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5.

2 HIGHWAY
CONSTRUCTION
2 Phases:
 Earthwork &
preparation of
subgrade
 Construction of pavement

5.3 EARTHWORK AND PREPARATION
OF SUBGRADE
5.3.1
EMBANKMENT

(i) Soil Survey and
Investigations

To enable an adequate & economical design to be made. To disclose and make provision for difficulties that may arise during construction due to ground and other local conditions. b.(i) Soil Survey and Investigations a. . c. To evaluate the general suitability of the site for the proposed project.

Phases of a Soil Investigation Phase I Phase II Phase III Collection Preliminary Detailed of available reconnaissance soil information or a site visit exploration .

Phase I Collection of available information .

To determine the geological structure. c. To conduct in situ tests. III which should include the thickness. To obtain disturbed and undisturbed samples for laboratory tests d. To determine the groundwater conditions.Phase a. . sequence and extent of the soil strata. b.

SOIL BORING .

.

as determined in accordance with the testing procedure at which soil passes from plastic to a liquid state. LIQUID LIMIT TEST – the liquid limit test of a soil is that water content. The higher the plasticity index the lower the permeability. It is the numerical difference between the liquid limit of the soil. . expressed as percentage of the mass of the oven- dried soil. within which the material is in plastic state. The PLASTICITY INDEX of a soil is the range in water content. PLASTIC LIMIT TEST – is the lowest water content determined in accordance with the testing procedures at which the soil remains plastic.

SETTING OUT OF CONSTRUCTION LIMITS .

MARKING THE ALIGNMENT .

Transit points — 20 – 25 m from the CL .

5 m away from the edge .CENTERLINE – set out with a theodolite – pegs are established INTERMEDIATE PEGS – fixed along the CL BATTER PEGS – marks the limit of embankment on both sides – fixed 0.

Illustration of batter pegs for defining the limits of embankment .

CONSTRUCTION ( Operations ) • Clearing and Grubbing • Stripping and storing top soil • Placing of Embankment • Rolling • Finishing .

CLEARING AND GRUBBING .

• to provide adequate sight distance • to improve landscape • to remove obstructions for drainage • to level the surface .

• stripping and storing top soil .

COMPACTING ORIGINAL GROUND .

compaction of 100% proctor density) .• 0.6 m — minimum height of embankment • It should be loosened. watered and rolled in layers of 250 mm up to 0.5 m for SUBGRADE (rel.

GENERAL GUIDE TO THE SELECTION OF COMPACTION PLANT FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL .

Type of soil  .

. Clayey Soil   Clayey soil has incredibly small particles. allowing for virtually no drainage. This means that clay has little space between individual particles.

This soil feels course whether it is dry or wet. . Sandy Soil   Sandy soil have rapid drainage. This are granular soils and contain small rock and mineral particles. The texture of sandy soils is usually gritty .

This is generally quite dark and pungent. with rich nutrients and good drainage. It is slightly smaller in size than sandy soil. . Silty soil   Silty soil one of the most fertile.

* Types of compaction plant .

.* Smooth-wheeled roller Smooth-wheeled roller * Self – propelled or towed steel rollers from ranging 2-20 tonnes. proof rolling of subgrades and in compacting asphalt pavements. * This best suited for rolling weaker aggregates.

silty sand. * Unsuitable for: uniform sands. soft clays . *Smooth-wheeled roller * Suitable for: well-graded sands and gravels silt and clays of low plasticity.

. * Wheels aligned to give a full width rolled back * Dead loads are added to give masses of 12-40 tonnes. *Pneumatic-tired roller Pneumatic-tired roller * Usually a container on two axles. with rubber-tired wheels.

. highly variable soils. *Pneumatic-tired roller * Suitable for: most coarse and fine soils. * Unsuitable for: very soft clay.

* Vibratory roller Vibratory roller * Have two smooth wheels plus vibrators. * Vibrators are also fixed with smooth wheel rollers. . One is fixed at the front and the other is on the rear side of vibratory roller.

* Vibratory roller * Suitable for: most soils with low to moderate fines content * Unsuitablefor: large volume work. wet clayey soils .

*Sheep foot roller Sheep foot roller * Also known as “tamping roller” * Self-propelled or towed units. with hollow drum fitted with projected club-shaped ‘feet’ * Mass range from 5-8 tonnes .

*Sheep foot roller * Suitable for: fine grained soils. with >20% fines * Unsuitable for: very coarse soils. uniform gravels . sand and gravels.

.*Power rammer Power rammer * Also called a ‘trench tamper’ * Hand-guided pneumatic tamper.

work in confined areas * Unsuitable for: large volume work .*Power rammer * Suitablefor: trench back-fill.

*The End .