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Republic of Turkey

Ministry of Labour and Social Security,


Directorate General of Occupational Health and Safety
and
Occupational Health and Safety Center (ISGUM)
Contents

Some Statistical Data about Turkey

Worklife in Turkey

Ministry of labour and social security (MoLSS)

Directorate General Of Occupational Health And


Safety(DGOHS)
WHAT IS A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE?

ACCORDNG TO TURKISH LEGSLATION ANY ELMENT,


COMPOUND OR MIXTURE THAT;

NATURALLY EXIST IN THE ENVIRONMENT or


PRODUCED/MANUFACTURED or
FORMS INTENTIONALLY OR UNINTENTIONALLY AS A RESULT
OF ANY PROCESS OR OPERATION or
FORMS AS WASTEPRODUCT OF ANY PROCESS or
OPERATION

Any other possibility?


WHAT DOES ISGUM DO WORPLACES HAVING
CHEMICALS?

1. ANALYZE THE PROCESS (COVERED NOW)


2. PREPARE THE LIST OF CHEMICALS USED
OR FORMED (COVERED NOW)
3. TAKE SAMPLES WHERE NECCESARRY
(COVERED LATER)
4. ANALYZE SAMPLES AND EVALUATE
RESULTS(COVERED LATER)
5. EXPLAIN PREVENTIVE MEASURES
(COVERED LATER)
Analysis of a Sample Process: Iron
Production
Iron ore is divided into pieces and pellets
are formed (floating or magnetic method)
It is mixed with the high furnace chimney
dust and the coal dust and smoothened
in a sintering furnace
Hot air is fed to the sintering furnace by a
transfer pipe from the high furnace
Analysis of a Sample Process: Iron
Production
The hole at the top of the sintering furnace is opened
and the slag and iron mixture is fed to the furnace

As the mixture moves down the slag and the iron are
separated,

The air blown from the bottom of the high furnace is


heated up by hot waste gases coming from the top of
the sintering furnace
Analysis of a Sample Process: Iron
Production
The cehmicals at the furnace:
Burning product CO2 Iron (III) oxides reduced to Iron (II)
oxides athe bottom parts pure iron is formed by
consecutive reducings.
The CO2 formed is reduced again with coke and CO is
formed.
As the material moves down the counter current gases
causes to form calcium oxide and carbon monoxide.
The pure iron is poured into baskets
Several other chemicals form during the pouring of iron to baskets and
production of steel. The rest is not anaylzed for time convenience
Results of Analysis (For iron and
steel together)
CO exposure is highly possible especially
during maintenance
Oil mist (Oil is used in pouring baskets)
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (degrading of
oils at high temperatures)
Physical agents like heat stress, radiation
and noise
Results of Analysis (For iron and
steel together)
Finishing chemicals (painting, production
of lead including steel, sin coating etc.) will
be mentioned later.
DUSTS!!!
I want exchange knowladge with the
audience about dusts in this process.
Process Scheme
DUSTS!!! Hot air
Dust cyclone

S High furnace
I
iron ore + lime
N
stone
T
E
coke R Heated air Gas out
I
N
G Very hot region Hot air

ron goes to baskets Cold air


COPPER PRODUCTION
SULPHUR DIOXIDE DURING BURNING PROCESS
HOW DO YOU MEASURE SO2?
CARBON MONOXIDE (Burning Processes)
Suplhuric acid is also in the process??? Can we discuss
this?
10-16% Sulphuric acid is used in electrolysis
COPPER PRODUCTION
Metal fumes (Cu, zn, As, Cd, Mo) in copper
production
Loading of oxygen flash furnace
Operating oxygen flash furnace
Anodes of electrolysis cells
DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
ENCOUNTERED RFEQUENTLY IN
TURKEY!! Hazard of these operations are
underestimetd in Turkey!!
Mechanical cleaning
Ultrasonic cleaning
Vibration or drum cleaning
DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
Chemical cleaning
Cleaning solvents
Acids
Bases
DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
Cleaning of metal surfaces with blasting
techniques are problematic in Turkey.

Sand, some silicates and aluminium oxides


used in these operations create hazards.

Iron balls, large particulated sand and zinc


balls also create hazards
DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
Sand blasting device Blasting cabinet

How to work with these?


DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
The worse case in Turkey was that blast
was done in open cabinets and the particle
contentartions were very high!!!
DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
We are sure that:
Silica sand blasting and other blasting
operations create respirable dusuts
hazardous to lungs. Cyristaline silica and
respirable dust must be measured.

Lead and Mercury exposure is likely in


removing paints from metals.
DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
Chemical Degrasing (Underestimated in
Turkey)
With sovents

Direct application (brushing, wiping off etc.)


Spreying
Immersion
DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
Mostly used solvents:
Chlorinated hydrocarbons (methylene
chlorate, tricholoroethylene etc.)- highly
toxic
Petroleum based solvents and mineral
compounds
Alcohols (isopropanol)
DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
Chemical degreasing with acids and bases

Spreying
Immersing

Low tempearures are required for fast cleaning


When a pH of 10.5-11.5 is required, ultrasonic
vibrations are used to increase performance
of cleaning
Chemical degreasing with acids
and bases
Acids!?
Sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid,
phosphoric acid etc. are used.
Fro example, 5-15% sulphuric acid, 10-25%
hydrochloric acid are used in 60-82oC non-
electrolytic baths

Samples are generally below OEL's


DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF
METALS
Chemical degreasing with acids and bases

Hazardous bases:
Caustic soda (local exhaust ventilation is
essential)
Sodium silicate, trisodium phosphate etc. (not
encountered in high concentrations)
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
FOR THE PURPOSES OF;
Preventing corrosion,
Obtaining good view
Electrical isolation
And special applications
PAINTING IS VERY FREQUENT IN
TURKEY!
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
Unlike degraesing and cleaning, painting is
not underestimated in Turkey.

Solvents and other industrial chemicals are


licenced by SGM and their usage
schemes are regularly controlled.

Degreasing are cleaning is not that much


legislated.
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
Recommended Geometry for Spreying

painter
Painted object
Air
out

sprey

What do you recommend? What are the


pros and cons of this geometry?
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
The chemistry of paints
MAJOR CONSTITUENTS PURPOSE
COMPONENT

VEHCLE BINDER RESIN THAT FORMS FILM


SOLVENT THINNER FOR ADJUSTMENT OF
VISCOCITY
FLLER GENERAL FILLER HIDING ABILITY, BODY, COLOR
PIGMENT OPAQUENESS COLOR
EXTENDER FILLERS THAT BUILD BODY
ADDTVES DRIERS SPEED DRYING
BIOCIDE PREVENT GROWTH OF MOLD/FUNGS
FLATTING AGENTS PROVDE LOW LUSTER
STABILIZERS PREVENT HEAT AND UV RADIATION
ANTISKINNING PREVENT SKIN FORMATION IN CAN
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS
White:
Titanium dioxide (TiO2),
Zinc oxide (ZNO),
Antimony oxide (Sb2O3),
White Lead (2PBCO3 Pb(OH)2)
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS
Yellow inorganic pigments
Lead Chromates (PbCrO4)
Zinc Chromates (ZnCrO4)
Yellow iron oxides (Fe2O3 . H2O)
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS
Green inorganic pigments:
Chromium oxide (Cr2O3)
Lead Chrome Greens ( PbCrO4 . KFe[Fe(CN)6] )

Blue Inorganic pigments:


Prussian Blue (KFe[Fe(CN)6])
Ulltramine Blue (3Na2O3 . 3Al2O3 . 6SiO2Na2S)
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS

Red inorganic pigments:


Red iron oxide (Fe2O3)

Black pigments
Black iron oxide (Fe3O4)
Carbon blacks
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS
Hansa yellows
Benzidine yellow
Pigment Green B
Phthalocyanine blue
Toluidine reds
Arylamide reds
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
SOLVENTS!!!
Aromatic solvents:
Benzene
Toluene
Xylene
Aromatic naphthas
Aromatic petroleum solvents
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
SOLVENTS!!!
Aliphatic Solvents
Petroleum etjher
Lacquer diluent
Mineral spirits
Kerosene
High flash naphthas
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
SOLVENTS!!!
Glycol Ethers
Chlorinated solvents:
Methyl chloride
Chlorothene
Carbon tetrachloride
Trichloroethylene
Percholroethylene
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
SOLVENTS!!!
Trepenes:
Turpentine
Dipentene
Pine oil
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
SOLVENTS!!!
Alcohols
Methanol
Ethanol
Isopropyl alcohol
n-propyl alcohol
N-butyl alcohol
Secondary butyl alcohol
Cyclohexanol
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
SOLVENTS!!!
Acetates: Ethyl-
Isopropyl-
n-Propyl-
Secondary butyl-
N-butyl-
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
SOLVENTS!!!
Ketones
Acetone
MEK
Mathyl acetone
Methyl isobutyl ketone
Diacetone
Cylcloheanone
Diisobuyly ketone
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
Resins? (are they very hazardous?)
Acyrilic resin: Polyvinilyidene compunds
Alkyd resin: Interaction of a polycarboxylic or
fatty acid or its anhydride, a polyhydric
alcohol (eg. glycol) and a vegatble oil or its
fatty acid.
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
Resins? (nhaled?)
Amino resins: condensation polymerization
of an aldehyde with an amine or amide
Epoxy resins: Condensation polymerization
between epichlorodyrin

OTHER RESNS: Touched with bare hands


I want to discuss with the audience
INDUSTRIAL PAINTING
Example operation: car painting
Solvent Highest (ppm) Mean(ppm)
Toluene 250 30.6
Xylene 36 5.8
Butyl acetate 130 6.8
Methyl isobutyl ketone 39 1.7
Isporopanol 85 2.9
Ethyl acetate 33 2.6
Acetone 25 3.1
FINAL SLIGHT
I WOULD LIKE TO DISCUSS WITH THE AUDIENCE THE
HAZARDS OF THE CONCENTRATIONS GIVEN AND
THE POSSIBILITES OF BETTER GEOMETRY FOR
SPREY PAINTING

THANK YOU
TERIMA KASIH