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Failure Resulting from Variable Loading

5th teaching
What will be learned today?

Stress life method


Endurance limit and fatigue strength
Endurance limit modification factor
Stress concentration and notch sensitivity
Fluctuating stress
Fatigue Failure Criteria for fluctuating stress
Soderburg
Mod-Goodman
Gerber
ASME-elliptic
6-1 Fatigue in Metals
In stress-strain testing diagram, the load is applied gradually, to give
sufficient time for the strain to fully develop and the specimen is tested to
destruction, and so the stresses are applied only once. Testing of this kind is
applicable, to what are known as static conditions.

Fatique loading conditions produces stresses that vary with time or they
fluctuate between different levels. These stresses are called variable,
repeated, alternating, or fluctuating stresses.

In a fatigue failure;

*Maximum stresses of failure are well below the ultimate strength of the
material, and quite frequently below the yield strength.

*Repeated a very large number of times.


6-4 The Stress Life Method in Fatique Failure analysis
Strength of materials under the fatigue loads is determined using the
specimens subjected to repeated or varying force of specified
magnitudes while the cycles or stress reversals are counted to
destruction.
To find the fatigue strength of a material, a number of tests are
necessary.
For a rotating-beam test, a constant bending load is applied and the
number of revolutions (stress reversal) of the beam required for failure
is recorded.
The first test is made at a stress that is slightly lower than . The
second test is made at a stress that is less than that used in the first.
This process is continued and the results are plotted as an S-N diagram.
The results of the test are represented by S-N diagram

Steel
The results of the test are represented by S-N curve

Aluminum
alloy
The ordinate of the S-N diagram is called fatigue strength
The abscissa of the S-N diagram is the stress cycle
A stress cycle (N = 1) constitute a single application and removal
of a load and another application and removal of the load in the
opposite direction one complete rotation of beam under pure
bending.
The stress corresponding to the knee is
called endurance limit
The cycle corresponding to is called
endurance limit life
Aluminum does not have an endurance
limit and then the fatigue strength is
reported at a specific number of cycle
(normally at cycles of reversed
stress)
6-7 Endurance limit

Fatigue strength is the property of a material to resist failure from fatigue


load and is designed as
Endurance limit is also a fatigue strength but at N > 106.
The endurance limit of a tested specimen of steel can be determined
using the following relation.

(6-8)
6-8 Fatigue Strength2

Fatigue strength can be computed using

(6-13)

(6-14)

(6-15)

(6-17)
49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 10 11 11 12 13 14
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 20 90 60 00 00
If a completely reversed stress is given, then set , we can
compute number of cycles-to-failure N as

(6-16)

14
00
Example 6.2

Given a 1050 HR steel, estimate

a) The rotating-beam endurance limit at 106.

b) The endurance strength of a polished rotating beam specimen corresponding


to 104 cycles to failure.

c) The expected life of a polished rotating-beam specimen under a completely


reversed stress a of 385 MPa.
SOLUTION:

a) From table A 18 : S 630 MPa,


ut

From Eq.(6 - 8) S'e 0.5S ut 0.5(630) 315 MPa


b) From Fig.6 - 18, for S ut 630 MPa, f 0.86.From Eq.(6 14)

a
fSut 2

0.86630 1084MPa
2

Se 315
1 fSut 0.86 630
From Eq.(6 - 15) b log 0.0785 MPa
3 Se 315
Thus.Eq.(6 13) S ' f a N b
S ' f 1084 N 0.0785
For 10 cycles to failure, S 1084 10
4 '
f 4 -0.0785
526 MPa ,
c) From Eq.(6 - 16) , with a 385 MPa
1 / 0.0785
a
1/ b
385
N 53.3 cycles
a 1084

Keep in mind that these are only estimates.


6-9 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors
Rotating-beam specimen used in the laboratory to determine endurance
limits is prepared very carefully and tested under closely controlled
conditions.

In general endurance limit of a mechanical or structural member in use,


cannot match the values obtained in the laboratory. Some differences
include;

Material: composition, basis of failure, variability


Manufacturing: method, heat treatment, fretting corrosion, surface
condition, stress concentration
Environment: corrosion, temperature, stress state, relaxation times
20
Design: size, shape, life, stress state, stress concentration, speed, fretting,
galling
6-9 Endurance limit modifying factor

Marin equation for modifying endurance limit:

ka is surface modification factor.


kb is size modification factor.
kc is load modification factor.
kd is temperature modification factor.
ke is reliability factor.
kf is miscellaneous-effects modification factor.
S'e is rotary beam test specimen endurance limit.
Se is endurance limit at the critical location of a machine part.
Surface modification factor
The surface modification factor depends on the quality of the finish
of the actual part surface and on the tensile strength of the part
material.
Size modification factor

kb= 1 for axial loading.

For non-rotating solid or hollow round bar, use de instead of d in


equation above.

For rectangular section, use also de instead of d in equation above.

See Table 6-3 for h and b.


Loading modification factor
When fatigue tests are carried out with rotating bending, axial (push-pull),
and torsional loading, the endurance limits differ with Sut

For torsion, use only for pure torsional fatigue loading. When torsion
is combined to other stresses, such as bending, use kc= 1.
Temperature modification factor

When operating temperatures are below room temperature, brittle


fracture is a strong possibility and should be investigated first.

When the operating temperatures are higher than room temperature,


yielding should be investigated first because the yield strength drops off
so rapidly with temperature

where
Reliability factor
A-18
Eq.6.8
table 6-4
6-10 Stress concentration and notch sensivity1
6-10 Stress concentration and notch sensivity1
6-10 Stress concentration and notch sensivity1

Fatigue stress-concentration factor


Fatigue stress-concentration factor
When one calculates the stresses, multiply or to the stresses
but not divide the endurance limit, for example,


Solution
Solution
Fig.6-20

From Eq. (6-32)


Solution

Failure will probably occur at B rather


than C or at the point of maximum
bending moment.
Point B has:
- a smaller cross-section
- a higher bending moment
- a higher stress concentration
factor than C.
Location of the maximum bending
moment has a larger size and no stress
concentration.
Fig.6-20

From Eq. (6-32)