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You are on page 1of 19

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Describe the motion of a

particle traveling along a In-Class Activities:

curved path. Check Homework

2. Relate kinematic quantities

in terms of the rectangular Reading Quiz

components of the vectors. Applications

General Curvilinear Motion

Rectangular Components of

Kinematic Vectors

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

READING QUIZ

velocity is always

A) tangent to the hodograph.

B) perpendicular to the hodograph.

C) tangent to the path.

D) perpendicular to the path.

acceleration is always

A) tangent to the hodograph.

B) perpendicular to the hodograph.

C) tangent to the path.

D) perpendicular to the path.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS

be tracked with radar and its x, y,

and z-coordinates (relative to a

point on earth) recorded as a

function of time.

How can we determine the velocity

or acceleration of the plane at any

instant?

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS (continued)

a fixed, helical path at a constant

speed.

position or acceleration at any

instant?

able to predict the acceleration of the car?

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GENERAL CURVILINEAR MOTION

(Section 12.4)

A particle moving along a curved path undergoes curvilinear motion.

Since the motion is often three-dimensional, vectors are usually used

to describe the motion.

defined by the path function, s.

r = r(t). Both the magnitude and direction of r may vary with time.

curve during time interval Dt, the

displacement is determined by vector

subtraction: Dr = r - r

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

VELOCITY

particle.

The average velocity of the particle

during the time increment Dt is

vavg = Dr/Dt .

The instantaneous velocity is the

time-derivative of position

v = dr/dt .

The velocity vector, v, is always

tangent to the path of motion.

The magnitude of v is called the speed. Since the arc length Ds

approaches the magnitude of Dr as t0, the speed can be

obtained by differentiating the path function (v = ds/dt). Note

that this is not a vector!

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

ACCELERATION

velocity of a particle.

time increment Dt, the average acceleration during

that increment is:

aavg = Dv/Dt = (v - v)/Dt

The instantaneous acceleration is the time-

derivative of velocity:

a = dv/dt = d2r/dt2

of the velocity vector is called a hodograph. The

acceleration vector is tangent to the hodograph, but

not, in general, tangent to the path function.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

CURVILINEAR MOTION:

RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS (Section 12.5)

terms of its x, y, z or rectangular components, relative to a fixed

frame of reference.

The position of the particle can be

defined at any instant by the

position vector

r=xi+yj+zk .

The x, y, z-components may all be

functions of time, i.e.,

x = x(t), y = y(t), and z = z(t) .

The direction of r is defined by the unit vector: ur = (1/r)r

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS: VELOCITY

v = dr/dt = d(x i)/dt + d(y j)/dt + d(z k)/dt

direction, this equation reduces to v = vx i + vy j + vz k

where vx = x = dx/dt, vy = y = dy/dt, vz = z = dz/dt

vector is

v = [(vx)2 + (vy)2 + (vz)2]0.5

to the path of motion.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS: ACCELERATION

vector (second derivative of the position vector).

a = dv/dt = d2r/dt2 = ax i + ay j + az k

v

where ax = x = x v

= dvx /dt, ay = y = y = dvy /dt,

az = v z = z = dvz /dt

The magnitude of the acceleration vector is

a = (ax )2 +(ay )2 +(az )2

not tangent to the path of the

particle.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE

equation y = (0.05x2) m, where x is in meters.

vx = -3 m/s, ax = -1.5 m/s2 at x = 5 m.

of the box at at x = 5 m.

the first time derivative of the paths equation. And the

acceleration can be found by taking the second time

derivative of the paths equation.

of the velocity and the acceleration.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

Find the y-component of velocity by taking a time

derivative of the position y = (0.05x2)

y = 2 (0.05) x x = 0.1 x x

derivative of the velocity y

y = 0.1 x x + 0.1 x x

at x=5 into y and y.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Since x = vx = -3 m/s, x = ax = -1.5 m/s2 at x = 5 m

y = 0.1 x x = 0.1 (5) (-3) = -1.5 m/s

y = 0.1 x x + 0.1 x x

= 0.1 (-3)2 + 0.1 (5) (-1.5)

= 0.9 0.75

= 0.15 m/s2

At x = 5 m

vy = 1.5 m/s = 1.5 m/s

ay = 0.15 m/s2

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

CONCEPT QUIZ

(4t 1) j ] (m), its speed at t = 1 s is ________.

A) 2 m/s B) 3 m/s

C) 5 m/s D) 7 m/s

component of its velocity along the x-axis at x = 2 m is

vx = 1 m/s, its velocity component along the y-axis at this

position is ____.

A) 0.25 m/s B) 0.5 m/s

C) 1 m/s D) 2 m/s

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

When t = 0, x = y = z = 0.

acceleration when t = 1 s, if vx = (5 t) ft/s, where t is in

seconds.

Plan:

1) Determine x and ax by integrating and differentiating

vx, respectively, using the initial conditions.

2) Find the y-component of velocity & acceleration by

taking a time derivative of the path.

3) Determine the magnitude of the acceleration &

position.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Solution:

1) x-components:

Velocity known as: vx = x = (5 t ) ft/s 5 ft/s at t=1s

t

Position:

vxdt = (5t) dt x = 2.5 t2 2.5 ft at t=1s

0

Acceleration: ax = x = d/dt (5 t) 5 ft/s2 at t=1s

2) y-components:

Position known as : y = 0.5 x2 3.125 ft at t=1s

Velocity: y = 0.5 (2) x x = x x 12.5 ft/s at t=1s

Acceleration: ay = y = x x + x x 37.5 ft/s2 at t=1s

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Position vector: r = [ x i + y j ] ft

where x= 2.5 ft, y= 3.125 ft

Magnitude: r = 2.52 + 3.1252 = 4.00 ft

where ax = 5 ft/s2, ay = 37.5 ft/s2

Magnitude: a = 52 + 37.52 = 37.8 ft/s2

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

ATTENTION QUIZ

4s, what is the average velocity of the particle?

y

A) 2.5 i m/s

B) 2.5 i +1.25 j m/s R=5m x

C) 1.25 i m/s A B

D) 1.25 j m/s

2. The position of a particle is given as r = (4t2 i - 2x j) m.

Determine the particles acceleration.

A) (4 i +8 j ) m/s2 B) (8 i -16 j ) m/s2

C) (8 i ) m/s2 D) (8 j ) m/s2

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

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