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GSM

Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network
Dual Band Network Organization
characteristic
Dual Band Network Construction
Introduction To Dual Band Wireless
Parameters
Traffic Control Strategy
ZTE 1800M Products
ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share
Concept

GSM900&GSM1800 Co-exist Network


GSM900M&DCS1800M at a certain level are
adjacent cells
Two cell can Handover, Re-select naturally

GSM1800 GSM1800

GSM900 GSM900
Differences & similarities Between
GSM900 & DCS1800
similar network Different Frequency
structure
similar speech coder
range
similar modulation Different wireless
technique propagation rule
similar signal protocol Different coverage
similar frequency
planning tools
Range
......... Different Transmission
power
.........
Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network
Dual Band Network Organization
characteristic
Dual Band Network Construction
Introduction To Dual Band Wireless
Parameters
Traffic Control Strategy
ZTE 1800M Products
ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share
Network Capacity Development
Dual Band Network Design
Single Band MS

Si Du
ng al
GSM900 le Ba
ba nd
nd ne
tw
or
GSM1800
k
DCS 1st Priority

Dual band MS
Dual Band Network Organization
Mode

GSM 900 site

Continuous
coverage DCS
1800 site Discontinuous
coverage DCS
1800 site
Dual Band Network Organization
Mode
MSC MSC MSC
900 1800 MSC MSC

BTS

BSC BSC BSC BSC


BSC BSC
900 1800 900 1800

BTS BTS
BTS 900 1800 BTS
BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS
900 900/1800
900 1800 900 1800 1800

GSM900/DCS1800
GSM900/DCS1800 Shared MSC + BSC + BTS
GSM900/DCS1800 GSM900/DCS1800
Shared MSC
Separately used MSC shared MSC+ BSC
900 1800
900MHz equipment 1800MHz equipment
Establishment of Dual Band
Network Standard
E T S I published GSM / DCS TCTR (Technical
Committee Technical Report) in June 1995
Network Support
MSC process Class Mark 3 ( CM3 ) information

MSC CM3 information sent


during call establish/
handover

BSC BSC

GSM900 DCS 1800


BTS BTS
Class Marks

Power GSM 900 DCS 1800 Tolerance (dB)


class Maximum output Maximum output for conditions
power power normal extreme
1 -- ---- 1 W (30 dBm) 2 2.5
2 8 W (39 dBm) 0.25 W (24 dBm) 2 2.5
3 5 W (37 dBm) 4 W (36 dBm) 2 2.5
4 2 W (33 dBm) 2 2.5
5 0.8 W (29 dBm) 2 2.5
Class Marks
Ideal Dual Band Network
Requirements

Ms can Room /support


between two different Bands

Ms Can Handover Between two


bands
Proper cell reselection and
Traffic Well Balanced location update
Between the Dual Bands
By ensuring speech quality, Dual
Band Network has to reduce
unnecessary handovers

Reliable error correction


Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network
Dual Band Network Organization
characteristic
Dual Band Network Construction
Introduction To Dual Band Wireless
Parameters
Traffic Control Strategy
ZTE 1800M Products
ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share
Wireless propagation Characteristics
1800& 900 have different propagation
characteristics. 1800 has higher path loss, about
6-12dB higher than 900. usually around 9dB
Link budget-example
Downlink,from BTS to MS Uplink,from MS to BTS

BTS TX Power 42 dBm MS TX Power 30 dBm


Combining Loss 3 dB MS Antenna gain 0 dB
Duplexer Loss 0 dB Total EIRP 30 dBm
Top of cabinet TX power 39 dBm
Feeder Loss 2 dB Feeder Loss 2 dB
BTS antenna gain 18 dBi BTS antenna gain 18 dBi
Total EIRP 55 dBm

MS RX sensitivity -100 dBm BTS RX sensitivity -104 dBm


MS antenna gain 0 dB Diversity gain 5 dB

Fading margin 6 dBm Fading margin 6 dBm


Interference margin 3 dBm Interference margin 3 dBm
Antenna body loss 3 dBm Antenna body loss 3 dBm
MAX.allowable path loss 143 dB MAX.allowable path loss 143 dB
Link Balance(Downlink-Uplink)=0
Coverage
According to ETSI suggestionFrom coverage point of
view, 1800M has about 9dB loss more than 900M,
below is the detailed coverage table
Used Allowed sensitivity Typical cell radiuskm Propagati
freque pass loss dBm on model
ncy dB used
MH BTS MS Village and Urban
z other open area
areas
900 134 -104 -102 19 3 Hata

1800 143 -104 -100 7 1 Cost231-


Hata
Network construction suggestion
According to dual band network propagation
model
Principle Dual Band Network
Planning
GSM900 ensures coverage, DCS1800 takes care of
traffic
DCS1800 site Layout
Choose the site with already existing GSM900 system in
order to use the already existing equipment like; tower,
room, power etc and serve on the investment

Antenna installation
DCS1800 antenna better be 2-3m higher than GSM900 antenna
Two systems antenna system azimuth angle needs to be the
same to control traffic
Horizontal and vertical angle needs to be small and close
DCS1800 gain should be 2-5dBi more than GSM900 or equal
Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network
Dual Band Network Organization
characteristic
Dual Band Network Construction
Introduction To Dual Band Wireless
Parameters
Traffic Control Strategy
ZTE 1800M Products
ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share
Introduction to Wireless Parameters-
Cell Selection
Cell selection
when MS is switched on or is from the area without service and has entered
into the area with coverage service, ms monitors the signal from the cell and
synchronizes, scans different cells BCCH channel and choose the suitable cell
according to cell selection precedence and C1>0

according to cell selection C1 and precedence value, ms


select the cell and the cell becomes the serving
cell
Introduction to Wireless parameters
C1 Rule
C1 = A- Max(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH
P,0)
A=Received Level Average- RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
P =MS maximum RF power output
Unit for the above parameters is dBm
C1>0 satisfies standard path loss
Introduction to Wireless parameters
CBACBQ
If a certain cell CBQ ,CBA is set to (0,0), then this cell
during cell selection has ordinary Precedence, if
certain cell CBQ, CBA is set to (1,0) or (1,1), then this
cell has lower Precedence
CellBarQualify CellBarAccess Cell selection Cell reselection
Precedence status
0 0 Normal Normal
0 1 Barred Barred
1 0 Low Normal
1 1 Low Normal
Introduction to Wireless Parameters-
example:1800M Precedence
In order for MS to first select 1800M, 1800M
cell has to be set as a normal precedence
cell, with: CBQ=0, CBA=0; 900M cell set to
lower precedence cell, its CBQ=1, CBA=0

900M CellCBQ = 1CBA = 0C1=15

1800M CellCBQ = 0CBA = 0C1=10

Switched on selecting a cell


Introduction to Wireless Parameters
C2 Rule
C2 = C1 + CRO TO H(PT T) PT 31
C2 = C1 CRO PT=31
CRO = CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
TO = TEMPORARY_OFFSET
PT = PENALTY_TIME20s,40s,...
TMS Timer
For Non service cell H(x) = 0x<0
= 1 x 0
For service cell H(x) = 0
C2 Rule can be simplified to C2 = C1 + offset
Offset can either be positive or negative
Introduction To wireless Parameters
Handover
According to coverage, the following are the types of
handover
Cell internal Handoverhandover traffic channels belong to
the same cell. This kind of handover can be handled by the
BSC where the cell belongs;
Cell-Cell same BSCtwo cells controlled by same BSC. This
kind of handover doesnt need MSC intervention, can be
handled by the BSC where the two cell belong
BSC- BSC same MSCtwo cell belong to two different BSC
which are controlled by one MSC. This type of handover needs
participation of MSC and the two BSC
MSC-MSCtwo cell belong to two different MSC. This kind
of handover needs more than one MSC to handle and the two
BSC where the cell belong
Introduction to Wireless Parameters
Handover
The following are the types of Handover
according to handover characteristics
Saving handover
Interference handover
Strong Handover
Quality Handover
TA Handover
Fast Fading Handover

Better cell handover
PBGT HandoverBetter Cell
Introduction to Wireless Parameters
Handover
PBGT(n) = ( RXLEV_NCELL(n) - (RXLEV_DL+PWR_C_D))
- (min(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n), P) - min(MS_TXPWR_MAX, P))
MS_TXPWR_MAXMS Max allowed power in the serving
cell
RXLEV_DLmeasured report average Downlink RXLEV
PWR_C_DBTS Max power and BTS Reported power
difference
MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) MS at the neighbor cell max allowed
power
PMS max power
RXLEV_NCELL(n)Adjacent cell average Downlink
RXLEV
Introduction To Wireless
Parameters- Handover
ECSC Early Classmark Sending Control
According to GSM standard, when MS has
Early Classmark Sending Control, and the network
support Early Classmark Sending Control then MS
sends Classmark 3information through
CLASSMARK CHANGE information during assign,
whether network supports Early Classmark Sending
Control or not, it is controlled by ECSC parameter.
This parameter is broadcast to cell through RIL3_RR
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE3
Introduction To Wireless Parameters
Handover
Mult Band Indexes
Introduction to Wireless Parameters
Handover
Direct Retry
During assign, if the serving cell do not
have free TCH to allocate, and the system
uses Direct Retry then MS will be allocated
TCH from the adjacent cell in accordance
with the MS measurement Report. This is a
very special Handover process and can
greatly reduce dropped calls. Direct retry
can be classified as internal BSC direct
retry or inter BSC direct retry, the former
doesnt require MSC intervention whilst the
latter does.
Introduction to Wireless Parameters
Handover
Traffic Handover
Why Traffic HandoverThe reason for handover is because
the cell have or will have congestion, and the adjacent cell is
empty. When MSC is about to decide traffic handover, MSC
sends Handover_Candidate_Enquiry information to BSC, ordering a
certain number of MS to handover from the original congested
cell to the target empty cell
Candidate PrincipleBSC chooses the cell with worst service quality among
its cells to become the candidate. Example Denotations evaluations: Up/Downlink
quality, Up/Downlink REXLEV, MS-BTS distance, according precedence average
Handover target cell limitCandidate MS adjacent cell
measurement Report does not include MSC supplied cell table
any cell which cancels candidates seniority
Handover time Limit
Introduction to Wireless parameters
Handover
Fast fading Handover
If BSC discovers the signal strength of MS is
continuously decreasing beyond the threshold T, then
fast fading handover can take place, the target handover
cell is selected from the related serving cell neighbors

1 2
Micro 1 A
A

High speed MS 3 Micro 2 4 Micro2 is defined


as serving cell
RH TH=-96 dBm neighbor cell
RH N=4
Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network
Dual Band Network Organization
characteristic
Dual Band Network Construction
Introduction To Dual Band Wireless
Parameters
Traffic Control Strategy
ZTE 1800M Products
ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share
Traffic Control Strategy

The aim of traffic control


is:

Traffic Adjustment
Principle
Traffic Control often used measures

Control cell selectC1CBACBQ

Control cell ReselectC2

Control Dual Band HandoverPBGTpriority


Traffic Balance1
Through setting of CBACBQ precedence
selection DCS1800
Network uses C2 rule as Reselection standard

900M cellC1=15C2=5

1800M cellC1=10
C2=20
Traffic Balance
Other traffic control
measures
Traffic handover
Layer control
RF control
threshold
Direction retry
Wait time
Xian Dual Band Network
Network construction
From December 2002, ZTE constructed Dual Band
network for Xian Unicom, up to date Xian
DCS1800 network has about 1000TRX/100 sites
In the initial network construction, the aim was to
balance the traffic using ZTE dual band Network
At present the network has two topologies
ZTE GSM900ZTE DCS1800A type
Siemens GSM900, ZTE DCS1800B type
Collected sites
Xian Dual Band Network

Traffic BalanceA type Network


Idle mode first select DCS network, D


PBGT

1200
1000
800
600 ZTE_DCS
SIEMENS
400
ZTE_DCS
200 SIEMENS
0 ZTE_DCS
SIEMENS
S

S
ZTE_DCS
DC

EN

DC

EN

DC

EN

DC

EN

DC

EN
E_

EM

E_

EM

E_

EM

E_

EM

E_

EM
SIEMENS
ZT

SI

ZT

SI

ZT

SI

ZT

SI

ZT

SI

ZTE_DCS
SIEMENS


SDCCH TCH
(
(Erl)
) (%) (%)

2003-09-08 10:00- 91.85


0.26% 213201.00 587.00 0.28% 99.47% 1572.73 1012.00 0.47% 93.24
11:00 %

2003-09-09 10:00- 91.68


0.29% 222599.00 624.00 0.28% 99.43% 1631.92 1014.00 0.46% 96.56
11:00 %

2003-09-10 10:00- 91.92


0.22% 223967.00 597.00 0.27% 99.51% 1652.17 1048.00 0.47% 94.59
11:00 %

2003-09-11 10:00- 91.41


0.12% 243280.00 1013.00 0.42% 99.47% 1818.79 1119.00 0.46% 97.52
11:00 %

2003-09-12 10:00- 91.59


0.28% 221836.00 562.00 0.25% 99.47% 1632.34 1005.00 0.45% 97.45
11:00 %

2003-09-13 10:00- 91.72


0.06% 139721.00 266.00 0.19% 99.75% 978.16 641.00 0.46% 91.56
11:00 %

2003-09-14 10:00- 91.79


0.23% 199751.00 530.00 0.27% 99.50% 1755.10 892.00 0.45% 118.06
11:00 %
Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network
Dual Band Network Organization
characteristic
Dual Band Network Construction
Introduction To Dual Band Wireless
Parameters
Traffic Control Strategy
ZTE 1800M Products
ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share
ZTE BTS1800/900 Equipment

BTS series 3G high power


micro BTS
BS30(40W)
2G high power
High integration micro BTS
indoor type BS21(40W)
BTS
Indoor type Outdoor type
BTS BTS
1G micro BTS
Indoor type MB12W
BTS

BTS
Satisfy different coverage area requirments
Indoor type Macro BTS V1A

Physical size 1600660550 mm3 (H x W x D)


Single shelf supported TRX 6TRX/ 3TRX
Power output GSM900/GSM1800 40W/ 80W
Receive Sensitivity GSM900/GSM1800 -112dBm
Max power consumption 1200W
BTS power control 6 level static power controlevery level 2dB
15 level dynamic power controlevery level
2dB
Voltage -40~-57VDC 19~29VDC
System Maintenance MTBF =120000h
Support long distance coverge

V2

Physical size 1600660550 mm3 (H x W x D)


Single shelf supported TRX 12TRX/ 6TRX
Power output GSM900/GSM1800 40W/ 80W
Receive Sensitivity GSM900/GSM1800 -112dBm
Max power consumption 2200W
BTS power control 6 level static power controlevery level
2dB
15 level dynamic power controlevery
level 2dB
Voltage -40~-57VDC 19~29VDC
System Maintenance MTBF =120000h
Support long distance coverge


Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network
Dual Band Network Organization
characteristic
Dual Band Network Construction
Introduction To Dual Band Wireless
Parameters
Traffic Control Strategy
ZTE 1800M Products
ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share
ZTE Excellent Dual Band Network
SchemeTypical Market Share
Shanxi Unicom Example

2003Shanxi
Unicom signed
GSM1800
contract with
ZTE
Cover Xian,
Baoqi,
chengyang and
Weinan
More than
2000TRX
ZTE Excellent Dual Band Network SchemeTypical
Market Share
Qinghai unicom Geermu area 1800M

from late 2001, Qinghai Unicom and our


company singed GSM main equipment, our
equipment have excellent performance in
Qinghai local network, 144 TRX , 25 sites.
in early 2003 later, Qinghai singed another
contract with our company making Geermu real dual
band network, 72 TRX/12sites.

1800M
20005
GSM
2003

1800M68TRX/10Site
1800
BSS National Market Share

National Market Share




















Penetrated 20
provinces
BSS International Market Share
U.K.
ZTE ZTE
RUSSIA
U.S.A
ZTE UZBEKISTAN
ZTE TAJIKISTAN CHINA
ZTE IRAN ZTE
ZTE CYPRUS ZTE
LIBYA ZTE
CUBA ZTE
PAKISTAN MYANMAR
ZTE ZTE
NIGER ZTE

ETHIOPIA
NIGERIA ZTE
ZTE SOMALIA
ZTE CONGO
ZTE
PERU EAST TIMOR
ZAMBIA
ZTE ZTE
ZTE

CHILE
ZTE

ZTE 1800M equipment in international market, e.g. Nigeria, Russia, Congo, etc are widely used
Nigeria 2506TRX/ 324BTS 900/1800Dual band Network
Russia 265TRX/47BTS 900/1800Dual Band Network