Example : HCl = Hydrochloric Acid NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide CaS = Calcium Sulfide

base. And to use a simple tool to determine the acidity of a certain substance.The aim this subject. base. To distinguish acid. and salt by using an appropriate indicator. you can : To classify substance having acid. and salt characteristic. .

it is because this fruit has sour taste which stronger than other citruses or other fruits. One example of the fruits having unique sour taste in calamondin. that is meant by acid? Is there any relation between acid and the sour taste of the fruits? . Well.We have know that some kinds of fruits in this nature have sour taste.

chloride ion (Cl-). The examples of ions among others. . Based on the definition of acid according to Arrhenius.According to Arrhenius. The element atoms which are electrically charged (positively of negatively) are called ions. sodium ion (Na+). then when an acid compound is dissolved in water the hydrogen ions (H+) and negative ion will be formed according to the following reaction. etc. Acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water. are hydrogen ion (H+). The element atom releasing electrons will be positively charged negatively. As a result. the definition of acid according to Arrhenius is as follows. an element atom interacting with other element atoms can release or gain a number of electrons.

Phosphoric acid = HCl = H2SO4 = H3PO4 H+ + Cl2H+ + SO423H+ + PO43- Any example of acid NAME Hydrofluoric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Chromic acid Phosphoric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA HF H2SO4 HCl HNO3 H2CrO4 H3PO4 NAME Phosphorous acid Acetic acid Carbonic acid Oxalic acid Nitrous acid Chloric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA H3PO3 CH3COOH H2CO3 H2C2O4 HNO2 HClO3 .1. Hydrochloric acid 2. Sulfuric acid 3.

such as litmus paper. They have sour taste. essence of red cabbage. They can react with metals and they produce hydrogen gas (H2). meaning they can destroy other materials. . etc. acids or substance containing acid have the characteristics as follows : They are corrosive. essence of hibiscus. including metals and marble.Generally. They can change the color of other substances.

In human body. there is lactic acid.Acids are easily found in everyday life. In food there is vinegar or acetate acid. etc. In citrus fruits. protein is an acid formed from amino acid. there is acid which functions as a constructive substance that is protein. there is citric acid. it is : In milk. etc . there is tartaric acid. in grapes.

our brushing the clothes or dishes which have been smeared with soap will produce foam? .You have washed clothes using soap. haven·t you? When we wash clothes or dishes using soap.

1.Base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water. Potassium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 Na+ + OHNH4+ + OHCa2+ + 2(OH)- . hydroxide ions (OH-) and positive ions are formed according to the following reaction. Ammonium hydroxide = NH4OH 3. Sodium hydroxide = NaOH 2. then when a base is dissolved in water. Based on the base definition above.

Any example of bases NAME Magnesium hydroxide Zinc hydroxide Iron (II) hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Mg (OH)2 Zn (OH)2 Fe (OH)2 Fe (OH)3 Al (OH)3 NAME Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Ba (OH)2 Ca (OH)2 NH4OH KOH NaOH .

but some others are harmful and poisonous. . It is because they can react with fat on our skin and form a soap layer. essence of red cabbage. Generally. bases or substance containing base have characteristics as follows : They are caustic. They feel smooth on our hand. the change in color produced by the base is different from that produced by acid. They have bitter taste.Similar to acid. They can change the color of other substance. we had better learn the characteristics of bases. such as litmus paper. liquids and gases. bases also come in solids. However. etc. Some bases are also used by humans. meaning they can damage our skin or other materials. essence of hibiscus. Hence.

etc . it is : In limestone. In cleaning liquids. In agriculture for the feedstock in fertilizer manufacturing containing calcium hydroxide. etc.Bases are easily found in everyday life. there is ammonium hydroxide. there is aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. there is calcium hydroxide. in medicines for heartburn.

The substances the color of which can change when they interact or react with acid or base are called acid-base indicators. In a chemical laboratory.We have know that both acid and base are able to change the color of other substances. acid-base indicators which are usually used are artificial indicators and natural indicators. The following are explanations about those indicators. .

litmus has some advantages among other. methyl red and bromothymol blue. Litmus is absorbable by paper. The litmus paper is a kind of substance prepared from a kind of lichen (Roccella tinctoria). are as follows : The color of litmus can change quickly when it react with both acid and base. so it used in the form of litmus paper (to make the substance easily permeates). Litmus becomes red in acid solution and it be comes blue in base solution. Methyl red in acid solution has red color. Litmus is difficult to react with oxygen in the air. are phenolphthalein. there are also many other artificial acid-base indicators in a chemical laboratory.The scientist made litmus paper. Phenolphthalein in acid solution does not change in color. The change of color produced by the litmus paper can be seen clearly. while in base solution it become red. Besides litmus. so it is durable. among others. while in base solution it becomes yellow. As an acid-base indicator. Litmus paper which is commonly used in chemical laboratories now is prepared in the form of paper. .

ACID-BASE INDICATOR INDICATOR Litmus Methyl Red Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue IN BASE Blue Yellow Red Blue IN ACID Red Red Uncolored Yellow .

methyl red. we can also identify acid or base by using natural indicator. phenolphthalein. such as litmus. such as hibiscus. and some other kinds of plants. red cabbage. bromothymol blue. .Besides the artificial indicators. turmeric.

      . f r f rther clarificati n. e er.i i . the ci it f s st ce is l e resse i .i The er f the ter c e se t eter i e the ci it f s st ce. s st ce is ci ic if the s st ce s l ti has less than 7.i s i the er f ter is e resse si I this c se. The re ci ic s st ce is. the s ller the er f i the ter. s st ce i its s l ti is e tr l if the is e l t 7. the r . the re sic s st ce is. the s ller the er f i .Neutral 0 7 14 he value of pH Acid Base   . the l r er the er f -i the ter. the l r er the er f . and a s stance is asic if the s stance s l ti n has lar er than 7. . the c tr r . st dy the f ll ing figure.

and other indicators as we have discussed in the previous subchapter. phenolphthalein. The universal indicator is equipped with a color map. The value of pH can be determined using a universal indicator indicating various colors for each value of pH. methyl red.To determine the value of pH of a substance. to determine the value of pH of a substance. we cannot use a litmus paper. Besides we use the universal indicator. we also can use an instrument of pH directly by a digital screen on the instrument. . so we can determine the value pH based on the color in the map.

The neutral substance meant is salt.ion can be written as follows. It is because besides water. The reaction between acid and base is called the neutralization reaction.If an acid solution and base solution are mixed in a vessel. then this reaction also know by the term of salting reaction. the neutralization reaction or salting reaction can be written as follows. the product of reaction between acid and base is a neutral substance.ion (from base) to form water. Simply. the H+ ion (from acid) will react with the OH. . Because the neutralization reaction can produce salt. The reaction between H+ ion and the OH. that is a substance which is not acidic nor basic.

potassium chloride (KCl). in this nature there are many kinds salt. magnesium fluoride (MgF2). and calcium sulfide (CaS). then of course the table salt is not the only the example of salt.A simple example of the salting reaction is reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which forms sodium chloride (table salt) and water. . Among others are calcium chloride (CaCl2). This means. barium sulfate (BaSO4). zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). sodium sulfide (Na2s). Because in this nature there are many acids and also bases.

Acid + base oxide salt + water 3. Base + acid oxide salt + water 2. Besides being produced from the reaction between acid and base. salt is also produced from other reactions.Unlike acid and base. The followings are reactions which can produce salt. liquid (solution). salt in the form of solid (powder). Acid oxide + base oxide salt 4. or gas always consists of positive and negative ions. 1. Metal + acid salt + hydrogen gas (H2) .

can be neutralized using the base. . The excessive production of stomach acid causing heartburn can be neutralized using bases of Mg (OH)2 or Al (OH)3.Basically. that substance which can damage our teeth and cause a bad smell. Soil which is too acidic and not good for any plant. there are more other salting reactions which are useful for us. the salting (neutralization) reaction is very useful for human life. Moreover.

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