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Social Studies in Elementary Education

15e
Walter C. Parker & Terence A. Beck

Chapter 5

Powerful Tools: Maps, Globes,


Charts, and Graphs
By: Terence A. Beck, University of Puget Sound

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter Outline

1. Map and Globe Skills Essential to the Social Studies Curriculum

2. Teaching Maps, Mapping, and the Globe

3. Teaching Charts and Graphs

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Key Concepts

Space
Location
Globes
Maps
Symbols
Directions
Scale
Projection
Chart
Graph

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Picture This

Three wall maps were taped side by side to the chalkboard at the front of
the room. One is a Mercator projection, one a Winkel, and one a Peters.
This is the United States, the teacher said, pointing to the United States
on the first map. Right? she asked. Right! the children cheered. And
so is this and this, she said as she pointed to the other maps. Right?
Right! But the shape of the United States is different in each, she
continued. So is Africa. And Greenland. Why is that? Come have a closer
look and tell us what you think. The next morning, she handed a fresh
orange to each student. Peel this orange, like you were peeling the globe,
then try to flatten out the peel on your desk. Tell us what happens.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Issues and Challenges: Capital Punishment

Pro: Con:
States and capitals are easily Memorizing simple facts is tedious
learned and give students a sense and is not what social studies is about.
of accomplishment. Students quickly forget this
Knowing the names and locations information, meaning the class time
of the 50 states is useful for used to learn it is wasted.
understanding everything from Remembering something because you
politics to natural disasters. can sing it (the way most people
remember the names of the states and
Even memorizing capitals gives
capitals) is not very useful knowledge.
students a vocabulary of U.S. cities
they wouldnt otherwise know.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Essential Map and Globe Skills

1. Orient a map and note directions.


2. Use scale and compute distances.
3. Locate places on maps and globes.
4. Express relative locations.
5. Interpret map symbols and visualize what they mean.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Directional Orientation

Relative location - close to, near, over here, over here

Cardinal directions- North, South, East and West

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Using Map Scales

Scaling - process of reducing everything in the same amount


Examples:
graphic scale
inches-to-miles scale
representative fraction1: 250,000

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Expressing Location

Relative location - near the school

Absolute location - using latitude and longitude

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Reading Map Symbols

Symbols can represent real things:


dots represent cities
color represent elevation
stars represent capital cities
line to show boundaries

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Examples of standard symbols used on maps

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Teaching Maps and Mapping and the Globe

Students already have mental maps of places in their daily


lives.
Teacher develop spatial competencies beyond nave
understandings.
Make big maps of small places
Start with models of familiar places

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Reflect and Discuss 5.1

Create a map from your college classroom to the nearest


bathroom.
What do you need to think about when youre drawing the map?

What does this make you think about as you consider asking your
students to engage in mapmaking?

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Teaching the Globe

Globe is a small model of the earth


How land areas and water bodies are represented on the globe
More water than land
Location of the North and South Pole
Earth is spinning around the sun
Use to globe for location
Handle the globe
Visit a map collection on the Internet

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
The Projection Puzzle - From Globe to Map

A definite advantage that globes have over world maps is that


they show the size and shapes of areas exactly as they appear
on Earths surface.
Maps distort Earths surface because they are flat, whereas the
space they represent is round.
Projection is the process of transferring information from the
round globe to a flat map.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Projection Puzzle

Notice how differently


the map and globe
portray global
relationships

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
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Projections of North America

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
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Reflect and Discuss 5.2

Imagine your own classroom with a globe placed importantly on


the teachers desk and two or three world wall maps of different
projections. What else might you add to stimulate your students
knowledge of the world? Dont forget the ceiling and floor.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Teaching Charts

Tabulation Chart
Classification Chart
Organization Chart
Flow Chart

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
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Teaching Graphs

Graphs are used to illustrate relationships among quantities.

Most commonly used graphs are the bar graph, pie graph, and the
line graph.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
A paper-chain bar graph

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
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Making a moveable paper pie graph

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Discussion Question

Look back at the Projection Puzzle section and think further


about your response to the question asked in the Reflect and
Discuss sidebar. The classroom environmentthe visual images,
banners, and learning centers you have created on the walls,
tables, ceiling, and floorhelps achieve your teaching and
learning goals, but only if you use it. How could a teacher who
wanted more than anything for her students to develop into world
citizens provide this environment? What about the flags, banners,
and learning centers?
Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved