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Introductory Microbiology

ENNY SUSWATI, MD., MKES.


Microbiology
The study of of organisms
(microorganisms or microbes) too
small to be seen without magnification
This includes:
1. Bacteria
2. Viruses
3. Fungi
4. Protozoa
5. Helminths (worms)
6. Algae
The Microbes
1. Bacteria
Single-celled
organisms
Various shapes
Spherical
Rod
Spiral shapes
Cellular
Lack membrane-
enclosed cellular
Klebsiella pneumoniae,
structures
bacteria that causes
Widely distributed in pneumonia in humans
nature
The Microbes

2. Viruses
Acellular
Composed of nucleic
acid and a few
proteins
Replicate
themselves to
display other
properties of living
organisms when they Bacteriophages observed at 35,500X
invade living cells
3. Fungi
Yeasts and molds
The Microbes
Single-celled,
microscopic
Mushrooms
Multicellular,
macroscopic
Cell nucleus and
other cellular
structures
Absorb nutrients
from their
environment
Widely distributed in
water and soil Philobolus crystallinus, fruiting bodies
Act as decomposers of this fungus
of dead organisms
4. Protozoa
The Microbes
Single-celled,
microscopic
organisms
Have at least one
nucleus and many
cellular structures
Obtain food by
engulfing or
ingesting smaller
organisms
Most can move
Found in many Amoeba
different
environments
The Microbes

5. Misc.
Large, multicellular
Worms
Helminths
Arthropods
Insects

Tapeworm Head
6. Algae The Microbes
Single-celled
microscopic
organisms
Have a nucleus and
many membrane-
enclosed cellular
structures
Photosynthesize
their own food
Widely distributed in
fresh and salt water
Important source of
food for other Micrasterias, a green algae living in
organisms fresh water.
Branches of Study Within
Microbiology
Immunology:
studies immune chemicals and cells that are produced in response
to infection
Public health microbiology & epidemiology:
aim to monitor and control the spread of diseases (CDC)
Food, dairy and aquatic microbiology:
examine the ecological and practical roles of microbes in food and
water
Biotechnology:
ranges from bread making to gene therapy
Genetic engineering & recombinant DNA technology:
altering the genetic makeup of organisms
Microbes Are Involved In:
nutrient production & energy flow
i.e., photosynthesis
decomposition and nutrient recycling
production of foods, drugs & vaccines
bioremediation
causing disease
Impact of Pathogens

Pathogens
Diseases-causing agents
Nearly 2,000 different microbes cause
diseases in the human body
10 B infections/year worldwide
13 M deaths from infections/year
worldwide killing about 1/3 of the U.S.
population each year
Impact of Pathogens
Emerging diseases
Becoming more prominent over the years
Zoonosis
SARS
Reemerging
Older diseases increasing in occurrence
TB
Malaria
Hepatitis
Noninfectious diseases
Characteristics of Microbes
Prokaryotic cells
Smaller
Lack special structures such as a nucleus and organelles
All prokaryotic cells are microorganisms
Only some microorganisms are eukaryotic
Lifestyles of Microorganisms
Free existence
Close associations
Parasites
hosts
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

First to observe living


microbes
His single-lens
magnified up to 300X

(1632-1723)
Early Medical Microbiology
Louis Pasteur:
Worked in the wine industry
Had knowledge about yeast
producing alcohol
Swan-neck flasks
Tipping the flask would allow
the microbes to enter the
infusion
Cause them to become cloudy
Main experiment that helped
disprove spontaneous generation
Early Medical Microbiology
Pasteur discovered that some yeasts made good
tasting wine
Mixtures of microbes competed with yeast
and made wine taste oily or sour
Developed Pasteurization to deal with this
problem
Heated the wine to 56C without oxygen present for
30 minutes

Developed a rabies vaccine


Early Medical Microbiology
Robert Koch (~120 years
ago, German)
Linked a microscopic organism
with a specific disease
(anthrax)
Developed method to grow
bacteria in pure cultures
(cultures containing only one
kind of organism)
Used solidified gelatin from
potato slices mixed with
agar
Creates a firm surface that
microbes could grow on
Kochs Postulates
1. The specific causative agent must be
found in every case of the disease
2. The disease organism must be
isolated in pure culture
3. Inoculation of a sample of the culture
into a healthy, susceptible animal must
produce the same disease
4. The disease must be covered from the
inoculated animal
Early Medical Microbiology
Oliver Wendell (American
physician)
observed mothers who gave birth
at home experienced fewer
infections than those that gave
birth in a hospital
Ignaz Semmelweis (Hungarian
doctor)
showed that women became
infected with puerperal fever
during delivery by doctors coming
directly from the autopsy room
Early Medical Microbiology
Joseph Lister (English surgeon)
Introduced aseptic techniques
Aimed at reducing microbes in a medial setting
and preventing wound infections
Improved sanitation
Promotes use of carbolic acid on bandages and
medical instruments
Spontaneous Generation Theory
Germ theory of disease:
Microorganisms can invade other organisms and
cause disease
Many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes
in the body and not by sins, bad character, or poverty,
etc.
Spontaneous generation
Living things arise from nonliving things
Belief that some forms of life could arise from vital
forces present in nonliving or decomposing matter
Maggots found in rotting meat arose from a nonliving factor
Microorganisms found in broth that made it cloudy appeared
from a nonliving factor
What to expect..
Different microorganisms
How to detect microorganisms
Common disease caused by
microorganisms
How to control the spread of
microorganisms
Immune system