You are on page 1of 47

CC 604 : Environment Pollution & Control

Chapter 5 : Solid Waste Management + Case Study

Class : DKA 5E

Members of Group Registration


Number
Norfarhana Ain Binti Zainal Ariff 01DKA10F2036
Nurul Husna Binti Mohamed 01DKA10F2043
Roshidi
Siti Rashidah Binti Abd Razi 01DKA10F2070
CHAPTER 5 :
SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT
Sources, Types, Composition,
Quantities and Main Elements
in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
Management
Solid waste are
wastes that are not
liquid or gaseous

The term solid


waste means : Solid wastes are all
Material such as the discarded solid
household materials from
garbage, food municipal,
wastes, yard industrial, and
wastes, and What Is agricultural
activities
demolition or
construction debris Solid
Waste
Objective Of Solid Waste
Management

The objective of solid wastes


management to control, collect,
process, dispose of solid wastes
in an economical way
consistent with the public
health protection
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a
waste type consisting of everyday
items that are discarded by the
public

Definition Of All wastes, resulting from


population, residential and non
Municipal Solid Waste residential buildings, as well as
(MSW) transport vehicles

Municipal solid waste (MSW)


commonly known as:
trash or garbage
refuse or rubbish
Sources Of MSW

Residential
Industrial
Commercial
Institutional
Construction/Demolition
Municipal Services
Process (Manufacturing)
Agriculture
Industrial
waste
Sewage Rubbish
treatment
residue

Type Of Demolition
MSW Wastes
Dead
animals

Construction
Garbage waste
It is estimated that solid waste generated in
small, medium and large cities and towns is
about 0.1 kg, 0.3 0.4 kg and 0.5 kg per capita
per day respectively

Quantity Of Municipal Total municipal solid waste (MSW) collected in


the country increased every year
Solid Waste (MSW) In
Malaysia
The average per capita generation has increased
from 0.67 kg/person/day in 2001 to 0.8
kg/person/day in 2005

In 2008 it is reported increase at 60 70 %.

Current MSW generation has reached 1.3


kg/person/day
Element Of MSW Management

Waste generation
Waste handling, sorting, storage,
and processing at the source
Collection
Separation, processing and
transformation of solid wastes
Transfer and transport
Energy Generation
Disposal
Strategies for Effective and
Environmental Friendly

Minimize waste generation


Maximize waste recycling and reuse
Educate people on different ways of
handling waste
Systematic solid waste management
Understand The Characteristics,
Composition and Components
of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
Moisture content : increase
the weight of solid waste ,
so the cost of collection &
transportation will
increasing
Physical
Characteristic
Density : used to assess
volume of transportation
vehicle & size of the disposal
facility

Characteristic
of MSW
is essential in
understanding the
behavior of waste all
Chemical through the waste
Characteristic management system and
also in selecting and
determining the efficiency
of any treatment process
Composition Components
Understand The Process of
Generation and Handling of
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW))
Waste Generation
Waste generation include activities in which
material identified as no longer being of value
and are either thrown away or gathered
together for disposal.
Collection
Elements of collection, includes not only the
gathering of solid waste and recyclable
material, but also the transport of these
materials after collection, to the location
where the collection vehicle is emptied.
Factor Influence Generation of MSW
Socio-economic background:
The buying power
Income level
Cultural background
Locality:
Urban
Rural setting
Handling and Separating Municipal
Solid Waste
Waste handling and separation involves activities
associated with waste management until the
waste is placed in storage containers for
collection.
Handling also include the movement of loaded
containers to the point of collection. Separating
different types of waste components is an
important step in the handling and storage of
solid waste at the source.
Understand The Municipal Solid
Waste (MSW) Collection
Activities)
Collection Activities
The most common collection services are
curb/alley, set out/set back pickup, and
backyard pickup.
The collection services provided to large
apartment buildings, residential complexes,
commercial and industrial activities typically in
centered around the use of large movable and
stationary containers and large stationary
compactors.
Curb or Alley Pickup
The quickest and most economical point of
collection.
Using standard container that has been design
by city council.
Set-out, Set-back Pickup
Collectors have to enter property.
Set out crew carries full containers from
resident storage location to curb/alley before
collection vehicle arrives.
Set back crew return the container to storage
area.
Backyard Pickup
Usually accomplish by the use of tote barrels.
The collector enter the residents property,
dumps the container into a tote barrel, carries
it to the trucks and dumps it.
Transfer and Transport
Transfer and transport refers to the facilities
used to transfer of wastes from one location
to another.
- Small collection vehicles are transferred to larger
vehicles that are used to transport the waste over
extended distances to disposal sites.
Understand The Various Kinds of
MSW Disposal Methods Such as
Land Filling, Incineration and
Organic MSW Composting
Sanitary Land Filling
The controlled disposal of solid waste
on the upper layer of the earth
mantle in a manner the
environmental hazards is minimized.
Important technical aspects in the
implementation of sanitary landfills
include:
Site selection.
Land filling methods and
operation.
Occurrence of gasses and leachate.
Movement and control of gases
and leachate.
Incineration
The process of burning waste in large
furnaces at high temperature is know as
incineration.

It is used to dispose of solid liquid and


gaseous waste .Incineration facilities
generally do not require as much area as
landfills.

At the end of the process all that is left


behind is ash.
Incinerators System
Composting
Compost Is the product resulting from the controlled
biological decomposition of organic material.

The starting material for composting are commonly


referred to a feed stocks
Explain the environmental, social , economical,
and political information available for municipal
solid waste (MSW)

a)The disposal site shall be capable of being characterized ,


modeled, analyzed and monitored.
b)The disposal site shall be generally well drained and free of
areas of flooding or frequent bonding.
c)Depend on the type of accommodation, terrace houses , flats
, commercial area or factories
d)Collection service route
Effect of incineration sanitary landfill and
composting to the environment
Release hundreds of toxic chemicals into the
atmosphere;
Disposal of the ash (The toxic substance are more
concentrated in the ash);
Highly related to the economic condition;
A classic short-term solution potentially useful
(recyclable or compostable) (it destroys material by
turning it into toxic ash);
Know 4Rs Concept and Justify
Aspects and Issues related to
recycling and composting of
municipal solid waste (MSW)
Describe waste reduction ,reuse,
recovery and recycling concepts.
Method of waste reduction, waste reuse, and
recycling are the preferred options when managing
waste.
4Rs stand for:
Reduction
Reuse
Recovery
Recycling
Reduction
By reducing, consumer and industry can save natural resources
and reduce waste management costs.

Reuse
Large production companies such as Electronic, appliances and
gadgets, should establish the collection centre, where damaged
items can be repaired and reuse.

Recovery
Energy or material can be recovered from waste that are not
reused or recycled

Recycling
Recycling turns materials that would otherwise become waste
into valuable resources
Identify the impact of reuse /recycle /reduction
on landfill design and operation.
saves natural resources.
reduces toxicity of waste.
reduce cost.
helps sustain the environment for future
generations.
reduces the need for land filling and incineration.
Explain on conventional and innovative
waste utilization /recycling technologies.
1.Conventional

Two types of composting process:


1. Aerobic composting
2. Anaerobic composting

Factor that influence Aerobic composting process :


i. Particle size 25 to 75mm for the optimum chemical reaction to occur
ii. The ratio of C:N (Carbon to nitrogen ratio)
iii. Moisture content should be in the range 50-60%
iv. Temperature the optimum temperature for the composting process is 50 to 70C
v. PH control the optimum for micro activity is 6.5-7.5 to prevent loss of nitrogen as ammonia (NH) gas , pH
should not exceed 8.5
vi. Mixing process to prevent dehydration on the surface of the compost
vii. Air requirements

2.Innovative
i. Will improve public health and safely achieve
ii. Non-toxic gases, which are created, are stored in special containers (gas cylinders) and used as fuel and
energy creators.
iii. Method takes place in a close system, without releasing ashes, waste remnants, dusts and toxic gases into
environment.
CASE STUDY :
Garbage collecting is
not follow work
schedule especially
involves area housing

CAUSES
remove debris and
solid waste in open
area away from the
cause the occupants house
had to take the easy
way to remove the This Is because
debris and solid garbage and solid
waste in open areas, waste loaded in the
including the barrel, in front of
roadside and at their homes are full
major crossroads on
the road

ACTION
RESIDENTS IN
THE AREA
THE EFFECTS

animals eat like cats and dogs, garbage lifted late in the barrel at the
front door of his house will be wormy and rotten and then overflowing
into the road shoulder.

not lasting the nauseating smell that permeates the house, every time
you open the door until cause of the health and appetite.

experiencing severe odor pollution as wormy and rotting garbage in


the trash lifted by garbage trucks.

Waste water overflowing from the truck in the road surface.

Affected neighborhoods wedding

contaminate views

raises displeasure
Impacts of
solid waste on
environment

Garbage disposal, due


to waste pollutions,
Waste breaks down in Change in climate and illegal dumping,
landfills to form destruction of ozone leaching : is a process
methane, a potent layer due to waste by which solid waste
greenhouse gas biodegradable enter soil and ground
water and
contaminating them
Nausea and
vomiting

Mercury
toxicity from Low birth
eating fish with weight
high levels of
mercury
Impacts
of solid
waste on
health
Increase in
hospitalization
of diabetic Cancer
residents living
near hazard
waste sites Chemical
poisoning
through
chemical
inhalation
Population
growth

Causes of
Increase in industrials
manufacturing increase in solid
waste

Urbanization
Preventive measures
Systematic solid waste management

Involving public in plans for waste


treatment and disposal

Educate people on different ways of


handling waste

Household level of proper segregation of


waste, recycling and reuse

Process and product substitution example


use paper bag instead of plastic bags

garbage collection according to the


schedule set
References

Internet
1. Wikipedia. Municipal Solid Waste. September 19, 2013,
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipal_solid_waste

2. Slide Share. Solid Waste. September 18, 2013, by Wali


Memon, from
http://www.slideshare.net/walimemon/games-solid-waste-
can-play-with-enviorment

3. Silde Share. Minicipal Solid Waste. September 19, 2013, By


Muhammad Fahad Ansar ,
http://www.slideshare.net/fahadansari131/municipal-
solid-waste-by-muhammad-fahad-ansari-12ieem14-
13324528