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Computer Graphics @ BUK - Lecture 2 - 3D Viewing.pptx

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Computer Graphics with OpenGL by Hearn, Baker and Carithers 4th Ed.

3D Transformations (Chapter 8)

3D Viewing (Chapter 9)

Viewing Transformation

Projection Transformation

Introduction

For two-dimensional graphics applications, viewing

operations transfer positions from the world-

coordinate plane to pixel positions in the plane of the

output device.

window and the viewport, a two-dimensional package

clips a scene and maps it to device coordinates.

more involved, because we now have many more

choices as to how we can construct a scene and how

we can generate views of the scene on an output

device

Overview of 3D Viewing

When we model a three-dimensional scene, each object in

the scene is typically defined with a set of surfaces that form

a closed boundary around the object interior.

set of procedures that ultimately project a specified view of

the objects onto the surface of a display device.

present in two-dimensional viewing. For example,

projection routines are needed to transfer the scene to a view

on a planar surface,

visible parts of a scene must be identified, and,

for a realistic display, lighting effects and surface characteristics

must be taken into account

Viewing a Three-Dimensional Scene

To obtain a display of a three-dimensional world-coordinate

scene, we first set up a coordinate reference for the viewing,

or camera, parameters.

orientation for a view plane (or projection plane) that

corresponds to a camera film plane (Figure below).

reference coordinates and projected onto the view plane.

Projections

In computer Graphics, unlike a camera picture, we

can choose different methods for projecting a scene

onto the view plane.

onto a view plane is to project points on the object

surface along parallel lines. This technique, called parallel

projection, is used in engineering and architectural

drawings to represent an object with a set of views that

show accurate dimensions of the object.

dimensional scene is to project points to the view plane

along converging paths. This process, called a perspective

projection, causes objects farther from the viewing

position to be displayed smaller than objects of the same

size that are nearer to the viewing position. This makes the

scene appear more realistic

Projections

The 3D Viewing Pipeline

Procedures for generating a computer-graphics view of a three-

dimensional scene are somewhat analogous to the processes

involved in taking a photograph.

corresponding to where we would place a camera.

do we want to point the camera from the viewing position, and

how should we rotate it around the line of sight to set the up

direction for the picture?

size of a selected clipping window, which corresponds to the

aperture or lens type of a camera, and light from the visible

surfaces is projected onto the camera film.

The 3D Viewing Pipeline

3D Viewing-Coordinate Parameters

First select a world-coordinate position

P0 =(x0, y0, z0)

for the viewing origin, which is called the view point or

viewing position. (also referred to as the eye position or

the camera position.)

view direction.

coordinate axes.

defines the z-view axis, with the viewing direction along this

axis.

3D Viewing-Coordinate Parameters

The View-Plane Normal Vector

Because the viewing direction is usually along the z-view axis, the

view plane, also called the projection plane, is normally

assumed to be perpendicular to this axis.

Thus, the orientation of the view plane, as well as the direction for

the positive z-view axis, can be defined with a view-plane normal

vector N, as shown:

The View-Plane Normal Vector

Vector N is taken to be in the direction from a reference

point Pref to the viewing origin P0, as in Figure 10.

look-at point within the scene.

The View-Up Vector

Once we have chosen a view-plane normal vector N,

we can set the direction for the view-up vector V.

This vector is used to establish the positive direction

for the y-view axis.

direction for the z-view axis, vector V should be

perpendicular to N. We can choose any direction for

the view-up vector V, so long as it is not parallel to

N.

the world yw-axis; that is, we could set V = (0, 1, 0).

The uvn Viewing-Coordinate

Reference Frame

Because the view-plane normal N defines the direction for the z-

view axis and the view-up vector V is used to obtain the direction

for the y-view axis, we need only determine the direction for the x-

view axis.

Using the input values for N and V, we can compute a third vector,

U, that is perpendicular to both N and V.

Vector U then defines the direction for the positive x-view axis.

We determine the correct direction for U by taking the vector

cross product of V and N so as to form a right-handed viewing

frame.

value for V, perpendicular to both N and U, along the positive y-

view axis.

The uvn Viewing-Coordinate

Reference Frame

Following these procedures, we obtain the following set

of unit axis vectors for a right-handed viewing coordinate

system.

unit vectors is often described as a uvn

viewing-coordinate reference frame

(Figure 12).

Transformation from World

to Viewing Coordinates

In the three-dimensional viewing pipeline, the first step after a

scene has been constructed is to transfer object descriptions to

the viewing-coordinate reference frame.

transforming between coordinate system :

world coordinate system.

with the world xw, yw, and zw axes, respectively.

Transformation from World

to Viewing Coordinates

The viewing-coordinate origin is at world position

P0 = (x0, y0, z0).

origin to the world origin is

Transformation from World

to Viewing Coordinates

For the rotation transformation, we can use the

unit vectors u, v, and n to form the composite

rotation matrix that superimposes the viewing

axes onto the world frame. This transformation

matrix is

Transformation from World

to Viewing Coordinates

The coordinate transformation matrix is then obtained as the

product of the preceding translation and rotation matrices:

Matrix 4 transfers world-coordinate object descriptions to the

viewing reference frame.

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