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BY :

Nelson: 1981
A person's behavior can be said to be distorted or
impaired if: Notwithstanding the behavior by
adults is considered normal according to age and
gender. Irregularities occurred with high
frequency and intensity. Irregularities took place
in a relatively long time.
According Kartono in Dervish suggests that there are two kinds of human
behavior, the behavior of normal and abnormal behavior. Normal behavior
is a behavior that can be accepted by society at large, whereas abnormal
behavior is behavior that is unacceptable to the community at large, and
not in accordance with social norms that exist. This abnormal behavior is
also commonly called deviant behavior or problem behavior.

According to Kartini Kartono (2000: 25),


abnormal psychology is one branch of
psychology that investigates any form of
mental disorder and mental abnormality.
Personal normal criteria according W.F. Maramis.
According Maramis (1980: 97), there are six groups of properties
can be used to determine abnormalities. Sixth nature intended
are as follows.
a) Attitude towards oneself: to accept himself, self-sufficient identity,
as well as a realistic assessment of his ability.
b) perception (perception) of reality: to have a realistic view of
themselves and their environment.
c) Integration: the unity of personality, free from personal conflicts that
cripple and has good resistance to stress.
d) Ability: have basic skills physically, intellectually, emotionally and
socially so as to cope with various problems.
e) autonomy: have confidence in themselves sufficient, responsible,
able to direct itself to the goal of life.
f) The development and manifestation of himself: a tendency on the
maturity of the highest order.
Statistically a symptom expressed as abnormal when it
conception deviates from the majority. Thus the genius at the same
Statistics abnormalnya with an idiot, an honest person become
abnormal among the community of people who are not
honest.

Based on this conception of individual behavior otherwise not


normal if there is a symptom-specific clinical symptoms, such
Pathological illusions, hallucinations, obsessions, phobias,ETC. Instead of
conceptions individuals whose behavior did not show any symptoms-such
symptoms are normal individuals.

According to this conception a person is declared good adjustment if the person


concerned is able to handle any problems that it faces with successfully. And it
conception shows that he has a normal life. But if in the face of an issue with her show of
adjustment anxiety, sadness, fear, and so on. that in the end the problem is not solved, it is
Personal said that the personal adjustments are not good, so declared his soul is not
normal.

According to the conception of personal maturity,


otherwise normal person his soul when he has
Personal maturity demonstrated his personal maturity, that is, if he is able
to behave in accordance with the level of development.

Each community certainly has a set of norms that function as a regulator of


behavior of its members. Individuals as members of society are required to
Socio-cultural
conform to social norms and moral where he is. When individual behavior
conception deviates from these norms, then declared himself as an individual that is
not normal.
Neurosis is sometimes Singgih Dirgagunarsa W.F. Maramis (2005: 180),
called psikoneurosis. Dali (1998: 145) states that states that psychosis is a
Gulo (1982: 179) argues the psychopath is a mental disorder with loss of
that neurosis is a mental psychological barrier that sense of reality (sense of
disorder, only to give effect causes patients have reality). This disorder can be
to the Part of the difficulty in adjusting to known by distractions on
personality, lighter than social norms that exist in the feelings, thoughts,
psychosis, and is often the environment. wishes, motor, etc. So
characterized by: a state of Psychopathic patients serious that the patient's
anxiety that is chronic, showed great egocentric behavior no longer
disturbances in sensory and attitude, as if the correspond to reality.
motor, remove the emotion, benchmark for all the Psychotic behavior can not
less environmental actions of himself only. be understood by normal
concerns, and lack of people, so that laymen refer
physical energy, etc to patients as a madman.
That the name or designation of neurosis is given based on the symptoms of the
most menjonjol or most powerful. On the basis of these criteria the experts put
forward the kinds of neurosis as follows (W.F. Maramis, 1980: 257-258).

1. Anxiety neurosis (anxiety neurosis or anxiety state)

2. No specific stimuli that cause anxiety, but it is floating freely, what


can cause these symptoms. When kecamasan experienced very
severe then all hell broke loose. The symptoms of anxiety neurosis
are:
3. Somatic Symptoms may include shortness of breath, chest distress,
such as a floating head light, quickly tired, sweat dingan, and so on.
4. Psychological symptoms such as anxiety, tension, panic,
depression, feelings of inadequacy, and so on.

Cause:
* According Maramis (1980: 261), can trigger an anxiety neurosis
Often Obviously And Operated Associated WITH psychodynamic
factors such as chronic buried anger....
2. Hysteria

Hysteria is a neurosis characterized by emotional reactions that are not


controlled as a way to defend themselves from their susceptibility to emotional
stimuli. In this type of neurosis mental and physical function can be lost without
desired by the patient. Frequently arise and disappear suddenly, iron and when
people face situations that cause intense emotional reactions.

Minor hysteria or conversion reactions Major Hysteria or dissociation reactions


In the minor hysteria anxiety altered or Hysteria of this type can occur when the natural
converted (so-called conversion anxiety sufferers so formidable, so as to
separate the functions of personality to each
reactions) into functional disorders other so that the separate parts that function
somatomotorik or somatosensory autonomously, causing the symptoms:
nervous system, with symptoms: amnesia, sleepwalking, fugue, and multiple
paralysis, convulsive seizures, death personalities.
touch, blind, deaf, and so on.

Cause:
According to Sigmund Freud, hysteria occurs due to traumatic experiences (painful experience) who
later repressed or suppressed into the unconscious. The intention is to forget or eliminate the
experience. But the traumatic experience can not be eliminated just like that, but there is in the
unconscious (uncociousness) and to one day emerge into conscious but in the form Gannguan soul.
3. Neurosis phobic

Phobic neurosis is gangguang soul with its main symptoms of phobias, that the
great fear is irrational, of an object or situation. Phobias can cause a feeling
faint, fatigue, nausea, panic, sweating, and so on. There are various phobias
which they call by name or factors that lead to such fear, for example:
Hematophobia : fear the sight of blood
Hydrophobia : fear of water
Pyrophibia : afraid of fire
Acrophobia : fear of being in high places

Cause:
Phobic neurosis occurs because patients have experienced great fear and
shock with respect to certain situations or objects, which is accompanied by
feelings of shame and guilt. Traumastis experience is then repressed (pressed
into non sadarannya). But the experience can not be lost and will appear when
there is a similar stimulus.
4, Obsessive-compulsive neurosis

The term refers to an obsession with the idea of urgency into the mind or
controlling consciousness and compulsions term refers to urge or impulse that
can not be detained for not done, despite the fact that such actions are not
necessary.

Examples of obsessive-compulsive disorder, among others:


Kleptomania: a strong desire to steal even though he did not requires the
items he stole.
Pyromania: a desire that can not be pressed to burn something.
Wanderlust : a desire that can not be arrested for traveling.
Mania hand washing: the desire to wash their hands constantly.

Cause:
Neurosis of this type may occur due to the following factors (Yulia D., 2000:
116-117).
Conflicts between desires repressed or diverted.
Emotional mental trauma, ie repression of past experience (childhood).
5. Neurosis Depresif

Depressive neurosis is a neurosis with a major disruption in the feeling with


these characteristics: less or not excited, a sense of low self-esteem, and tend
to blame themselves. The main symptoms of mental disorders are :
physical symptoms: always tired.
psychological symptoms: sadness, despair, forgetfulness, insomnia, anorexia,
want end his life, and so on.

Cause:
According to the most recent research as performed by David D. Burns (1988:
6), that depression is not based on an accurate perception of reality, but is a
product of "keterpelesetan" mental, that depression is not an emotional
disorder at all, but rather a result of their cognitive distortions or the negative
thoughts, which then creates the atmosphere of the soul, especially negative
feelings anyway. Burns argues that the individual's perception of reality is not
always objective. Individuals understand reality is not how the actual reality, but
rather how reality is interpreted. And this interpretation may be wrong even
conflict with actual reality.
6. Neurasthenia

Neurasthenia also called lousy disease. The main symptom of this disorder is
not excited, tired though only a little exertion, emotional lability, and thinking
ability decline. In addition to the main symptoms are also contained additional
symptoms, ie insomnia, headache, often feel plagued with various diseases, and
so on.

Penyebab :
Neurasthenia dapat terjadi karena beberapa faktor (Zakiah Daradjat,
1983 : 34), yaitu sebagai berikut :
Too long suppression of feelings, inner conflict, anxiety.
Hindered desires.
Often fail in the face of rivalries
1. Organic Psychosis
Organic psychosis is a mental illness caused by physical factors or organic,
which is on the function of the brain tissue, so patients experiencing a
socially incompetent, unable to be responsible, and fail to adjust to reality.
Organic psychosis divided into several types with the title or the name refers
to the occurrence penyabab factor. Type psychosis belonging organic
psychosis is as follows.
a) Alcoholic psychosis, occurs because brain tissue function is disturbed or
damaged by too much drinking.
b) Drug psychose or psychosis as a result of illegal drugs (marijuana, LSD,
cocaine, crystal meth, and so on.
c) Traumatic psychosis, ie psychoses that occur as a result of injury or trauma
to the head due to getting hit, hit, accident, etc.
d) Dementia paralytica, namely psychosis caused by syphilis infection which
then causes damage to brain cells.
2. Functional Psychosis
Functional Psychosis is a mental illness that is functionally non-organic,
which is marked by the disintegration of personality and inability to adapt
socially. Psychosis is divided into several types, namely: schizophrenia,
psychosis maniadepresif, and paranoid psychosis (Kartini Kartono, 1993:
106).
a) Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a real sense of personality
split (split of personality). This title is given by
The most prominent symptoms of the disease, namely the existence of the
soul
fragmented. Between thoughts, feelings, and actions
disharmony.
The symptoms schizophrenia (Singgih Dirgagunarsa, 1998 : 141-
142)

1) Contact with reality does not exist anymore, more people live in
their own fantasy world, and speak and behave according to his
imagination, so it does not correspond to reality.
2) Because there is no contact with reality, the logic does not work so
the contents talks patients with difficult to follow because
bounding (incoherent) and often appear strange words that can
only be understood by patients themselves.Pikiran, ucapan, dan
perbuatannya
3) not in line, a third psychological aspects of this in patients with
schizophrenia can walk alone, so he can tell the sad event while
laughing.
4) In connection with the mind that it is oriented on its own
delusions, delusions or delusions arise in people with
schizophrenia (delusions can chase and greatness).
5) Hallucinations are often also experienced by people with
schizophrenia.
The causes of schizophrenia

Opinions of experts about factors that cause schizophrenia is


diverse. Some claimed that the disease is hereditary. There is also
stating that schizophrenia occurs endocrine and metabolic
disorders. While today's growing opinion is that mental illness is
caused by several factors, such as heredity, wrong upbringing,
Maladaptation, mental stress, and other diseases of unknown (W.F.
Maramis, 2005: 216-217).
Mania-depressive psychosis
Mania-depressive psychosis is a severe mental disorder, in the form of
extreme emotional disturbance, ie change-unlike the excessive
excitement (mania) to deep sadness (depression) and vice versa, and so
on.
The symptoms of mania-depressive psychosis:
Symptoms of mania include:
euphoria (excessive excitement)
delusions of greatness;
hiperactivity;
the mind wanders.
The depressive symptoms include:
worry;
excuse me;
hipoaktivitas;
insomnia;
anorexia.

Factors causing mania-depressive psychosis


Mania-depressive psychosis caused by factors related to the two main symptoms of
this disease, the mania and depression. Aspects of mania occur due to an attempt
to forget the sadness and disappointment of life in the form of activities that are
highly exaggerated. While aspects of depression occur because of excessive
remorse.
c. paranoid psychosis
Paranoid psychosis is a serious mental illness characterized by many who
systematized delusions or delusions and false ideas that are settled. The
term was first used by the paranoid Kahlbaum in 1863, to indicate an
excessive suspicion and greatness (W, F, Maramis, 2005: 241).
1) The symptoms of paranoid psychosis
Delusional system is rigid, strong and systematic, especially delusions
and the pursuit of greatness either alone or mingle
a) His mind is controlled by ole hide-a wrong idea, rigid, and coercion.
b) Easy to arise suspicion.

2) Factors that cause paranoid psychosis


Factors yangdapat cause paranoid psychosis (Kartini Kartono, 1999:
176), among others:
The habit of thinking is wrong;
1) Too sensitive and often feel a sense of suspicion;
2) The presence of excessive self-confidence (over confidence);
3) The compensation for the failure and inferiority complexes.
SYMPTOMS PSYCHOPATH

1) Behavioral and social realasi penederita always asocial, eccentric


and chronic pathological, have no social awareness and social
intelligence.
2) The attitude of a psychopath is always unpleasant to others.
3) Psychopathic patients tend to be strange, often rude even
vicious act against anyone.
4) Psychopathic patients had unstable personality and emotions
are not mature.
Cause Symptom Psychopath:
A person may suffer a psychopath from lack or absence of affection
received from the environment, especially the family. During the first
five years of his life he had never felt kelebutan, intimacy and
affection, so that the individual in question fail to develop the
capability to receive and give attention and affection on others (Kartini
Kartono, 1990: 75).
That the psychopath can not be separated even prescribed by the
family environment can not be denied. In This Elizabeth Hurlock
(1997: 257) quotes the opinion of the author who was not named,
among others
as follows.
If a child lives with criticism, he learns condemned.
When he lived in hostility, he learns to fight.
When he lived in tolerance, he learns to be patient.
When he lived in wisdom, he learned apprec justice.
If he lives to be a safe atmosphere, he learned to trust herself and
others.