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IN HIGH SEISMIC RISK REGIONS

**Structural and Earthquake
**

Engineering Seminar

ADEMAR C. PAMA

M.Eng M.ASEP M.PICE

Civil/Structural Engineer

REFERENCE CODES

** International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) :
**

Uniform Building Code (UBC 1997)

American Concrete Institute (ACI-318): Building Code

Requirements for Reinforced Concrete – chapter 21

International Building Code (IBC 2000 & 2003) – chapter

19

Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC):

Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and

Commentary

National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP 2010) –

chapter 4, section 421

2

SEISMICITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

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Seismic Zone Map of the Philippines .

40 13 . there are 5 seismic zones.20 Zone 4 .low seismic risk Zone 2 .moderate earthquakes Z = 0. SEISMIC ZONES Under UBC and SEAOC.high seismic risk The Philippines has two (2) seismic zones (corresponding to UBC) : Zone 2 . 4 .major earthquakes Z = 0.moderate seismic risk Zone 3. zone 0 through 4 Zone 0. 1 .

therefore the special seismic design provisions of the codes apply to the design and detailing of building structures in this area. Philippines : A High-Seismic Risk Area The seismicity data of the Philippines show that it is predominantly a high-seismic risk country. 14 .

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS .

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION BEARING WALL SYSTEM BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM MOMENT RESISTING FRAME DUAL SYSTEM INVERTED PENDULUM SYSTEM 16 .

17 . STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION BEARING WALL SYSTEM Shear walls or braced frames provide support for all or most of the gravity loads and for resisting all lateral loads.

18 . STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM Has separate systems to provide support for lateral forces and gravity loads. A frame provide support for essentially all gravity loads with independent shear walls or braced frames ` resisting all lateral forces.

Special Moment Resisting Frame (SMRF) 19 . the moment resisting frames are required to be specially detailed per UBC. In seismic zones 3 and 4. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION MOMENT– RESISTING FRAMES provide ductility and support for both lateral and gravity loads by flexural action.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION DUAL SYSTEM Shear walls or braced frames supply the primary lateral support system with a special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) providing primary support for gravity loads and acting as a backup lateral force system. 20 .

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION INVERTED PENDULUM Consists of a structure supported on cantilever column elements. 21 .

three systems are applicable in medium and high seismic zones : Special Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF) Shear wall systems (special RC shear wall) Dual systems (combination of the two) 22 . STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS IN HIGH SEISMIC ZONES In general.

Structural Irregularities • Components that perform poorly during earthquake • Places where damages initiates • May control the overall redundancy of the system • Affect level of analysis and design requirements 23 .

Vertical Irregularities Vertical Stiffness Irregularity Soft Story Story Stiffness < 70% of story above 24 .

Vertical Irregularities Mass Irregularity Heavy floors Story Mass > 150% Adjacent Story Mass 25 .

Vertical Irregularities

Vertical Geometric Irregularities

**Story Dimension > 130% Adjacent Story Dimension
**

26

Vertical Irregularities

Vertical Strength Irregularity

Weak Story

**Story Strength < 80% of story above
**

27

Plan Irregularities

Diaphragm

Discontinuity

Reentrant

Corners

Torsional Irregularities

28

0 Mt = Torsion due to framing System Mta = Accidental Torsion δmax = maximum displacement at level x δave = average displacement at the extreme points at 29 level x .2 δave)2 < 3.05D T = Mt + Ax(Mta) Ax = (δmax / 1. Torsion CRigid T =Mt + Mta ex T = Vxey + Vx(0.05D) CMass For regular : Mt = 0 Vx ey D For Irregular: 0.

Plan Irregularities Nonparallel Framing Systems 30 .

Plan Irregularities Out-of-plane Offsets 31 .

Eccentric and Concentric Response Unsymmetrical Mass and Stiffness Symmetrical Mass and Stiffness 32 Mode-1 Mode-2 Mode-3 .

SEISMIC DESIGN PHILOSOPHY .

Thus. DUCTILITY It is generally uneconomical and unnecessary to design a structure to respond in the elastic range to the maximum earthquake-induced inertia forces. 34 . The underlying philosophy behind the Code special provision for seismic design is that structures are designed so that they will behave in a ductile manner during major earthquakes. the code design seismic forces are generally less than the elastic response inertia forces induced by the design earthquake.

. and a 35 Ductile System. while successive plastic hinges are formed. OCDE. OAB. DUCTILITY Ductility measures the ability of a structural system to deform beyond its elastic load carrying capacity without collapse. FORCE FORCE 5 9 1 10 2 6 A O DEFLECTION C D DEFLECTION 4 8 3 7 O B F E Force-Deflection Characteristics of A Ideal Ductile Member Linearly Elastic System. This allows a redundant structure to absorb energy. and continue to resist forces and support loads.

Moderate earthquakes with negligible structural and non-structural damages . not property values 36 .Major earthquakes without collapse and with possibly some structural and non-structural damages Yielding of some structural members under moderate to high earthquake is acceptable The Code’s foremost goal is to protect human lives. SEISMIC DESIGN PHILOSOPHY An earthquake-resistant structure (ERS) should be able to resist: .Minor earthquakes without any damage .

KEY CONSIDERATIONS IN ERS • Structural Systems – Selection and laying out of lateral-force-resistant system appropriate to the anticipated level of ground shaking – Continuous and redundant load path – Minimum possible irregularities • Modeling and Analysis – Determining design earthquake loads – Mathematical modeling to represent structure – Finding forces and deformations due to earthquake • Design and Detailing – Proportioning of members for combined effect of gravity and EQ loads – Adequate vertical & lateral stiffness and – Detailing to achieve the desired ductility 37 .

LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURES .

Force and Displacements in the structure are derived assuming linear 39 behavior . STATIC LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE The Basic Notion : Convert the Seismic Excitation to an “Equivalent Static Force” applied at the base of the building. called the Base Shear. Then Distribute the Base Shear to various parts of the Building by using V = Cs W ( from F = m a) This formula is based on the assumption that V the structure will undergo several cycles of inelastic deformation and energy dissipation without collapse.

for a specific occupancy category. from UBC Table 16-R R = Response modification factor. from UBC Formula (30- RT 8) or (30-10) 40 . STATIC LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE The UBC-97 Form of Equation The old equation: V = (Z K C S I) W ZIC or V= W Rw The new equation: V C sW Cs = Seismic response coefficient I = Importance factor. for a specific RT seismic zone and soil profile. from UBC Table 16-N Vstat = T = Fundamental period of vibration. for a specific structural Cv I W system. Cv I from UBC Table 16-K Cs C v = Velocity based ground response coefficient.

for a specific seismic zone and soil profile.0488 for all other buildings hn = height above the base to level n .8 Z Nv I W …shall not be less than: Vstat = for seismic zone 4 R Where: W = Total Seismic Dead Load Ca = acceleration-based ground response coefficient. in seconds. from UBC table 16-Q Nv = velocity-based near source factor from UBC table 16-T T = Fundamental Period of vibration of the structure.0731 for reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames and eccentrically braced frames Ct = 0. …need not exceed 2.0853 for steel moment –resisting frames Ct = 0. determined as T = Ct(hn)3/4 simplified Where : Ct = 0.11 Ca I W for long period structures 0.5 Ca I W controls for shorter Vstat = R period structures …shall not be less than: Vstat = 0.

7s The remaining portion of the base shear shall be distributed over the height by: (Vstat – Ft) wx hx Fx = Σ wi hi .07 TVstat < 0.25 Vstat ≈ 0 if T < 0.Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces : The total force shall be: Vstat = Ft + Σ Fi Where: Ft = additional concentrated force at the top in addition to Fn determined as: Ft = 0.

1.2(1) R S s = Spectral accelerations for short periods. Table 1615.1.044 S DS I E R 43 IE . Table 1615.2(2). Maps R = The response modification factor. 1 sec period. T = Fundamental period (in seconds) of the structure Cs must be greater than S 1 = Spectral accelerations for a 1-second period.6 Cs need not be IE I E = The occupancy importance factor. Section 1616. Table 1617.2 greater than 2 S M 1 FV S1 S DI S D1 SM 1 CS 3 R T IE F V = Site coefficient. Maps 0 .5 S 1 CS C S 0. IBC Form of Equation 2 S MS Fa S S V CsW S DS S MS 3 S DS CS F a = Site coefficient short period .

44 . DYNAMIC LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE Dynamic analysis procedures are considered to provide a somewhat improved or more accurate force distribution. There are two methods of dynamic analysis : • Response Spectrum Analysis • Time History Analysis The response spectrum method is the recommended dynamic analysis approach in the Philippines because we have no recorded earthquake data yet as input ground motion for time history analysis.

DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRUM (NSCP FIG. 208-3) .

Determine the Structural Properties: Establish Mass and Stiffness Matrices of the structure. .Basic Procedure for Response Spectrum Analysis (NSCP 208.6. such as: m1 … 0 [M] = … … … mass matrix 0 … mn and k1+k2 … 0 [K] = … … … stiffness matrix 0 … kn note: A mathematical model of the physical structure shall represent the spatial distribution of the mass and stiffness of the structure to an extent which is adequate for the calculation of the significant features of its dynamic response.5) Using the Design Response Spectra given in Figure 208-3 From the Mathematical Model. A three-dimensional model shall be used for the dynamic analysis of structures with highly irregular plan configurations.

Dynamic Properties : From the given eigenvalue problem: { [K] – ωj2 [M] } {Фij} = 0 I [K] – ωj2 [M] I = 0 … determine the Natural Frequencies (ωj) and Modes of Vibration (Фij) note: All significant modes must be included. Modal Participation Factor : Determine the Modal Participation Factor (βj or Гj) by the Formula: βj = {Фi}j T [M] {1} {Фi}j T [M] {Фi}j where {Фi}j T [M] {Фi}j = 1 (when normalized!) . and that at least 90 percent of the participating mass of the structure must be included in the calculation of response.

Ts by the following formula: Cv Ts = 2. (Tj / Ts) Determine the Spectral Acceleration (Cv / Tj ) from Figure 208-3.Determine the Maximum Response of Each Mode using the Design Response Spectrum : Solve for the Control Period.5 Ca Solve for the “normalized” modal Periods. Modal Lateral (level) Forces: Solve for the Modal Lateral Forces for each level by: Fij = I Wi [βj Фij] Cv R Tj or Fij = I (mi g) [βj Фij] Cv R Tj .

8 Vstat (regular.Combination of Modal Forces: Combine Modal Forces using either the Square Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS) Method or the Complete Quadratic combination (CQC) Method The design dynamic base shear (Vdyn) may then computed as: Vdyn = ∑ Fi ** CQC is preferred when natural frequencies of vibration are close together.9 Vstat (regular.0 Vstat (irregular structures) . using site-specific Response Spectrum) Vdyn > 1. Scaling of Results : Vdyn > 0. structures using Figure 208-3) Vdyn > 0.

and displacements can be computed.Distribution of Lateral forces The lateral forces can now be distributed for each frame considering also the effect of torsion. Structural Design The size of the members are calculated . Structural Analysis Using classical methods of analysis or computerized structural softwares. Live loads. shears. Wind loads and seismic loads are considered. the moments . The effect of the Dead loads.

except as permitted by UBC Section1630. in seismic zone 2. Selection of Lateral Force Procedure Per UBC. or Type 3 (geometric) except for structures in seismic zone 1 and standard occupancy structures. All structures located on soil profile type SF which have a period exceeding 0. Type 2 (mass). in seismic zone 2.4. Structures exceeding 5 stories or 65 feet (20 m) in height in seismic zone 3 and 4 not having the same structural system throughout their height. (70 m) or more in height except for structures in seismic zone 1 and for standard occupancy structures and miscellaneous structures. as defined in Table 16-K. as defined in UBC Table 16-K. a dynamic analysis is necessary under the following conditions : All structures 240 ft. as defined in UBC Table 16-K.2. Structures exceeding 5 stories or 65 ft (20 m) in height having vertical irregularities Type 1(stiffness).7 seconds except for structures in seismic zone 1 and for standard occupancy and miscellaneous structures. 51 . in seismic zone 2.

OVERVIEW OF SEISMIC DETAILING .

Overview of Seismic Detailing Key Principles: – Structure will undergo fairly large deformation under design earthquake – Yielding of some member is expected/allowed – Several cycles of loading into inelastic range – Structure should survive without loss of vertical load carrying capacity 53 .

the required strength consists of the service level loads multiplied by the appropriate load factors specified in UBC Section 1909. The design strength of a member consists of the theoretical ultimate strength.70 for compression members with lateral ties 54 . SPECIAL MOMENT-RESISTING FRAMES (SMRF) Design Strength For seismic loading.75 for compression members with spiral reinforcement = 0.85 for shear and torsion = 0.90 for flexure = 0. or nominal strength. multiplied by the appropriate strength reduction factor Ø x (nominal strength) > U UBC defines the reduction factor as : Ø = 0.

including earthquake effects. UBC Section 1909. The nominal flexural capacity of a member with only tensile reinforcement is given by Mn = Asfyd(1-0.6 for walls.59ρfy/fc’) As = area of tensile reinforcement fy = yield stress of reinforcement d = effective depth of a section ρ = reinforcement ratio = As/bd f c’ = compressive strength of the concrete b = width of section .4 specifies a shear strength reduction factor Ø of 0.3.85. and framing members with a nominal shear strengths. topping slabs.In seismic zones 3 and 4. The nominal flexural strength shall correspond to the most critical factored axial loads. the shear strength reduction factor Ø is specified as 0. For beam-to-column connections.

The formation of plastic hinges at both ends of the columns in a given story. the strong-column/weak-beam concept is required by UBC. may produce a sidesway mechanism which causes the story to collapse. A column forming part of the lateral-force-resisting system and with factored axial force exceeding Agfc’/10 shall be designed to satisfy UBC Formula (21-1) which is ∑Mc > (6/5) ∑ Mg ∑Mc = sum of the design flexural strengths of columns at the center of a joint ∑Mg = sum of the design flexural strength of a beams at the center of the point and in the same plane as the columns Ag = gross area of column section . due to seismic loads. To prevent this.

Seismic Load Seismic Load Mct Mct Mbr Mbl Mbl Mbr Mcb Mcb ∑Mc > (6/5) ∑Mg Strong-column/weak beam concept .

92ρfy/ fc’) The design shear force at the left end of the beam for seismic load acting to the left is Ve =(Mpr1 + Mpr2)/Ln + Vg Where Ln = beam shear clear span Vg = shear due to unfactored tributary gravity loads at the left end of the beam.5. Mpr = As(1.To ensure ductile flexural failure of a member and prevent brittle shear failure. from SEAOC Section C404. The design shear force at the right end of the beam for seismic load acting to the right is Ve =(Mpr3 + Mpr4)/Ln + Vg Vg = shear due to unfactored tributary gravity loads at the left end of the beam.25fy)/fc’] = Asfyd(1.25fy)d[1-0.59ρ(1.5 . from SEAOC Section C404.25-0. requires the design shear force to be determined from the probable flexural strength that can be developed at the ends of the member plus the unfactored tributary gravity loads.

Seismic load Seismic load Vpr1 Vpr2 Mpr1 Mpr4 Mpr3 Mpr2 Vpr1 Vpr2 Ln Ln Mpr1 Moment Mpr4 Diagram Mpr3 Mpr2 Vp1 =(Mpr1 + Mpr2)/Ln Shear Diagram Vp2 =(Mpr1 + Mpr2)/Ln Beam shear due to probable flexural strength .

. The design shear force at the top and bottom of the column is Ve =(Mpr1 + Mpr2)/Hn Hn = column shear height However. As shown in the figure. the design shear force for this condition is given by Ve =(Mpr1 + Mpr2 + Mpr3 + Mpr4) / 2Hn The cyclical nonlinear effects produced by seismic loading necessitate additional shear requirements to ensure a ductile flexural failure. the design shear force for the columns shall be calculated using probable moment strengths at the top and bottom of the column.8Po which corresponds to the minimum accidental eccentricity.Similarly.4. As shown in the figure. the column design shear need not exceed the value determined from the probable moment strengths of the beams framing into the top and bottom of the column. When the factored compressive force in a member is less than Agfc’/20 and the seismic induced shear is not less than half of the total design shear. Shear reinforcement shall then be provided to resist the total design shear as required by UBC Section 1921.3. the maximum probable moments are assumed to occur under the maximum axial load of 0. the shear resistance of the concrete Vc shall be neglected.

8 Po Mpr1 Ve Mpr1 Ve Hn Ve Mpr2 Mpr2 Moment Shear 0.8 Po Column Shear due to Column Probable Flexural Strength . Seismic Load 0.

Seismic Load Mpr1 (Mpr1 + Mpr2) / 2 Ve Mpr2 Ve (Mpr1 + Mpr2) / 2 Hn (Mpr3 + Mpr4) / 2 Mpr3 (Mpr3 + Mpr4) / 2 Mpr4 Moment Shear Column shear due to beam probable flexural strength .

5.At a joint in a frame.1. the horizontal design shear force is determined as required by UBC Section 1921.1. and as shown Point of inflection V Mpr1 Hc = Floor to floor height C2 = T 2 T1 = 1.25 As1fy T2 = 1.25 As2fy C1 = T1 Mpr2 V = (Mpr1 + Mpr2) / Hc Point of inflection Forces acting at a joint .

5.3 the nominal shear capacity of the joint depends on the concrete strength and effective area of the joint and is given by Vn = 1. In left hand beam The net shear acting on the joint is given by Ve = T1 + T2 – V = 1.25As1fy probable tensile force in right hand beam C2 = T2 = 1.25 fy (As1 + As2) – (Mpr1 + Mpr2) / Hc In accordance with UBC Section 1921.25As2fy probable comp. force in conc.The shear produced in the column by the probable moment strengths of the beams at the joint is V = (Mpr1 + Mpr2) / Hc Hc = floor to floor height T1 = 1.25 Aj(fc’)0.5 for other conditions Aj = effective cross-sectional area within the joint .5 for joints confined on four faces = 1.7 Aj(fc’)0.5 for joints confined on opposite faces or on three faces = 1.0 Aj(fc’)0.

Joint width = be= b + h < b + 2x As shown in figure. Joint depth Beam creating shear Effective joint area b x Effective area of a joint Effect. Where a beam frames into a column of larger width. the effective joint depth equals the overall depth of the column. Beam creating shear Column depth = h h = Effect. the effective joint width is given by be = b + h but should be < b + 2x where b = beam width h= column depth x = smaller distance from edge of beam to edge of column .

4/fy ρmax < 0.75h on each side of the column Where b = beam width h = beam depth bc = column width UBC stipulates limitations on the amount of longitudinal reinforcement to prevent steel congestion.Beam Details Flexural members are defined in UBC as elements having a clear span not less than four times the effective depth and with a factored axial compressive force not exceeding Agfc’/10. These limitations are: ρmin > 1. and provide a minimum reinforcement capacity greater than the tensile strength of the concrete.3 b > 250 mm < bc + 0. geometrical constraints are imposed in UBC as follows: b/h > 0. ensure non-brittle ductile behavior. In order to provide a compact cross-section with good stability during nonlinear displacements.025 .

ld > 12db <0.025bd ln/16 ld Point of 2 bars inflection minimum Asm As l.25√fc’bwd/fy d As l.r > 1.4bwd/fy ld for at least Asl. and m indicate left support.r /3.4bwd/fy Asm /4 continuous Subscripts l. respectively .r >1.r /2 Stirrup ties 0. r. right support. >0. and midspan.25√fc’bwd/fy for splices As l.

to allow for the possibility of moment reversals:

** A minimum of two reinforcing bars shall be provided at the top and bottom of
**

the beam.

At the ends of the member, positive moment capacity is required at least

equal to fifty percent of the negative moment capacity.

At any section, along the beam, neither the positive nor the negative

moment capacity shall be less than twenty five percent of the moment

capacity at the ends of the beam.

**The location of reinforcement splices is not permitted in regions of plastic hinging
**

as they are unreliable under inelastic cyclic loading conditions. Splices shall not be

used:

** within the joints
**

Within a distance of twice the beam depth from the face of the column

At the locations of potential plastic hinging.

**To prevent the spalling of concrete over at splice locations, hoop reinforcement shall
**

be provided over the lap length with a minimum spacing of d/4 or 4 inches (100

mm).

FRAME BENDING MOMENT DUE TO GRAVITY LOAD

SIDESWAY TO THE RIGHT

FRAME BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM (gravity+eqk)

SIDESWAY TO THE LEFT FRAME BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM (gravity+eqk) .

3 Over a distance of 2d from the face of column Over a distance of 2d on both sides of a section subjected to plastic hinging The first hoop shall be located not more than two inches from the face of the column. . stirrups with 135 degree seismic hooks shall be provided. throughout the length of the member.Hoops are required in accordance with UBC Section 1921. The hoop spacing shall not exceed: Smax < d/4 < 8 db < 24 dt < 300 mm Where d = beam effective depth db = diameter of longitudinal bar dt = diameter of hoop bar Where hoops are not required. at a maximum spacing of d/2.

Seismic Hoops and Stirrups 73 .

s < d/4 < 8 db s < d/2 < 24 dt s < d/4 < 300 mm < 100 mm <50 mm > 2d > splice > 2d > 2d > splice hoops Seismic hoops hoops hoops hoops Seismic Seismic stirrups stirrups stirrups > 2h > 2h Hoops and Stirrups Location Requirements .

the development length is given by ℓdm =1.4.UBC Section 1921.6 ℓdc Where ℓdc = length of bar in the confined column core .6ℓd – 0.5ℓdh For straight bars extending beyond the confined core of the column.4(fc’)0. to account for cyclical loading and for the reinforcement stress exceeding the yield stress.5. specifies that the development length for a hooked bar in normal weight of concrete shall be ℓdh = fydb/5. For straight bars of sizes 10 mm through 36 mm the development length is given as ℓd = 2.5 > 8 db > 150 mm Where db = bar diameter The hook shall be located within the confined core of a column. ℓd = 3.5 ℓdh And when the depth of concrete beneath the bar exceeds 300 mm.

4 Where hmin = minimum cross-sectional dimension hperp = dimension perpendicular to minimum dimension Longitudinal reinforcement limits are imposed by UBC Section 1921. These limitations are: ρg > 0. Geometrical constraints are imposed based on established design practice and these are: hmin > 300 mm hmin /hperp > 0.01 < 0. reduce steel congestion. are restricted to the center half of the column where moment reversals are unlikely.4 as members with a factored axial compressive force exceeding Agfc’/10.06 Where ρg = ratio of reinforcement area to cross-sectional area Lap splices. proportioned as tension lap splices.Column Details Columns are defined in UBC Section 1921. . and provide a flexural capacity in excess of the cracking moment.3 in order to control creep.4.

4. At the ends of column. the area of the confinement reinforcement required is given by the greater value obtained from UBC Formulas and which are A sh = 0. crossties or legs overlapping hoops shall be spaced a maximum distance of fourteen inches on center and shall engage a longitudinal bar at each end.1) f c’/f y A sh = 0.09 s hc f c’ f y Where s = spacing of hoop reinforcement Ag = gross area of column section hc = dimension of core measured center-to-center of confining reinforcing . consisting of closed hoops and crossties. Reverse hooks on adjacent crossties < 350 mm < 350 mm < 350 mm < 350 mm < 350 mm Column transverse reinforcement Transverse reinforcement. shall be provided throughout the height of the column to provide shear resistance and confinement.4. The hoop spacing requirements in accordance with UBC Section 1921.6 are Smax < 6d b < 150 mm As shown in the figure.3 s hc (A g/A ch .

confinement reinforcement is required over a distance of ℓo from each joint face given by ℓo >h > Hn /6 > 450 mm Where h = depth of column Hn = column clear height The spacing of the confinement reinforcement is limited by UBC Section 1921.2 to s < hmin / 4 < 100 mm Where hmin = minimum column dimension .4.In accordance with UBC Section 1921.4.4.4.4.

Column Reinforcement Details .

Shear Walls and Wall Piers 80 .

5 the minimum reinforcement ratios for the horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be ρn = Asn / Acn > 0.l when the design shear force Vu exceeds 0. Shear Walls and Wall Piers Shear Capacity of Shear Walls The nominal shear strength of a shear wall may be determined as specified in UBC Section 1921.0025 ρv = Asv / Acv > 0.0025 Where Asn = area of horizontal reinforcement over the vertical length considered 81 Acn = area of web over the vertical length considered Asv = area of vertical reinforcement over the horizontal length considered .2.1.6.5 + ρnfy] Where Acv = area of web over the horizontal length considered bw = web width ρn = reinforcement ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement In accordance with UBC Section 1921.17(fc’)0.5 and given in the UBC Formula (21-6) as Vn = Acv [0.08Acv(fc’)0.6.

5 When the ratio of wall height hw to base length ℓw is less than 2 the nominal shear strength of the wall may be determined from UBC Formula (21-7) which is Vn = Acv [αc(0.5 + ρnfy ] Where αc = 2. the spacing of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 450mm each way and horizontal reinforcement shall terminate at the edge of the wall with a standard hook or U-stirrup.08)(fc’)0.0 = 3. UBC section 1921.0 for hw / ℓw = 1.2 specifies two curtains of reinforcement when the design shear force is given by Vu > 0.0 for hw / ℓw = 2.6. In order to control cracking and inhibit fragmentation of the wall due to cyclical loading in the inelastic range.17 Acv(fc’)0.In addition.5 .2.

P + Mc c = ℓw / 2 12 A I fc = Concrete compressive stress Maximum allowable fc = 0. Boundary element check if acting as a short column under factored vertical forces due to gravity and lateral loads: ρst = As ρmin = 0.2 fc’ in compression if a boundary element is not required.Boundary element check.80Ф [0. Ig = bh3 Ag = b . ℓw fc= .85fc’ (Ag – Ast) + Astfy ] > Pu .06 Ag The axial load capacity of the boundary element acting as a short column is ФPn(max) = 0.01 < ρst < ρmax = 0.

Boundary element transverse confining reinforcement ρs > 0.3 shc Ag – 1 fc’ Ash > 0.12fc’ fyh (a.) short direction (b.12 f c’ sh c A sh = A sh = fyh fyh or or Ash > 0.) longitudinal direction 0.3 shc Ag – 1 fc’ Ach fyh Ach fyh Whichever is greater governs Whichever is greater governs Where hc = depth core bc = width core Ach= hc . bc .09 f c’ sh c 0.

If 90º hooks are used.19 fc’ Agh >> Mn required . Of longitudinal bar hx = maximum horizontal spacing of hoops or sx < 100 + 300-hx ties on all faces of the column 3 Development of reinforcement f y db ℓdh > ℓd = 3.5 ℓdh 5.4√fc’ ℓdh > 8db If bars are straight. ensure that the development length is provided.Check for maximum hoop spacing s < 1/4 x Boundary element width s < 6 times dia. Verify adequacy of shear wall section at its base under combined axial load and bending in its plane Mu P n = Pu / Ф e= Pu Mn = Mu / Ф Pu = the maximum axial force on the boundary element Mu = factored moment due to seismic loads from the lateral load analysis of the transverse frames Mnavailable = 0. ℓd = ℓdh ℓdh > 150mm.

50 in.98m) Example Plan and Detailing of Shear Wall . 5 @12” c-c both ways (16 mmØ 100mm c-c @ 300 mm c-c) 39 36mm bars 32in 20 in. 36mmØ) 16mm crossties@ No. C-c (16mmØ 100 mm c-c) 39 No. (1270 mm) (1270 mm) 26’-2” (7. 11 bars (39 bars. No. 5 closed hoops @ 4in. (508mm) (812 m) 50 in.

025 x Story Height For T > 0. Drift limits are as follows : δtotal Story Drift : δx3 Δs = δx3 – δx2 design level response drift δx2 Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement : ΔM = 0.020 x Story Height 87 .7 R Δs Allowable Drifts : For T < 0. DRIFT REQUIREMENTS Story drift is the lateral displacement of one level of a multistory structure relative to the level below.7 secs ΔM ≤ 0.7 secs ΔM ≤ 0.

10 Px or if (Δs/hsx) ≤ 0. P-DELTA EFFECTS Neglect P-Delta if : Ф < 0.(hsx)] hsx Фmax = 0.1 < Ф < Фmax .Δ) Vx Ф = Δ [Vx .02/R in zone 4 of SMRF (Px.25 x 88 P-Delta Effects 0.

NSCP 4. Define Occupancy Category. then assign Seismic importance Factor. DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT STRUCTURES From UBC or NSCP 1. 89 . NSCP. Define Soil Profile Type from Geotechnical Data according to Table 208-2. Define Structural Configuration. 3. Assign Near-Source Factors and Seismic Response Coefficient : Near-Source Factors: (For Seismic Zone 4) Na from Table 208-4. Z from Table 208-3. NSCP 2. I from Table 208-1. NSCP Nv from Table 208-5 Seismic Response Coefficients: Ca from Table 208-7 Cv from Table 208-8 5. Determine Seismic Zone from Figure 208-1 and assign Zone Factor. R from Table 208-11. classify Structural System and assign Numerical Coefficient.

5 Ca I W Vstat = R …shall not be less than: Vstat = 0. 6. for a specific seismic zone and soil profile Nv = velocity-based near source factor T = Fundamental Period of vibration of the structure.8 Z Nv I W …shall not be less than: Vstat = For seismic zone 4 R Where: W = Total Seismic Dead Load Ca = acceleration-based ground response coefficient.11 Ca IW 0. determined as T = Ct(hn)3/4 simplified . Design base Shear The total design base shear shall be determined from the following equation Cv I W Vstat = RT …need not exceed 2. in seconds.

Where : Ct = 0.07 TVstat < 0. Lateral (level) Forces Distribution: The total force shall be: Vstat = Ft + Σ Fi Where: Ft = additional concentrated force at the top in addition to Fn determined as: Ft = 0.0731 for reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames and eccentrically braced frames Ct = 0.25 Vstat ≈ 0 if T < 0.0488 for all other buildings hn = height above the base to level n 7.0853 for steel moment –resisting frames Ct = 0.7s The remaining portion of the base shear shall be distributed over the height by: (Vstat – Ft) wx hx Fx = Σ wi hi .

Proportion members of the ductile moment-resistant frame.8. columns. the designer has the uneconomical and inefficient alternative of choosing a brittle system using a low Rw factor. Execute a structural frame analysis to determine all shears and moments in the frame beams. Evaluate the torsional moments. shear wall diaphragms and/or coupling beams if these are used to connect shear walls.Δ effect and the overturning moment to ensure they are within permissible limits. story drift. . 10. and beam-columns. columns. If the frame is not a ductile moment-resisting frame. the P. that is all beams. 9.

6L ℓ 2 ℓ= beam span. Using the strong column.6L ℓ 2 M+prL + M-prL VR = + 1.weak beam concept. Seismic beam shear forces M-prL + M+prL VL = + 1. plastic hinges are assumed to form in the beams. L.11. right Seismic column shear forces M-pr1+ M+pr2 Ve = h Where h= column height .2D + 1.2D + 1.R = left. Mpr= probable moment resistance.

hence + . Pu insignificant Column: combined bending and axial load Pu Beam-column : Pu > Ag fc’/10 Shortest cross-sectional dimension >12in. ∑Mcol > 6 ∑Mbm 5 At joint to ensure hinges form in the beams. . Beam: flexural design. + - (Ф Mn + ФMn )col > 6 (Ф Mn + ФMn )bm 5 The nominal strengths Mn have to be evaluated and the member proportioned prior to evaluating the seismic beam shear forces.

06 Ag For practical considerations. in the numerator instead of 3 is because a flange width twice the web width or more is used. Ρ should never exceed 0.025.max at. where fy is in psi units. ρg <0. For proportioning reinforcements in beams .the face . the nominal moment strength requirements are 1 - (a) Mn+at face of joint > Mn at the face 2 . Longitudinal reinforcement Beam-column or columns As 0.01 < ρg = < 0. 12. Beam (positive reinforcement): Beam (flange in tension): > 3√fc’ ρmin > 200 > 6√fc’ ρmin > 200 fy fy fy fy The factor value of 6. 1 + (b) Mn or Mn at any section > 4 Ma.035.

13. S = spacing of transverse hoops Smax = one quarter of the smallest cross-sectional dimension or 4 in.12 fc’ or 0. but not to exceed 6in.09 shc fyh > 0. .45 Ag -1 fc’ ρs > ρs > fyh Ach fyh Whichever is greater.. Ach fyh Ash = total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including cross-ties within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension h c hc = core sectional dimension of column core. Transverse confining reinforcement (a) Spirals 0. whichever is smaller. Ag = gross area Ach = core area to outside of spirals Fyh = specified yield strength (b) Rectangular hoops in columns :Total cross-sectional area within spacing s fc’ Ash > 0.3 shc Ag -1 fc’ Whichever is greater. in.

. 50% reduction in confinement and increase in minimum tie spacing to 6in. requires that spacing in ductile frames at the plasticity region not exceed 4 in. IBC. No smooth bar reinforcement is allowed in seismic structures.Placement of confining reinforcement . (c. smallest of (i) One-quarter effective depth d (ii) 8x diameter of longitudinal bar (iii) 24x diameter of hoop (iv) 12 in. place confining reinforcement on either side of potential hinge over a distance the largest of (i) Depth of member at joint face (ii) One-sixth clear span (iii) 18 in. otherwise. maximum hoop spacing.) Confining reinforcement in beam ends: should be placed on a length =2h on both sides of the joint is internal. The ties in the balance of the beam span follow the standard shear web reinforcement requirements. In the columns are allowed. If the joint is confined on all four sides.

Where for normal-weight concrete ℓdh > fydb/(65√fc’) > 18 db > 16 db When standard 90° hooks are used. ℓd=ℓdh. Development length of reinforcing bars : For bar sizes Nos. 3 to 11 without hooks. The value of allowable Vn should be reduced by 255 for lightweight concrete.25fy in the tensile reinforcement 15. Note that the horizontal shear in the joint is determined by assuming a stress=1. Beam-column connections (joints) : normal concrete shear strength Vn at a joint: (a) Confined on all faces : Vn < 20√fc’ Aj (b) Confined on three faces or two opposite faces: Vn < 15√fc’ Aj (c) All other cases : Vn < 12√fc’ Aj Where Aj is effective area at joint. Any portion of straight embedment length not within the confined core should be increased by a factor of 1.5ℓdh when concrete below bars < 12 in.5ℓdh when concrete below bars >12 in. . ℓd = 3. the largest of ℓd = 2.14.6.

16. At least two curtains of reinforcement needed if in-plane factored shear force Vuh >2Acv√fc’ where Acv = net area of concrete cross-section = thickness x length of section in direction of the considered shear. Shear walls. . Vu=ФVn. where Acp is the cross- sectional area of the individual pier.0. (iv) Maximum allowable nominal unit shear Vn= 8Acv(√fc’ for total wall.0.0025 if Vuh > Acv √fc’ . For hw/ℓw <2.60. but can be increased Vn= 10Acp(√fc’ for individual pier.0 for hw/ℓw =2. (ii) If extreme fiber compressive stresses exceed 0. where Ф=0.2fc’ shear walls have to be provided with boundary elements along their vertical boundaries and around the edges of openings. the factor of 2 inside the parenthesis varies linearly from 3.0 (i) Minimum ρv = 0.0 for hw/ℓw =1.: height/depth > 2.5 to 2. (iii) Available Vn= Acv(2√fc’ + ρnfy) for hw/ℓw >2.

Start Determine earthquake seismic region. R. Determined period T by UBC and W values. n Compute V=CsW and V= Ft + ∑ Ft = 0 when T = 0. and beam-columns (beam-column when Pu= Agfc’/10) . Na.25V i=1 Tabulate base lateral force and each story force F x = Cvx V using the summation x out. k = ∑Fi WxFind hkx each storey shear and moment where Vx Cvx = i=1 V= Seismic base shear ∑ Wihki n Execute a structural frame analysis to determine all shears and moments in the frame beams .07 TV < 0. and shear walls Proportion for flexure and revise where necessary the size and main reinforcement of the moment-resistant frame members: beams. Cv. then determine Cs. I. select UBC seismic coefficients C a. columns. Nv.

6L VR = + ℓ 2 M-pr1+ M+pr2 Columns: Ve = h Design longitudinal reinforcement.06 Ag For practical considerations ρg<0.Use strong column-weak beam concept.any section > 1 M - (b) Mn+or Mn at a.01 < ρg < As < 0. (a) Beam-columns or columns:0.035: ρmin > 200 > 3√fc’ 6√fc’ (for +M) > fy fy fy (for negative region T-beam) (b) Beams: + 1 - (a) Mn at face of joint > Ma at the face 2 .2D + 1.6L Beams: VL = + ℓ 2 M+prL + M-prL 1.max at the face 4 . plastic hinges in beams and not columns ∑Mco l> 6/5 Mbm at joint M-prL + M+prL 1.2D + 1.

IBC requires that maximum spacing not exceed 4in. or taken less than 4in.12 fc’ 0. If joint confined on all four sides.3 shc Ach fyh S< ¼ of smallest cross-sectional dimension or 6 times diameter of longitudinal reinforcement or and need not exceed 6 in. Use the standard size and spacing of stirrups for the balance of the span as needed for shear. 3 (c) Beams : Place hoops over a length =2h from face of columns. Sx < 4 + 14 . or 12in. 50%reduction in confining steel and increase in minimum spacing of ties to 6in. Transverse confining reinforcement.hc Use standard tie spacing for the balance of the length.45 Ag -1 fc’ ρs > fyh or > Ach Whichever is greater fyh f c’ (b) hoops for columns Ash > 0. (a) Spiral columns: 0.09 shc fyh Ag -1 fc’ > 0. 24db hoop. Maximum spacing: smaller of s=1/4db. In columns is allowed. Beam-column connection (joint) Available nominal shear strength > applied Vu confined on all faces: Vn < 20√fc’ Aj confined on three faces or two opposite faces: V n < 15√fc’ Aj all other cases: Vn < 12√fc’ Aj . 8db.

nominal weight-concrete ℓdh > fydb/(65√fc’) > 8 db > 6 db ℓd = 2. Check development length. use two reinforcement curtains in wall. adjust as in the ACI Code Design shear wall Vuh > 2Acv √fc’ . one pour If bars have 90° hooks are used. Available Vn + Acv (α√fc’ + ρn fy) For hw/ℓw> 2. For lightweight concrete. If wall fc>0.5ℓdh for >12 in. αs=2.0 For hw/ℓw > 1.0 Interpolate intermediate values of h w/ℓw Maximum allowance: Vn = 8Acv √fc’ for total wall Vn = 10Acp √fc’ for total wall Design diaphragms and coupling beams when used as indicated in the text and as detailed in the IBC Code End .2 √fc’ .5 αs=3. ℓd=ℓdh. or less concrete below straight bar ℓd = 3. provide boundary elements.5ℓdh for < 12 in.0.

assure life safety. The dynamic seismic analysis is the preferred procedure for lateral load analysis to obtain more accurate structural responses particularly for structures with irregularities. so such should be minimized. The recommended structural systems for RC buildings in our country are SMRF and Dual systems. Structures with irregularities perform poorly during earthquakes. Our buildings must satisfy the seismic design provisions for high-seismic demand level. CONCLUSION The Philippines is a high-seismic risk region. and thus. 104 . The code’s intent is that structures must have sufficient strength and ductility to prevent collapse under the most intense earthquake (design level).

Thank You ! .

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