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Switchyard

Protection
Functions of various equipment :

* Circuit breakers :
- Makes or automatically breaks the electrical circuits under
Loaded condition.
* Isolators :
- Opens or closes the electrical circuits under No-load
conditions.
* Instrument transformers :
- For stepping-down the electrical parameter (Voltage or
Current) to a lower and safe value for Metering and Protection
logics.
* Earth switch :
- Used to connect the charged body to ground to discharge
the trapped charge to have a safe maintenance zone.
* Lightning arrestors :
- Safe guards the equipment by discharging the high currents
due to Lightning.
* Overhead earth wire :
- Protects the O/H transmission line from Lightning strokes.
* Bus bar :
- Conductors to which a number of circuits are connected.
What is a Switchgear ?
The apparatus used for Switching, Controlling and
Protecting the Electrical Circuits and equipment.

Need of Switchgear :
* Switching during normal operating conditions for the
purpose of Operation and Maintenance.

* Switching during Faults and Abnormal conditions and


interrupting the fault currents.
Relays
Relay :
A device that detects the fault and initiates the operation
of the Circuit breaker to isolate the defective element
from the rest of the system.
* The relays detect the abnormal conditions in the electrical
circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities
which are different under normal and faulty conditions.

CT CB
Load
Source

RELAY
Requirements of Protecting relaying :
Selectivity
- Ability to select the faulty part and isolate that part
without disturbing the rest of the system.
Speed
- Ability to disconnect the faulty part at the earliest
possible time.
Sensitivity
- Ability of the relay to operate with low value of
actuating quantity.
Reliability
- Ability of the system to operate under pre-determined
conditions
Simplicity
- Should be so simple so that it can be easily maintained.
- The simpler the protection scheme, the greater is the
reliability
Economy
- Availability at lower cost.
- Generally, the protective gear should not cost more
than 5% of the total cost. However, when the apparatus to
be protected is of utmost importance (e.g. Generator, GT
etc) economic conditions are subordinated to
reliability.
Classification of Relays based on Design :
RELAYS

Electromagnetic
& Microprocessor
Electro thermal Static

* Attracted Armature * Relay consists of


* Induction disc Electronic circuitry
* Permanent magnet such as Transistors,
* Moving coil ICs, Diodes etc
* Polarised moving Iron
* Bimetallic Strip * Uses VLSI technology
* Can be Programmed
Basic classification of Relays based on Function :
* Over current
* Under Voltage
* Impedance
* Under Frequency
* Directional
Circuit Breakers
CIRCUIT BREAKER

A circuit breaker is a device which can :-


(1). Make or break a circuit either manually or by remote
control under normal conditions.
(2). Break a circuit automatically under fault condition.
(3). Make a circuit either manually or by remote control
under fault conditions.
Incoming Phase
Mechanical
Contacts
Separators

Out going Phase


Contacts
TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

THERE ARE MAINLY FOUR TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS :-

MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER


AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKER
SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER
VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER
MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER

ADVANTAGES :-
It requires lesser quantity of oil.
It requires smaller space.
There is reduced risk of fire.
Maintenance problems are reduced.
DISADVANTAGES :-
Due to smaller quantity of oil the degree of
carbonization is increased.
There is difficulty of removing the gases from the
contact space in time.
The dielectric strength of the oil deteriorates rapidly
due to high degree of carbonization.
Bulk Oil CB :
Minimum Oil CB :
AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKER

ADVANTAGES :-
No risk of fire.
The arcing products are completely removed by blast air
where as the oil deteriorates with successive operation.
The growth of dielectric strength is so rapid that final
contact gap needed for arc extinction is very small, this
reduces the size of device.
The arcing time is very small due to the rapid build of
dielectric strength between contacts. Therefore the arc
energy is only a fraction of that in oil circuit breaker thus
resulting in less burning of contact.
Air Break CB :
Air Blast CB :
AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKER

DISADVANTAGES :-

The air has relatively inferior extinguishing properties.


The air circuit breaker are very sensitive to the variations in
the rate of rising of restriking voltage.
Considerable maintenance is required for the compressor
plant which supplies the air blast.
SF6 CB :

1. Op mechanism 8. Puffer cylinder


2. Interrupter 9. Nozzle
3. Support 10. Fixed position
4. Op rod 11. Fixed contact
5. Linkage 12. Moving contact
6. Terminals 13. Gas inlet
7. Filters
SF-6 CIRCUIT BREAKER
ADVANTAGES :-
It has superior arc quenching properties.
Due to superior arc quenching properties of sf6,such circuit breaker has
very short arcing time.
The dielectric strength of sf6 gas is 2-3 times of air, such breaker can
interrupt much larger current .
The sf6 CB gives noise less operation due to its closed gas circuit and no
exhaust to atmosphere unlike the air blast circuit breaker.
The closed gas enclosure keeps the interior dry so that there is no
moisture problem.
There is no risk of fire in such breaker because sf6 gas is non inflammable.
Since SF6 breaker are totally enclosed and sealed from atmosphere, they
are particularly suitable where explosion hazard exists e.g. coal mines.
SF-6 CIRCUIT BREAKER

DISADVANTAGES :-

SF6 breaker is costly due to the high cost of SF-6.


Since SF6 gas has to be reconditioned after every
operation of breaker, additional equipment is require for
this purpose .
Vacuum CB :
VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER

ADVANTAGES :-
They are compact, reliable and have longer life.
There are no fire hazards.
There are no generation of gas during and after operation.
They can interrupt any fault current.
The outstanding feature of a VCB is that it can break any
fault current perfectly just before the contact reach definite
open position.
They require little maintenance and are quite in operation.
They can successfully withstand lighting surges.
They have low inertia and hence require smaller power for
control mechanism .
VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER

(1) In such a breakers vacuum is used as arc quenching medium


(Degree of vacuum being in the range from 10-7 -10-5 torr.)
(2) The production of arc in vacuum CB and its extinction can be
explained as follows:-
When contact of CB are opened in vacuum(10-7 -10-5 ) an arc is
produced between the contact by ionization of metal vapours of
contacts. The arc is quickly extinguished because metallic vapours,
electrons ions produced during arc are diffused in a short time and
seized by surfaces of moving and fixed members and shields. Since
vacuum has very fast rate of recovery of dielectric strength .The arc
extinction in vacuum breaker occurs with a short contact separation
(say 0.625cm).

Vacuum Bottle of VCB


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF CB
SC breaking capacity : 40KA
Duration of SC :1sec
Insulation level : 3.8kv/10kv/40kvp
Closing : 220v DC
Opening : 220v DC
Operating mechanism : Motor operated spring
charged
Operating sequence : O-0.3-CO-3min-CO
VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER

Internal Operating Mechanism of a VCB

Spring Charging Motor

Spring Charging Mechanism Anti pumping relay

Breaker Aux Contacts

On Push Button

Off Push Button


Male Control Plug
Fault clearing process :

During any Fault..


* Fault impedance will be low, so fault current will
increase and relay senses this increase in current.
* Relay contacts closes and sends trip signal to circuit
breaker and the trip coil of the circuit breaker will get
energized.
* Operating mechanism of the circuit breaker will
operate and separate the contacts.
* Arc will be initiated between the contacts and it is
extinguished by suitable methods.
Arcing phenomenon :
- When a fault occurs, heavy current flows through the contacts
of the circuit breaker before they are opened by the protective system.
- At the instant when the contacts begin to separate, the contact
area decreases rapidly and current density (I/A) increases and hence
rise in temperature.
-The heat produced is sufficient to ionise the medium between the
contacts. This ionised medium acts as conductor and an arc is struck
between the contacts.
- The potential difference between the contacts is very small and
is sufficient to maintain the arc.
- The current flow depends upon the Arc resistance.
Few definitions :
Breaking Capacity Max fault current at which a CB is capable
of breaking a circuit.
Making Capacity Max current a CB can withstand if it closing on
existing Short circuit.
Restriking Voltage After the arc has been extinguished, the
voltage across the breaker terminals does not normalize
instantaneously but it oscillates The transient voltage which appears
across the breaker contacts at the instant of arc being extinguished.
Recovery Voltage Power frequency voltage which appears across
the breaker contacts after the arc is finally extinguished and transient
oscillations die out.
INTERRUPTION OF A SHORT CIRCCUIT

SYSTEM VOLTAGE

RECOVERY
VOLTAGE
CURRENT
TRANSIENT

CONTACTS
SEPERATES
ARC VOLTAGE SYSTEM FREQUENCY
RECOVERY VOLTAGE
Events/Timings during fault clearing process :

Fault clearing Circuit breaker


= Relay time +
Time Time

Instant Closure of
Relay time = Of to Trip
Fault Circuit

Closure of Final arc


Circuit breaker
= Trip to
Time Extinction
Circuit
Various types of CBs :

(i) Miniature CB
(ii) Air Break CB
(iii) Air Blast CB Bulk Oil CB
(iv) Oil CB
(v) SF6 CB Minimum Oil CB

(vi) Vacuum CB
Advantage of vacuum CB

* Used up to 66 KV.
* Vacuum is of the range of 106 to 108 torr.
* Vacuum is highly dielectric, so arc cant persists.
* Separation of contacts causes the release of metal vapour from
the contacts, the density of vapour depends on the fault current.
* At current zero the vapour emission will tends to zero and the
density will becomes zero and dielectric strength will build up and
restriking will be prevented.
* No emission to atmosphere, hence pollution free.
* Non- explosive and silent operation.
* Compact size.
Disadvantages

* High initial cost.


* Surge suppressors (R or RC combination) are to be connected
at load side for limiting switching over-voltage while
switching low pf loads.
FEATURES OF ISOLATORS
OPERATES UNDER NO LOAD CONDITION
INTERLOCKED WITH BREAKERS AND
EARTHSWITCHES
SHOULD WITHSTAND EXTREME WIND
PRESSURES
MOTOR DRIVEN AND HAND DRIVEN
LOCAL AS WELL AS REMOTE OPERATION
POSSIBLE
ISOLATES SECTIONS FOR MAINTENANCE
USED TO SELECT BUS BARS
SELECT CT FOR BUS BAR PROTECTION
FEATURES OF EARTH SWITCHES
USED TO GROUND SECTIONS REQUIRED FOR
MAINTENANCE
GROUND INDUCTION VOLTAGES
INTERLOCKED WITH BREAKERS AND ISOLATORS
CAN OPERATE FROM LOCAL ONLY
MOTOR DRIVEN AS WELL AS HAND DRIVEN
SAFETY DEVICE
Lightning Arrestors
Purpose :
- To discharge the high voltage surges in the power
system due to lightning to the ground.
Apparatus to be protected :
* Overhead linesEarth/Ground wires (PA=30 deg)
* HV equipmentLAs
* Substation...Lightning Masts, Earth wires
SOURCE OF OVERVOLTAGE

EXTERNAL:-
LIGHTENING
INTERNAL
SWITCHING
LINE/CAPACITOR SWITCHING.
INDUCTIVE CURRENT BREAKING.
TRANSFORMER FEEDER ENERGISATION.
TEMPORARY OVERVOLTAGE
1 PHASE FAULT.
RESONANCE (SUB HARMONIC)
TRANSFORMER INRUSH CURRENT
LIGHTENING ARRESTORS

NON LINEAR RESISTANCE (ZnO)


USED TO PROTECT SWITCH YARD
EQUIPMENTS FROM SWITCHING
SURGES AND LIGHTENING STROKES.
LIGHTENING/SURGE ARRESTER
LIGHTENING- A NATURAL
PHENOMENA
1ST ACTION :FLASH OVER- FINAL ACTION:
SUSPENSION INSULATORS TO 2ND ACTION: DAMGES TO FLASHOVER IN
GANTRY SUSPENSION INSULATORS BREAKERS
Rod gap LA :

* Gap length is
such that the
break-down
occurs at 80%
of the spark Insulator
voltage Rod gap
* After the surge,
the arc in the
gap is Equipment
maintained by body
the normal
supply voltage.
So, only used
as a back-up.
Earth Switches
Isolator
Isolator- functions

Operates under off-load conditions


Physically isolates the electric
circuit
Does not have any current making &
breaking capacity
Used in addition to C.B.
Earth-Switch

Operated when Isolator is open.

Connected between Line


conductor and Earth whenever
required.

Discharge the voltage trap in line.


Source
Isolator Isolator Load
CB

Earth S/W

* Practically, Pantograph type Earth switches were


used.
Few definitions :
Rated current :
- Current which can be carried without fusing
Minimum fusing current :
- Min value of the rms current at which the fuse melts.
Fusing factor :
- FF = Min fusing current / Rated current
Prospective current :
- Current which would have flown if the fuse is absent.
Cut-off current :
- Maximum value of fault current actually reached
before the fuse elements melts.
Characteristics of Fuse element :

- Low melting point. (Tin, Lead)


- High conductivity (Silver, Copper)
- Free from deterioration due to Oxidation (Silver)
- Low cost (Lead, Tin, Copper)

Outstanding feature of a Fuse element is that it isolates the circuit


well before the fault current reaches its first peak current. This gives the
fuse a great advantage over a Circuit breaker since the most severe
thermal and electromagnetic effects of Short-circuit currents (which
occurs at the peak value of the Prospective current) are not experienced
with fuses.
CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT)

It is current step down transformer and is used for


metering and protection purpose.

Core balance CT Phase CT


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF PHASE CT

AS PER IS -2705, IEC 60044

SR. NO. AED 0081/9

RATIO 100/1-1A

CORE -1 5VA , CLASS - 0.5

CORE -2 10 VA ,CLASS -5P20

IL 12/28/75 KVP

STC 40 KA FOR 1 SEC.

MFG. YEAR 09/10


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF CBCT

SR. NO. 5613N005/A76523

TYPE TAPE WOUND

RATIO 50/1A

CLASS PS

REF. <=0.5 OHM

VK >=35 VOLT
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER (PT)

It is a voltage step-down transformer. It is used for


metering and protection.

Potential Transformer
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YOU