Inheritance traits of humans

The ABO system

Controlled by multiple allele Allele A Allele B Allele O

Allele A and Allele B are dominant to Allele O

Function: Allele A- produce antigen A Allele B- produce antigen B Allele O- does not produce any antigen

The Rhesus factor

Controlled by pair of alleles Rh allele rh allele

Group of antigens in red blood cells that will cause agglutination when reacts with antibodies.

Rh-positive has the genotype Rh-Rh or Rh-rh Rh negative has the genotype rh-rh

Autosomes and sex chromosomes

22 pairs of chromosomes

Distinguished by size and length


Numbered from 1-22

Sex chromosomes

X & Y chromosomes in male X & X chromosomes in female

Y chromosomes o smaller than X chromosomes oCarries fewer genes than X chromosomes

Different human karyotypes

Down syndrome karyotype

Sex determination in offspring

Somatic cell

44+XY chromosomes

44+XX chromosomes

A males produces 2 types of sperms. -One carries Y chromosomes and the other X chromosomes The female only produce ova with X chromosomes


If sperm carrying a Y chromosomes fuses with ovum carrying an X chromosomes, a male offspring is produced.

If sperm carrying X chromosomes fuses with ovum carrying an X chromosomes, a female offspring is produced.

Genes that are located on the sex chromosomes but not involved in sex determination .

Sex-linked inheritance
Genes that control traits in a male and female are found in the 22 pairs of autosomes.


Condition in which the blood does not clot normally due to lack of a protein needed.

Inability to produce the protein is caused by a recessive allele found on the X chromosomes.

Colour blindness

Inability to differentiate between red and green colours.

Condition in which colour cannot be distinguished.

Caused by a recessive allele carried on the X chromosomes.

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