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Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Understand translating In-Class Activities:

frames of reference. Check Homework,

2. Use translating frames of Reading Quiz

reference to analyze relative

motion. Applications

Relative Position, Velocity

and Acceleration

Vector & Graphical Methods

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

READING QUIZ

A) vB vA . B) vA vB .

C) vB + vA . D) vA + vB .

there can be at most _________ unknowns (either

magnitudes and/or directions of the vectors).

A) one B) two

C) three D) four

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS

moving object, the position,

velocity, and acceleration of

the object all have to be

accounted for by your mind.

thought!

the window throws the ball to him.

ft/s, how fast should the ball be thrown?

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS (continued)

land on an aircraft carrier,

the velocity of the carrier

becomes an issue.

km/hr and plane A takes off at a horizontal air speed of 200

km/hr (measured by someone on the water), how do we find the

velocity of the plane relative to the carrier?

How would you find the same thing for airplane B?

How does the wind impact this sort of situation?

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

RELATIVE POSITION (Section 12.10)

particles A and B with respect to

the fixed x, y, z-reference frame are

given by rA and rB. The position of

B relative to A is represented by

rB/A = rB rA

Therefore, if rB = (10 i + 2 j ) m

and rA = (4 i + 5 j ) m,

then rB/A = rB rA = (6 i 3 j ) m.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

RELATIVE VELOCITY

with respect to A, the time derivative of

the relative position equation is taken.

vB/A = vB vA

or

vB = vA + vB/A

and vB/A is the relative velocity of B with respect to A.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

RELATIVE ACCELERATION

velocity equation yields a similar

vector relationship between the

absolute and relative accelerations

of particles A and B.

or

aB = aA + aB/A

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

SOLVING PROBLEMS

problems involving them may be solved in one of two ways.

For instance, the velocity vectors in vB = vA + vB/A could be

written as two dimensional (2-D) Cartesian vectors and the

resulting 2-D scalar component equations solved for up to

two unknowns.

Alternatively, vector problems can be solved graphically by

use of trigonometry. This approach usually makes use of the

law of sines or the law of cosines.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

LAWS OF SINES AND COSINES

b a triangle, sine and cosine laws can be

a applied to solve for relative or absolute

velocities and accelerations. As a review,

A

B their formulations are provided below.

c

Law of Sines: a b c

= =

sin A sin B sin C

b = a + c - 2 ac cos B

2 2 2

c = a + b - 2 ab cos C

2 2 2

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE

vA = 650 km/h

vB = 800 km/h

Find: vB/A

Plan:

1) Vector Method: Write vectors vA and vB in Cartesian

form, then determine vB vA

common point. Apply the laws of sines and cosines to

determine vB/A.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

1) Vector Method

vA = (650 i ) km/h

vB = 800 cos 60 i 800 sin 60 j

= ( 400 i 692.8 j) km/h

692.8

= tan-1( ) = 33.4

1050

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

2) Graphical Method:

Note that the vector that measures the tip of B relative to A is vB/A.

650 km/h vA

120

vB/A

vB

Law of Cosines:

(vB/A)2 = (800) 2 + (650) 2 (800) (650) cos 120

vB/A = 1258 km/h

Law of Sines:

vB/A vA

= or = 33.4

sin(120 ) sin

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

CONCEPT QUIZ

the directions shown. What should be

the angle so that vB/A is minimum?

B

A) 0 B) 180 vA= 3 ft/s

C) 90 D) 270 A

A) (400 i + 520 j ) km/hr

B) (1220 i - 300 j ) km/hr

30

C) (-181 i - 300 j ) km/hr

D) (-1220 i + 300 j ) km/hr

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

while Car B moves along a

curve having a radius of

curvature of 200 m.

vA = 40 m/s

vB = 30 m/s

aA = 4 m/s2

aB = -3 m/s2

Find: vB/A

aB/A

Plan: Write the velocity and acceleration vectors for

Cars A and B. Determine vB/A and aB/A by using

vector relationships.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Solution: y

vB = -30 sin(30) i + 30 cos(30) j

= (-15 i + 25.98 j) m/s

The velocity of A is: x

vA = 40 j (m/s)

vB/A = vB vA = (-15 i + 25.98 j) (40 j) = (-15 i 14.02 j) m/s

14.02

= tan-1( ) = 43.1

15

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

aB = (at)B + (an)B = [-(-3) sin(30) i + (-3) cos(30) j]

30 2 302

+ [- ( ) cos(30) i - ( ) sin(30) j ]

200 200

y

aB = ( -2.397 i 4.848 j ) m/s2

x

The relative acceleration of B with respect to A is:

aB/A = aB aA = ( -2.397 i 8.848 j ) m/s2

aB/A = (-2.397)2 + (-8.848)2 = 9.17 m/s2

b = tan-1(8.848 / 2.397) = 74.8 b

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. Determine the relative velocity of particle B with respect to

particle A. y

A) (48i + 30j) km/h

B

vB=100 km/h

B) (- 48i + 30j ) km/h

C) (48i - 30j ) km/h 30 x

A

vA=60 km/h

D) (- 48i - 30j ) km/h

2. If theta equals 90 and A and B start moving from the same

point, what is the magnitude of rB/A at t = 5 s?

A) 20 ft vB = 4 ft/s

B) 15 ft

B

C) 18 ft

D) 25 ft A vA = 3 ft/s

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

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