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Example : HCl = Hydrochloric Acid NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide CaS = Calcium Sulfide
base. To distinguish acid. . base.The aim this subject. you can : To classify substance having acid. and salt characteristic. and salt by using an appropriate indicator. And to use a simple tool to determine the acidity of a certain substance.
it is because this fruit has sour taste which stronger than other citruses or other fruits.We have know that some kinds of fruits in this nature have sour taste. Well. that is meant by acid? Is there any relation between acid and the sour taste of the fruits? . One example of the fruits having unique sour taste in calamondin.
The examples of ions among others.According to Arrhenius. an element atom interacting with other element atoms can release or gain a number of electrons. Based on the definition of acid according to Arrhenius. the definition of acid according to Arrhenius is as follows. chloride ion (Cl-). are hydrogen ion (H+). then when an acid compound is dissolved in water the hydrogen ions (H+) and negative ion will be formed according to the following reaction. The element atom releasing electrons will be positively charged negatively. . etc. The element atoms which are electrically charged (positively of negatively) are called ions. As a result. sodium ion (Na+). Acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water.
Phosphoric acid = HCl = H2SO4 = H3PO4 H+ + Cl2H+ + SO423H+ + PO43- Any example of acid NAME Hydrofluoric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Chromic acid Phosphoric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA HF H2SO4 HCl HNO3 H2CrO4 H3PO4 NAME Phosphorous acid Acetic acid Carbonic acid Oxalic acid Nitrous acid Chloric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA H3PO3 CH3COOH H2CO3 H2C2O4 HNO2 HClO3 .1. Hydrochloric acid 2. Sulfuric acid 3.
acids or substance containing acid have the characteristics as follows : They are corrosive. meaning they can destroy other materials. essence of red cabbage. . They can react with metals and they produce hydrogen gas (H2). such as litmus paper. They can change the color of other substances.Generally. including metals and marble. They have sour taste. etc. essence of hibiscus.
In food there is vinegar or acetate acid. etc . there is tartaric acid. there is citric acid. it is : In milk. there is acid which functions as a constructive substance that is protein. In human body.Acids are easily found in everyday life. protein is an acid formed from amino acid. etc. In citrus fruits. there is lactic acid. in grapes.
haven·t you? When we wash clothes or dishes using soap. our brushing the clothes or dishes which have been smeared with soap will produce foam? .You have washed clothes using soap.
1. hydroxide ions (OH-) and positive ions are formed according to the following reaction. Based on the base definition above. Potassium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 Na+ + OHNH4+ + OHCa2+ + 2(OH)- . Ammonium hydroxide = NH4OH 3. then when a base is dissolved in water. Sodium hydroxide = NaOH 2.Base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water.
Any example of bases NAME Magnesium hydroxide Zinc hydroxide Iron (II) hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Mg (OH)2 Zn (OH)2 Fe (OH)2 Fe (OH)3 Al (OH)3 NAME Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Ba (OH)2 Ca (OH)2 NH4OH KOH NaOH .
bases also come in solids. we had better learn the characteristics of bases. bases or substance containing base have characteristics as follows : They are caustic. essence of hibiscus. It is because they can react with fat on our skin and form a soap layer. the change in color produced by the base is different from that produced by acid. They feel smooth on our hand. etc. liquids and gases. Hence. such as litmus paper. but some others are harmful and poisonous. Some bases are also used by humans. Generally. They have bitter taste. . essence of red cabbage.Similar to acid. However. meaning they can damage our skin or other materials. They can change the color of other substance.
in medicines for heartburn. it is : In limestone. etc. In cleaning liquids.Bases are easily found in everyday life. there is calcium hydroxide. there is ammonium hydroxide. etc . there is aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. In agriculture for the feedstock in fertilizer manufacturing containing calcium hydroxide.
. acid-base indicators which are usually used are artificial indicators and natural indicators. The following are explanations about those indicators. The substances the color of which can change when they interact or react with acid or base are called acid-base indicators. In a chemical laboratory.We have know that both acid and base are able to change the color of other substances.
among others. while in base solution it become red. The change of color produced by the litmus paper can be seen clearly. while in base solution it becomes yellow.The scientist made litmus paper. are as follows : The color of litmus can change quickly when it react with both acid and base. Litmus becomes red in acid solution and it be comes blue in base solution. litmus has some advantages among other. methyl red and bromothymol blue. there are also many other artificial acid-base indicators in a chemical laboratory. Litmus paper which is commonly used in chemical laboratories now is prepared in the form of paper. The litmus paper is a kind of substance prepared from a kind of lichen (Roccella tinctoria). so it is durable. Besides litmus. Litmus is difficult to react with oxygen in the air. Phenolphthalein in acid solution does not change in color. Methyl red in acid solution has red color. so it used in the form of litmus paper (to make the substance easily permeates). As an acid-base indicator. Litmus is absorbable by paper. . are phenolphthalein.
ACID-BASE INDICATOR INDICATOR Litmus Methyl Red Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue IN BASE Blue Yellow Red Blue IN ACID Red Red Uncolored Yellow .
bromothymol blue. such as litmus. and some other kinds of plants. . such as hibiscus. we can also identify acid or base by using natural indicator. methyl red. phenolphthalein. red cabbage. turmeric.Besides the artificial indicators.
f r f rther clarificati n. the l r er the er f . the l r er the er f -i the ter. the re sic s st ce is.i s i the er f ter is e resse si I this c se. The re ci ic s st ce is.Neutral 0 7 14 he value of pH Acid Base . .i i . s st ce i its s l ti is e tr l if the is e l t 7. . the c tr r . the ci it f s st ce is l e resse i . the s ller the er f i the ter. e er. st dy the f ll ing figure. s st ce is ci ic if the s st ce s l ti has less than 7. and a s stance is asic if the s stance s l ti n has lar er than 7. the r .i The er f the ter c e se t eter i e the ci it f s st ce. the s ller the er f i .
to determine the value of pH of a substance. methyl red. phenolphthalein.To determine the value of pH of a substance. The universal indicator is equipped with a color map. we also can use an instrument of pH directly by a digital screen on the instrument. Besides we use the universal indicator. and other indicators as we have discussed in the previous subchapter. so we can determine the value pH based on the color in the map. we cannot use a litmus paper. . The value of pH can be determined using a universal indicator indicating various colors for each value of pH.
If an acid solution and base solution are mixed in a vessel. The neutral substance meant is salt.ion can be written as follows. The reaction between H+ ion and the OH. The reaction between acid and base is called the neutralization reaction. It is because besides water. . the H+ ion (from acid) will react with the OH. the product of reaction between acid and base is a neutral substance.ion (from base) to form water. Simply. that is a substance which is not acidic nor basic. then this reaction also know by the term of salting reaction. Because the neutralization reaction can produce salt. the neutralization reaction or salting reaction can be written as follows.
magnesium fluoride (MgF2). barium sulfate (BaSO4). then of course the table salt is not the only the example of salt.A simple example of the salting reaction is reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which forms sodium chloride (table salt) and water. sodium sulfide (Na2s). in this nature there are many kinds salt. . zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). potassium chloride (KCl). Among others are calcium chloride (CaCl2). and calcium sulfide (CaS). Because in this nature there are many acids and also bases. This means.
Acid + base oxide salt + water 3. Acid oxide + base oxide salt 4. 1. Metal + acid salt + hydrogen gas (H2) . salt is also produced from other reactions. The followings are reactions which can produce salt. or gas always consists of positive and negative ions.Unlike acid and base. Besides being produced from the reaction between acid and base. salt in the form of solid (powder). Base + acid oxide salt + water 2. liquid (solution).
The excessive production of stomach acid causing heartburn can be neutralized using bases of Mg (OH)2 or Al (OH)3. the salting (neutralization) reaction is very useful for human life. . Soil which is too acidic and not good for any plant. can be neutralized using the base. that substance which can damage our teeth and cause a bad smell. there are more other salting reactions which are useful for us.Basically. Moreover.
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