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Chapter 6 Failure Variable Load_1

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5th teaching

What will be learned today?

Endurance limit and fatigue strength

Endurance limit modification factor

Stress concentration and notch sensitivity

Fluctuating stress

Fatigue Failure Criteria for fluctuating stress

Soderburg

Mod-Goodman

Gerber

ASME-elliptic

6-1 Fatigue in Metals

In stress-strain testing diagram, the load is applied gradually, to give

sufficient time for the strain to fully develop and the specimen is tested to

destruction, and so the stresses are applied only once. Testing of this kind is

applicable, to what are known as static conditions.

Fatique loading conditions produces stresses that vary with time or they

fluctuate between different levels. These stresses are called variable,

repeated, alternating, or fluctuating stresses.

In a fatigue failure;

*Maximum stresses of failure are well below the ultimate strength of the

material, and quite frequently below the yield strength.

6-4 The Stress Life Method in Fatique Failure analysis

Strength of materials under the fatigue loads is determined using the

specimens subjected to repeated or varying force of specified

magnitudes while the cycles or stress reversals are counted to

destruction.

To find the fatigue strength of a material, a number of tests are

necessary.

For a rotating-beam test, a constant bending load is applied and the

number of revolutions (stress reversal) of the beam required for failure

is recorded.

The first test is made at a stress that is slightly lower than . The

second test is made at a stress that is less than that used in the first.

This process is continued and the results are plotted as an S-N diagram.

The results of the test are represented by S-N diagram

Steel

The results of the test are represented by S-N curve

Aluminum

alloy

The ordinate of the S-N diagram is called fatigue strength

The abscissa of the S-N diagram is the stress cycle

A stress cycle (N = 1) constitute a single application and removal

of a load and another application and removal of the load in the

opposite direction one complete rotation of beam under pure

bending.

The stress corresponding to the knee is

called endurance limit

The cycle corresponding to is called

endurance limit life

Aluminum does not have an endurance

limit and then the fatigue strength is

reported at a specific number of cycle

(normally at cycles of reversed

stress)

6-7 Endurance limit

load and is designed as

Endurance limit is also a fatigue strength but at N > 106.

The endurance limit of a tested specimen of steel can be determined

using the following relation.

(6-8)

6-8 Fatigue Strength2

(6-13)

(6-14)

(6-15)

(6-17)

49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 10 11 11 12 13 14

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 20 90 60 00 00

If a completely reversed stress is given, then set , we can

compute number of cycles-to-failure N as

(6-16)

14

00

Example 6.2

to 104 cycles to failure.

reversed stress a of 385 MPa.

SOLUTION:

ut

b) From Fig.6 - 18, for S ut 630 MPa, f 0.86.From Eq.(6 14)

a

fSut 2

0.86630 1084MPa

2

Se 315

1 fSut 0.86 630

From Eq.(6 - 15) b log 0.0785 MPa

3 Se 315

Thus.Eq.(6 13) S ' f a N b

S ' f 1084 N 0.0785

For 10 cycles to failure, S 1084 10

4 '

f 4 -0.0785

526 MPa ,

c) From Eq.(6 - 16) , with a 385 MPa

1 / 0.0785

a

1/ b

385

N 53.3 cycles

a 1084

6-9 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors

Rotating-beam specimen used in the laboratory to determine endurance

limits is prepared very carefully and tested under closely controlled

conditions.

cannot match the values obtained in the laboratory. Some differences

include;

Manufacturing: method, heat treatment, fretting corrosion, surface

condition, stress concentration

Environment: corrosion, temperature, stress state, relaxation times

20

Design: size, shape, life, stress state, stress concentration, speed, fretting,

galling

6-9 Endurance limit modifying factor

kb is size modification factor.

kc is load modification factor.

kd is temperature modification factor.

ke is reliability factor.

kf is miscellaneous-effects modification factor.

S'e is rotary beam test specimen endurance limit.

Se is endurance limit at the critical location of a machine part.

Surface modification factor

The surface modification factor depends on the quality of the finish

of the actual part surface and on the tensile strength of the part

material.

Size modification factor

equation above.

Loading modification factor

When fatigue tests are carried out with rotating bending, axial (push-pull),

and torsional loading, the endurance limits differ with Sut

For torsion, use only for pure torsional fatigue loading. When torsion

is combined to other stresses, such as bending, use kc= 1.

Temperature modification factor

fracture is a strong possibility and should be investigated first.

yielding should be investigated first because the yield strength drops off

so rapidly with temperature

where

Reliability factor

A-18

Eq.6.8

table 6-4

6-10 Stress concentration and notch sensivity1

6-10 Stress concentration and notch sensivity1

6-10 Stress concentration and notch sensivity1

Fatigue stress-concentration factor

When one calculates the stresses, multiply or to the stresses

but not divide the endurance limit, for example,

Solution

Solution

Fig.6-20

Solution

than C or at the point of maximum

bending moment.

Point B has:

- a smaller cross-section

- a higher bending moment

- a higher stress concentration

factor than C.

Location of the maximum bending

moment has a larger size and no stress

concentration.

Fig.6-20

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