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CHAPTER ONE

PROFESSIONALISM

Cookery is become an art, a noble science; cooks are gentleman.


Robert Burton, British Author (1577-1640)

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
After studying this unit 2

PROFESSIONALISM
You will be able to:
Discuss the development of the modern food
service industry
Name the key historical figures responsible for
developing food service professionalism
Explain the organization of the classic and
modern kitchen brigades
Appreciate the role of the professional chef in
modern food service operations
Understand the attributes a student chef needs
to become a professional

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Culinary Timeline
Past to the Present 3

PROFESSIONALISM
In the 1500s, culinary guilds were developed to
dictate and monopolize the preparation of certain
food items.

Each guild governed the production of a set of


specific types of food.

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Culinary Guilds 4

PROFESSIONALISM
The Guild The Product
Rtisseurs Main cuts of meat
Ptissiers Poultry, pies, tarts
Tamisiers Breads
Vinaigriers Sauces and stews
Traiteurs Ragouts
Porte-chapes Caterers

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
The First Restaurant - 1765 5

PROFESSIONALISM
Monsieur Boulanger opened the first free-standing
restaurant in Paris.

Boulangers contribution to the food service


industry was to serve a variety of foods prepared
on premises to customers whose primary interest
was dining.

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
The French Revolution
1789-1799 6

PROFESSIONALISM
The social structure in France changed.

The aristocracy, guilds and their monopolies


were abolished.

A nascent restaurant industry emerged.

Chefs could cater to the growing middle class.

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Haute Cuisine
Early 19th Century 7

PROFESSIONALISM
Antonin Carme (1783-1833)
The Cook of Kings and the King of Cooks

His stated goal - to achieve lightness, grace, order and


perspicuity in the preparation and presentation of food.
As a saucier he standardized the use of roux and
devised a system to classify sauces
As a garde-manger he popularized cold cuisine
As a culinary professional he designed kitchen tools,
equipment and uniforms
As an author he wrote and illustrated important texts on
culinary arts

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Marie-Antonin Carme 8

PROFESSIONALISM
Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Cuisine Classique
Late 19th Century 9

PROFESSIONALISM
Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
Emperor of the Worlds Kitchens
Defined French cuisine and dining during La Belle poque
Simplified food preparation and dining
Classified the five families of sauces

He wrote:
Le Livre des menus a guide to planning meals
Ma cuisine a survey of cuisine bourgeoisie (middle
class cuisine)
Le Guide Culinaire still in use today, a collection of
classic cuisine recipes and garnishes

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) 10

PROFESSIONALISM
Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899) 11

PROFESSIONALISM
The first internationally renowned chef of an
American restaurant, Delmonicos in New York
City
Published: The Epicurean, which contains 3500
recipes

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
20th Century Lighter Foods,
Simplification of Techniques 12

PROFESSIONALISM
Fernand Point (1897-1955)
Refined and modernized classic cuisine and laid the
groundwork for nouvelle cuisine
Inspired and trained influential chefs: Paul Bocuse, Jean
and Pierre Troisgros and Alain Chapel, among others

Gaston Lentre (1920-)


Father of modern French pastry
Began a culinary school, Lcole Lentre
Developed innovations in Bavarians, charlottes and
mousses
Mastered techniques of freezing baked products

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
American Culinary Revolution
1960s - present 13

PROFESSIONALISM
Broad changes are influencing cuisine today.

Consumers and chefs seek authentic ethnic


cuisines inspired by the arrival of diverse
immigrant groups, particularly those from Asian
and Latin American countries

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Alice Waters (1944 - 14

PROFESSIONALISM
Launched New American cuisine
Opened Chez Panisse in Berkeley, California in
1971.
Her goal is to serve fresh, seasonal and locally
grown produce in simple preparations that preserved
and emphasized the foods natural flavors.

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Fusion Cuisine 15

PROFESSIONALISM
American cuisine has always been
influenced by cuisines from other countries.
This is most evident in fusion cuisine,
which began in the mid-1980s.

In fusion cuisine, ingredients or preparation


methods associated with one ethnic or
regional cuisine are combined with those of
another.

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Farm-To-Table-Movement 16

PROFESSIONALISM
Although chefs look to incorporate global
flavors and ingredients, they also seek
locally-grown foods.
Promotes agriculture
Focus is on foods served in season
Protects heirloom varieties

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Influences on Modern Food Service
Operations 17

PROFESSIONALISM
New technologies
Stoves replace fireplace cooking
Food storage, canning and freezing
Transportation, train then air shipping

The study of chemistry and physics of food


preparation resulted in a contemporary
culinary movement often referred to as
molecular gastronomy.

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Molecular Gastronomy 18

PROFESSIONALISM
Ferran Adra (1962
The Salvador Dali of the kitchen

Spanish chef trained in French nouvelle cuisine


Committed to reinventing cuisine as we know it
Credited with advancing the culinary science
movement
His food engages all senses, using fresh
ingredients
Small tasting plates of as many as 35 courses
Using equipment and ingredients more common in
food manufacturing

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Ferran Adra (1962- 19

PROFESSIONALISM
Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
Influences on Modern Food Service
Operations 20

PROFESSIONALISM
New foods
Hybridization
Genetic engineering
New concerns
Health issues
Public safety
New consumers
The global community

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
The Kitchen Brigade 21

PROFESSIONALISM
Back-of-the-House
A system of staffing a kitchen so that each
worker is assigned a set of specific tasks
Escoffier is credited with developing this
hierarchical system
Modern
Classic

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
The Modern Kitchen Brigade 22

PROFESSIONALISM
Executive chef
Sous-chef
Area chefs
Line cook
Pastry chef
Apprentice
Short-order cook

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
The Classic Kitchen Brigade 23

PROFESSIONALISM
Chef de cuisine
Sous-chef/aboyeur
Chefs de partie
Saucier Poissonier
Grillardin Friturier
Rtisseur Potager
Lgumier Entremetier
Garde-Manger Tournant
Ptissier Commis

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
The Dining Room 24

PROFESSIONALISM
Front-of-the-House

American French
Dining room manager Matre d'htel
Wine steward Sommelier
Headwaiter Chef de salle
Captains Chefs dtage
Front waiters Chefs de rang
Back waiters Commis de rang

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel
The Professional Chef
What does it take? 25

PROFESSIONALISM
Knowledge
Lifelong learning
Skill
Develops with Experience
Taste
Judgment
Dedication
Pride

Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.


On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e
publishing as Pearson [imprint]
Labensky Hause Martel