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Introduction

What is Casting?
The Pros & Cons of Casting
What is Forging?
The Pros & Cons of Forging
Summary
Sources to find more information
What is Casting?
Forms of Casting: Investment, Sand,
Pressure
Casting is the procedure by which a liquid
metal is poured into a wheel mold or cast
and allowed to cool to a near final state. Final
machining is required for a finished product.
Casting is a simple and fast method to
create wheels with greater detail than that of
other methods.
Pressure casting is the best way to cast a
wheel because it reduces void percentage.
Typically used for daily driving.
Sand Casting

Pressure Casting
Pros & Cons of
Casting
Low cost, $125 each
Before Track Day After Track Day
Easy to mass produce
Less material waste during production
Cannot withstand as much pressure or
frequency of impact as forged can
More impurities and voids due to the
production of wheels through a molten state
What is Forging?
Starts as billet, then cut into the right length,
heated to a T6 condition to get the right mix of
strength and ductility, and pressed into shape
undergoing 6-12000 tons of pressure.
Forging puts energy into the metal and changes
the internal grain structure (crystalline) and this
change in the grain structure is what gives a
forging additional strength in comparison to the
original billet rod.
A forged aluminum wheel has a higher specific
strength as well as higher toughness in
comparison to a casting. This allows an engineer
to design a wheel that is lighter, stiffer and less
susceptible to cracking under impact and with
better fatigue properties than a casting product.1
Elongation of grain structure with alignment of
the shape of the wheel.
Used in racing applications.
Pros & Cons of Forging
Cast Steel Forged Aluminum
Light weight, more economical
Higher strength, safer in applications
High cost for products, $500 each
Longer process to make than casting
Waste of excess material
The wheel on the right withstands a load of
71,200 kg before it deforms by 5 cm. The steel
wheel on the left can only withstand 13,600 kg
when it also deforms by 5cm. This means that the
wheel on the right is 5X as strong.
Summary of
Cast vs. Forged
Cast is heavier
Forged is stronger and has more resistance to fatigue
and impact
In comparison to forgings, castings are made by
pouring molten metal into a mold and have
considerably lower strength, ductility, and fatigue
resistance. Castings often suffer from defects in the
form of voids or porosity. The main trait of castings
are their low cost and ability to be produced in high
volumes but at the expense of strength and weight.
1. HRE Wheels
www.hrewheels.com/technology/materials/
2. Motor Archive
www.motoractive.com.au/wheels.htm
3. Alcoa
www.alcoa.com/alcoawheels/europe/en/benefits_forged.asp
4. GM
www.gmaccessorydealer.com/wheels/forgedversuscast.asp
5. Google
www.jepsculpture.com/art/ben-casting.jpg
6. Motor Trend
www.motortrend.com/f/motorsports/bmw