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 Hafidhotul Ilma (D500134005)  Mambaul Khoirot ( D500134007) .

. H3PO4 and sulfonic acid.Esterification  Esterification is the reaction of free fatty acids with alkyl alcohol to form fatty acid esters and water as shown in the following chemical reaction : R – COOH + R’ – OH R – COO – R’ + H2O It is an endothermic reaction. This process is usually carried out in the presence of acid catalysts such as H2SO4.

one of the reactant. or by pervaporation. Generally water is eliminated chemically. usually the alcohol is fed in excess and product water is continuously removed respectively during the reaction. To shift the equilibrium of the esterification towards the desired alkyl ester. physically. .

Schematic representation of formation of monoethyl and diethyl oxalate using MgAlPO4 catalyst .

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What is dehydration reaction ?  dehydration reaction is usually defined as a reaction involving the release of water from the reacting molecule. Dehydration reaction is a subset of elimination reactions. giving Brønsted acid catalyst often helps protonation of hydroxyl groups. Because the hydroxyl group (OH) is a poor leaving group. .-OH2+ . making it a good leaving group.

. Mechanism for the dehydration of ethanol to ethylene. although this reaction is rarely used except in the manufacture of diethyl ether. Alcohols are themselves nucleophilic. so R-OH2+ can react with ROH to produce ethers and water in dehydration reaction.

 Conversion of alcohols into ether: 2 R-OH → R-O-R + H2O  Conversion of alcohols into alkenes R-CH2-CHOH-R → R-CH = CH-R + H2O  Conversion of carboxylic acids into acid anhydride: 2 RCO2H → (RCO) 2O + H2O .

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2004.mdpi. J. Yakoob and S Bhatia. Chem. Der-Jong D... Available online: http//www. Some Chemistry of 1. Jane B. 80 (14): 3702–3705. The Dienol-Benzene Rearrangement.References  A. IIUM Engineering Journal. 2012. Am.  Denise F.Q.com/journal/materials. Ethylene Formation by Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol with Industrial Considerations . and E. Accessed on 4 Desember 2013. Ho Shing W. 5 (2). Moss. Hershberg. Hershel L. B. 1958. Soc.  Margaret Jevnik Gentles.4- Androstadiene-3. Esterification of Palmitic Acid with Methanol in the presence of Macroporous ion Exchange Resin as Catalyst.17-dione. . Herzog.