . Bone Fractures  A break in a bone  Types of bone fractures  Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin  Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin  Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization  Realignment of the bone Slide 5.

Types of fractures Pathology Part 2 Complex Incomplete Comminuted Greenstick Simple (closed) Compound (open) Colles’ Impacted .

Common Types of Fractures .

Common Types of Fractures .

Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture Figure 5.19 .5 Slide 5.

Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture .

Muscle Shape • Flat (with an aponeurosis) • Pennate (“featherlike”) • Fusiform (spindle-shaped) • Quadrate (with 4 sides) • Circular (surrounds an opening) .

orbicularis oris Sphincter . rectus femoris – Multipennate m. biceps brachii • Pennate : – Unipennate m. sternocleidomastoideus • Fusiform Ex : M. Architecture of muscle Architecture of muscle • Strap/flat Ex : m. orbicularis oculi m. sartorius m. deltoideus • Circular m. pronator quadratus – Bipennate m.

rhomboides • QUADRILATERAL m. pronator quadratus . •STRAP : Ex : m. sartorius m. sternocleidomastoideus • RHOMBOID m.

biceps brachii • TRIANGULAR Ex : m.• FUSIFORM Ex : M. pectoralis major UNIPENNATE m. extensor digitorum longus .

orbicularis oris Sphincter .• BIPENNATE m. rectus femoris • MULTIPENNATE Pars acromialis m. deltoideus • CIRCULAR m. orbicularis oculi m.

• UNIVENTER – Most of muscles • BIVENTER (TWO-BELLIED) – M. rectus abdominalis . digastricus – M. omohyoideus • MULTIVENTER (INTERSECTED) – M.

TERIMA KASIH .