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Example : HCl = Hydrochloric Acid NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide CaS = Calcium Sulfide
To distinguish acid. base. and salt by using an appropriate indicator. . and salt characteristic. And to use a simple tool to determine the acidity of a certain substance.The aim this subject. you can : To classify substance having acid. base.
Well. One example of the fruits having unique sour taste in calamondin.We have know that some kinds of fruits in this nature have sour taste. that is meant by acid? Is there any relation between acid and the sour taste of the fruits? . it is because this fruit has sour taste which stronger than other citruses or other fruits.
sodium ion (Na+). The examples of ions among others. then when an acid compound is dissolved in water the hydrogen ions (H+) and negative ion will be formed according to the following reaction. The element atom releasing electrons will be positively charged negatively. the definition of acid according to Arrhenius is as follows. . As a result. Based on the definition of acid according to Arrhenius. etc. an element atom interacting with other element atoms can release or gain a number of electrons. Acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water. are hydrogen ion (H+).According to Arrhenius. The element atoms which are electrically charged (positively of negatively) are called ions. chloride ion (Cl-).
Sulfuric acid 3. Hydrochloric acid 2.1. Phosphoric acid = HCl = H2SO4 = H3PO4 H+ + Cl2H+ + SO423H+ + PO43- Any example of acid NAME Hydrofluoric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Chromic acid Phosphoric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA HF H2SO4 HCl HNO3 H2CrO4 H3PO4 NAME Phosphorous acid Acetic acid Carbonic acid Oxalic acid Nitrous acid Chloric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA H3PO3 CH3COOH H2CO3 H2C2O4 HNO2 HClO3 .
acids or substance containing acid have the characteristics as follows : They are corrosive. They have sour taste. essence of red cabbage. meaning they can destroy other materials. etc. including metals and marble. They can change the color of other substances.Generally. essence of hibiscus. . They can react with metals and they produce hydrogen gas (H2). such as litmus paper.
In citrus fruits. there is tartaric acid. In human body.Acids are easily found in everyday life. etc. it is : In milk. there is lactic acid. in grapes. there is acid which functions as a constructive substance that is protein. there is citric acid. etc . protein is an acid formed from amino acid. In food there is vinegar or acetate acid.
our brushing the clothes or dishes which have been smeared with soap will produce foam? . haven·t you? When we wash clothes or dishes using soap.You have washed clothes using soap.
Based on the base definition above. then when a base is dissolved in water. Potassium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 Na+ + OHNH4+ + OHCa2+ + 2(OH)- . Ammonium hydroxide = NH4OH 3.Base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water. 1. hydroxide ions (OH-) and positive ions are formed according to the following reaction. Sodium hydroxide = NaOH 2.
Any example of bases NAME Magnesium hydroxide Zinc hydroxide Iron (II) hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Mg (OH)2 Zn (OH)2 Fe (OH)2 Fe (OH)3 Al (OH)3 NAME Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Ba (OH)2 Ca (OH)2 NH4OH KOH NaOH .
essence of red cabbage. It is because they can react with fat on our skin and form a soap layer. etc. Some bases are also used by humans. bases also come in solids. They have bitter taste.Similar to acid. . essence of hibiscus. bases or substance containing base have characteristics as follows : They are caustic. meaning they can damage our skin or other materials. we had better learn the characteristics of bases. liquids and gases. but some others are harmful and poisonous. the change in color produced by the base is different from that produced by acid. They feel smooth on our hand. Hence. They can change the color of other substance. such as litmus paper. However. Generally.
there is ammonium hydroxide. it is : In limestone. In agriculture for the feedstock in fertilizer manufacturing containing calcium hydroxide. there is calcium hydroxide. there is aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide.Bases are easily found in everyday life. etc. etc . in medicines for heartburn. In cleaning liquids.
The substances the color of which can change when they interact or react with acid or base are called acid-base indicators. acid-base indicators which are usually used are artificial indicators and natural indicators. .We have know that both acid and base are able to change the color of other substances. The following are explanations about those indicators. In a chemical laboratory.
The change of color produced by the litmus paper can be seen clearly. . so it used in the form of litmus paper (to make the substance easily permeates). As an acid-base indicator. Besides litmus. Litmus becomes red in acid solution and it be comes blue in base solution. so it is durable. Phenolphthalein in acid solution does not change in color. are as follows : The color of litmus can change quickly when it react with both acid and base. are phenolphthalein. litmus has some advantages among other. Methyl red in acid solution has red color. methyl red and bromothymol blue. The litmus paper is a kind of substance prepared from a kind of lichen (Roccella tinctoria). while in base solution it become red. Litmus paper which is commonly used in chemical laboratories now is prepared in the form of paper. Litmus is absorbable by paper.The scientist made litmus paper. Litmus is difficult to react with oxygen in the air. there are also many other artificial acid-base indicators in a chemical laboratory. among others. while in base solution it becomes yellow.
ACID-BASE INDICATOR INDICATOR Litmus Methyl Red Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue IN BASE Blue Yellow Red Blue IN ACID Red Red Uncolored Yellow .
bromothymol blue. and some other kinds of plants. . we can also identify acid or base by using natural indicator. turmeric. phenolphthalein. red cabbage.Besides the artificial indicators. such as litmus. methyl red. such as hibiscus.
Neutral 0 7 14 he value of pH Acid Base . the c tr r . the ci it f s st ce is l e resse i .i i . the r . s st ce is ci ic if the s st ce s l ti has less than 7. st dy the f ll ing figure. the re sic s st ce is. the l r er the er f .i The er f the ter c e se t eter i e the ci it f s st ce. the s ller the er f i . . f r f rther clarificati n. e er.i s i the er f ter is e resse si I this c se. s st ce i its s l ti is e tr l if the is e l t 7. The re ci ic s st ce is. and a s stance is asic if the s stance s l ti n has lar er than 7. the l r er the er f -i the ter. the s ller the er f i the ter. .
.To determine the value of pH of a substance. and other indicators as we have discussed in the previous subchapter. methyl red. The universal indicator is equipped with a color map. to determine the value of pH of a substance. Besides we use the universal indicator. we cannot use a litmus paper. The value of pH can be determined using a universal indicator indicating various colors for each value of pH. we also can use an instrument of pH directly by a digital screen on the instrument. phenolphthalein. so we can determine the value pH based on the color in the map.
ion can be written as follows. then this reaction also know by the term of salting reaction. the neutralization reaction or salting reaction can be written as follows.ion (from base) to form water. The neutral substance meant is salt. It is because besides water. Because the neutralization reaction can produce salt. the product of reaction between acid and base is a neutral substance.If an acid solution and base solution are mixed in a vessel. Simply. . that is a substance which is not acidic nor basic. The reaction between H+ ion and the OH. The reaction between acid and base is called the neutralization reaction. the H+ ion (from acid) will react with the OH.
potassium chloride (KCl). Because in this nature there are many acids and also bases.A simple example of the salting reaction is reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which forms sodium chloride (table salt) and water. barium sulfate (BaSO4). . then of course the table salt is not the only the example of salt. magnesium fluoride (MgF2). sodium sulfide (Na2s). and calcium sulfide (CaS). Among others are calcium chloride (CaCl2). This means. zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). in this nature there are many kinds salt.
Base + acid oxide salt + water 2. liquid (solution). salt in the form of solid (powder). Metal + acid salt + hydrogen gas (H2) . 1.Unlike acid and base. or gas always consists of positive and negative ions. salt is also produced from other reactions. The followings are reactions which can produce salt. Acid oxide + base oxide salt 4. Besides being produced from the reaction between acid and base. Acid + base oxide salt + water 3.
Soil which is too acidic and not good for any plant. there are more other salting reactions which are useful for us. that substance which can damage our teeth and cause a bad smell. Moreover. . The excessive production of stomach acid causing heartburn can be neutralized using bases of Mg (OH)2 or Al (OH)3. can be neutralized using the base.Basically. the salting (neutralization) reaction is very useful for human life.
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