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Example : HCl = Hydrochloric Acid NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide CaS = Calcium Sulfide
And to use a simple tool to determine the acidity of a certain substance. . base. To distinguish acid. and salt characteristic.The aim this subject. base. you can : To classify substance having acid. and salt by using an appropriate indicator.
that is meant by acid? Is there any relation between acid and the sour taste of the fruits? . it is because this fruit has sour taste which stronger than other citruses or other fruits. One example of the fruits having unique sour taste in calamondin. Well.We have know that some kinds of fruits in this nature have sour taste.
the definition of acid according to Arrhenius is as follows. As a result. then when an acid compound is dissolved in water the hydrogen ions (H+) and negative ion will be formed according to the following reaction. The element atoms which are electrically charged (positively of negatively) are called ions. Acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water. are hydrogen ion (H+). The element atom releasing electrons will be positively charged negatively. an element atom interacting with other element atoms can release or gain a number of electrons. chloride ion (Cl-). etc. sodium ion (Na+). . Based on the definition of acid according to Arrhenius.According to Arrhenius. The examples of ions among others.
Sulfuric acid 3.1. Phosphoric acid = HCl = H2SO4 = H3PO4 H+ + Cl2H+ + SO423H+ + PO43- Any example of acid NAME Hydrofluoric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Chromic acid Phosphoric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA HF H2SO4 HCl HNO3 H2CrO4 H3PO4 NAME Phosphorous acid Acetic acid Carbonic acid Oxalic acid Nitrous acid Chloric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA H3PO3 CH3COOH H2CO3 H2C2O4 HNO2 HClO3 . Hydrochloric acid 2.
essence of hibiscus. such as litmus paper. . They can change the color of other substances. including metals and marble. They have sour taste. meaning they can destroy other materials. acids or substance containing acid have the characteristics as follows : They are corrosive. essence of red cabbage.Generally. etc. They can react with metals and they produce hydrogen gas (H2).
protein is an acid formed from amino acid. it is : In milk. there is tartaric acid. etc. there is acid which functions as a constructive substance that is protein.Acids are easily found in everyday life. in grapes. there is citric acid. In food there is vinegar or acetate acid. In citrus fruits. etc . In human body. there is lactic acid.
You have washed clothes using soap. haven·t you? When we wash clothes or dishes using soap. our brushing the clothes or dishes which have been smeared with soap will produce foam? .
1. then when a base is dissolved in water.Base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water. hydroxide ions (OH-) and positive ions are formed according to the following reaction. Potassium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 Na+ + OHNH4+ + OHCa2+ + 2(OH)- . Ammonium hydroxide = NH4OH 3. Sodium hydroxide = NaOH 2. Based on the base definition above.
Any example of bases NAME Magnesium hydroxide Zinc hydroxide Iron (II) hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Mg (OH)2 Zn (OH)2 Fe (OH)2 Fe (OH)3 Al (OH)3 NAME Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Ba (OH)2 Ca (OH)2 NH4OH KOH NaOH .
meaning they can damage our skin or other materials. bases also come in solids. but some others are harmful and poisonous. essence of red cabbage. They feel smooth on our hand. They can change the color of other substance. Some bases are also used by humans. the change in color produced by the base is different from that produced by acid. However. such as litmus paper. bases or substance containing base have characteristics as follows : They are caustic. Generally. we had better learn the characteristics of bases. . liquids and gases. etc. essence of hibiscus.Similar to acid. They have bitter taste. It is because they can react with fat on our skin and form a soap layer. Hence.
Bases are easily found in everyday life. it is : In limestone. In agriculture for the feedstock in fertilizer manufacturing containing calcium hydroxide. in medicines for heartburn. etc . there is aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. etc. there is ammonium hydroxide. there is calcium hydroxide. In cleaning liquids.
In a chemical laboratory. . The following are explanations about those indicators.We have know that both acid and base are able to change the color of other substances. acid-base indicators which are usually used are artificial indicators and natural indicators. The substances the color of which can change when they interact or react with acid or base are called acid-base indicators.
methyl red and bromothymol blue. The change of color produced by the litmus paper can be seen clearly. litmus has some advantages among other. The litmus paper is a kind of substance prepared from a kind of lichen (Roccella tinctoria). Litmus becomes red in acid solution and it be comes blue in base solution. while in base solution it become red. Besides litmus. are phenolphthalein. Methyl red in acid solution has red color. As an acid-base indicator. Litmus paper which is commonly used in chemical laboratories now is prepared in the form of paper. so it is durable. Phenolphthalein in acid solution does not change in color. among others. so it used in the form of litmus paper (to make the substance easily permeates). are as follows : The color of litmus can change quickly when it react with both acid and base.The scientist made litmus paper. . there are also many other artificial acid-base indicators in a chemical laboratory. Litmus is difficult to react with oxygen in the air. Litmus is absorbable by paper. while in base solution it becomes yellow.
ACID-BASE INDICATOR INDICATOR Litmus Methyl Red Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue IN BASE Blue Yellow Red Blue IN ACID Red Red Uncolored Yellow .
Besides the artificial indicators. and some other kinds of plants. such as litmus. turmeric. such as hibiscus. phenolphthalein. . bromothymol blue. methyl red. red cabbage. we can also identify acid or base by using natural indicator.
and a s stance is asic if the s stance s l ti n has lar er than 7.Neutral 0 7 14 he value of pH Acid Base . the s ller the er f i .i The er f the ter c e se t eter i e the ci it f s st ce. . st dy the f ll ing figure. the re sic s st ce is.i i . . the ci it f s st ce is l e resse i . the r . The re ci ic s st ce is. the l r er the er f -i the ter. s st ce is ci ic if the s st ce s l ti has less than 7. e er.i s i the er f ter is e resse si I this c se. f r f rther clarificati n. s st ce i its s l ti is e tr l if the is e l t 7. the l r er the er f . the c tr r . the s ller the er f i the ter.
To determine the value of pH of a substance. and other indicators as we have discussed in the previous subchapter. phenolphthalein. so we can determine the value pH based on the color in the map. we cannot use a litmus paper. we also can use an instrument of pH directly by a digital screen on the instrument. . methyl red. The value of pH can be determined using a universal indicator indicating various colors for each value of pH. Besides we use the universal indicator. The universal indicator is equipped with a color map. to determine the value of pH of a substance.
Simply. The reaction between acid and base is called the neutralization reaction. then this reaction also know by the term of salting reaction.ion can be written as follows. that is a substance which is not acidic nor basic. Because the neutralization reaction can produce salt. the neutralization reaction or salting reaction can be written as follows. the H+ ion (from acid) will react with the OH.ion (from base) to form water. The reaction between H+ ion and the OH. The neutral substance meant is salt.If an acid solution and base solution are mixed in a vessel. It is because besides water. . the product of reaction between acid and base is a neutral substance.
zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). magnesium fluoride (MgF2). sodium sulfide (Na2s). then of course the table salt is not the only the example of salt. barium sulfate (BaSO4). This means. Among others are calcium chloride (CaCl2).A simple example of the salting reaction is reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which forms sodium chloride (table salt) and water. Because in this nature there are many acids and also bases. and calcium sulfide (CaS). potassium chloride (KCl). in this nature there are many kinds salt. .
salt is also produced from other reactions. Acid oxide + base oxide salt 4. or gas always consists of positive and negative ions. Metal + acid salt + hydrogen gas (H2) . salt in the form of solid (powder). The followings are reactions which can produce salt. Besides being produced from the reaction between acid and base. Base + acid oxide salt + water 2. liquid (solution).Unlike acid and base. 1. Acid + base oxide salt + water 3.
Soil which is too acidic and not good for any plant. . there are more other salting reactions which are useful for us. Moreover. The excessive production of stomach acid causing heartburn can be neutralized using bases of Mg (OH)2 or Al (OH)3. the salting (neutralization) reaction is very useful for human life. that substance which can damage our teeth and cause a bad smell. can be neutralized using the base.Basically.